TIP TIG provides superior weld quality and mechanical properties, and also less weld heat than both the traditional DCEN TIG and MIG process. TIP TIG is also much easier to use than TIG, & TIP TIG will lower TIG labor costs by 200 - 400%.
TIP TIG was invented by Plasch, Austria. Ed now Em Craig, (weldreality.com) who wrote this section, found TIP TIG in Scotland thanks to D.Matherson. Em attained the TIP TIG rights from Plasch for total sales in North America & Australia. In 2009, Em connected with friend and business partner Tom O'Malley. Together at the Philadelphia Naval YARD, Em & Tom created TIP TIG USA.
2019. Emily Craig: After studying the DCEN TIP TIG process versus traditional DCEN TIG now for more a decade, you will find the TIP TIG, versus traditional TIG, Hot Wire TIG and also the Pulsed MIG comparison data available at this site, is from a weld application and weld process evaluation, both unique and comprehensive, and its based on my weld process control and weld application expertise that I attained over a 50 year period.
Note: Reference this TIP TIG portion of my web site, I have spent hundreds of hours on this section, and as for my www.weldreality.c0m, well that’s been a task for the last 20 years. Weld data that is factual and practical and not tarnished by a weld equipment manufacture or salesman is rare. As I ask for no remuneration for this unique TIP TIG versus TIG evaluation, I would appreciate that if you wish to use this copyright data, please request my permission at, email@example.com.
The evolution of the 70 year old DCEN TIG (GTAW) process is
IN CONTRAST TO THE TRADITIONAL DCEN TIG PROCESS, WHEN EVALUATING THE DCEN TIP TIG WELD AND APPLICATION BENEFITS, IT’S EASIER IF YOU UNDERSTAND THE DCEN TIG ARC PROCESS RESTRICTIONS, THE TIG WELDER REQUIREMENTS & TIG APPLICATION LIMITATIONS. THEN COMPARE WITH THE UNIQUE ARC CHARACTERISTICS, WELD METAL TRANSFER & WELD APPLICATION BENEFITS ATTAINED WITH THE UNIQUE TIP TIG PROCESS.
Note: DCEN (Electrode Negative) is used with TIG welds on steels, alloy steels and alloys. In contrast, AC polarity or variable EN-Electrode Positive polarity can used for TIG welds on aluminum and sometimes alloys. The TIG weld polarity requirements apply to both traditional TIG and TIP TIG.
For seven decades, the manual DC TIG process enabled the highest possible manual arc weld quality, however the TIG welder skills and weld characteristics restricted DCEN TIG from attaining the capability to be a cost effective, easy to use, semi-automatic or fully automated arc weld process. It’s important in 2019, to also compare the TIP TIG weld benefits with processes such as Pulsed MIG and the automated Hot Wire TIG process.
2019: TEN YEARS HAVE PASSED SINCE I INTRODUCED THE TIP TIG PROCESS TO NORTH AMERICA. THE REALITY HOWEVER WHEN WELDING MOST CODE QUALITY STEELS AND ALLOY WELD APPLICATIONS, IS THE MAJORITY OF THE NORTH AMERICAN WELD INDUSTRY DAILY PAYS AN EXORBITANT UNNECESSARY COST BY USING TRADITIONAL DCEN TIG, INSTEAD OF THE TIP TIG PROCESS.
A QUESTION THAT COULD BE ASKED OF ANY WELD SHOP MANAGER, ENGINEER OR SUPERVISOR THAT DAILY PRODUCES A SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNT OF DC TIG WELDS, OR IS CONSIDERING PULSED MIG FOR CODE QUALITY STEEL OR ALLOY WELDS;
[a] Why are you still selecting DC TIG or the MIG process that will that require higher all position weld skills than TIP TIG?
[b] Why are you still selecting DC TIG or the pulsed MIG process both of which will always produce inferior weld quality than TIP TIG?
[c] Why are you still selecting DC or pulsed MIG, when TIP TIG will enable the lowest weld / part heat providing the lowest weld distortion, the lowest weld stresses and the best possible weld/ part metallurgical properties?
[d] Why are you still selecting DC TIG, when the TIP TIG process will reduce your organizations hourly labor costs in the range of 65 – 75%?
There are numerous weld & part benefits attained from TIP TIG, and many of them are coming up.
TRADITIONAL DC TIG, FOR MOST APPLICATIONS, THIS IS A PROCESS USING OBSOLETE WELDER SKILLS: As TIG welders cannot consistently feed small diameter weld wires fast enough, the welders typically use large wire diameter wires, 1/16 to 1/8, (1.6 to 3.2 mm) are common. Part of a TIG welders “skills” and learning curve is to be aware of the TIG weld pool fluidity, and manually feed the large weld wire so it makes an intermittent, rapid contact with the small fluid, rapid freeze area at the front edge of the TIG weld, then be aware of when to withdraw the wire from the pool so the plasma retains the required weld fluidity. The DCEN TIG manual wire feed requirements, maintaining the correct arc length from the tungsten to the weld, avoiding contamination of the tungsten with the weld and wire, understanding the weld pool fluidity, the sometimes use of a foot amp control, have for seven decades been important prerequisites of the manual TIG welder’s skills, that in reality for more than a decade have no longer been required with TIP TIG.
TRADITIONAL DC TIG, IS A PROCESS WITH POOR ARC PLASMA ENERGY DISTRIBUTION, & VERY LOW WELD DEPOSITION RATES: Take a look at how a good portion of the traditional DCEN TIG arc plasma energy is required to assist in melting a small amount of the large DCEN TIG wire tip, while almost an equal portion of the TIG arc plasma is required to maintain a small fluid weld area. Its notable with the DCEN TIG welds, that as the TIG wire is dipped in the weld pool, it absorbs energy away from both the fluid part of the weld pool and also from the arc plasma. When you combine the “dual plasma DCEN TIG energy distribution requirements” with the DC Electrode Negative polarity in which the electrons are drawn to to the positive work, we end up with a DCEN TIG process that provides rapid freeze welds, arc length sensitivity concerns and very low weld deposition rates.
FOR MORE THAN A DECADE, MANY OF THE GLOBAL MAJOR CORPORATIONS WELD DECISION MAKERS, HAVE BEEN STUCK IN A WELD TIME WARP. Unfortunately over the last decade, most of the managers and engineers in the Power, Medical, Defense, Aerospace, Oil and Gas industries that are responsible for weld decisions, appear to be stuck with 20th Century weld processes and not aware of the extensive weld quality – cost benefits that could be derived for their organizations from the use of either the manual or automated DCEN TIP TIG process.
FANCY NEW GLOVES, NEW TIG TORCH, WORK JACKET & HELMET, USING AN OUTDATED 20th CENTURY WELD PROCESS.
2019: I STARTED MIG & TIG WELDING AT MASSEY FERGUSON, MANCHESTER, UK. IN 1962. IF I COULD TAKE YOU BACK IN TIME TO THE NINETEEN SIXTIES AND WE WERE ABLE TO USE THE TIG AND MIG EQUIPMENT EQUIPMENT OF THIS TIME PERIOD, IN A FEW MINUTES I WOULD SHOW YOU HOW TO PRODUCE ON ANY STEELS & ALLOY APPLICATIONS, OPTIMUM MIG – TIG WELD QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY THAT CANNOT BE SURPASSED WITH BELLS AND WHISTLES ELECTRONIC WELD EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE IN 2019.
Thanks to the general lack of global weld process controls expertise, for decades, the majority of the weld industry has relied on weld sales advice. From my perspective, (I trained over 2000 weld salesmen in the US and Canada) weld sales advice is not the logical engineering route to weld process optimization and ownership, and my weld reality has been, that most weld shops are likely to get more realistic weld process control – best weld practice advice from a used car salesman.
IF YOU WANT THE BEST POSSIBLE WELD QUALITY WITH THE LOWEST WELD REPAIR COSTS, AND YOU WOULD LIKE AN ALL POSITION PROCESS THAT REQUIRES THE LEAST WELDING SKILLS, YOU MAY WANT TO RELY LESS ON A SALESMAN FOR WELD ADVICE, AND TAKE A LOOK AT TIP TIG & MY PROCESS CONTROL – BEST WELD PRACTICE SELF TEACHING / TRAINING RESOURCES.
2019: PLEASE NOTE: AS LINCOLN MILLER, ESAB, HOBART DID NOT INVENT THE TIP TIG PROCESS, A PROCESS THAT BY THE WAY ATTAINS IT’S PRIMARY TIG WELD BENEFITS NOT FROM ELECTRONICS BUT FROM A PATENTED MECHANICAL WIRE ACTION, THERE WILL NOT LIKELY BE A WELD DISTRIBUTOR SALESMAN KNOCKING ON MOST COMPANIES DOORS TO INTRODUCE THIS PROCESS. HOWEVER, THE WELD REALITY IS, IF MANAGERS, ENGINEERS AND SUPERVISORS HAVE TO RELY ON A SALESMAN FOR THEIR COMPANIES WELD APPLICATIONS & PROGRESS, ALL I CAN SAY IS, FOR GODS SAKE, IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN ATTAINING THE BEST POSSIBLES WELD QUALITY AND THE LOWEST WELD COSTS, “STEP UP TO THE PLATE AND TAKE OWNERSHIP.”
2018: FOR A DECADE, ITS MADE NO ENGINEERING SENSE FOR MANAGERS & ENGINEERS TO REQUEST UNNECESSARY WELDER SKILLS: As the aerospace welder on the right indicates with his complex TIG alloy application, how many other global companies in 2019 are welding heat sensitive alloys and code quality components & using the obsolete, DC TIG weld process that produce pathetic weld production, high weld heat and requires high welder skills?
Of all available manual “arc” weld processes, for the last seven decades, the traditional DC TIG process has required the highest welder skills, and those skills and weld practices vary greatly from one TIG welder to another. The different skills and techniques that welders use in feeding their TIG weld wire, plus the common contamination and wear of the tungsten, and also the too frequent weld starts and stops which come with wire length changes, dramatically impact both the DC TIG weld quality and consistency.
Note: I should not have to remind those that arc weld parts in the Aerospace, Defense, Power, Medical and Energy industries, of the importance of using an arc weld process such as TIP TIG which enable minimal welder skills for all position welds, and produces the most uniform, consistent, highest possible, manual or automated weld quality with the benefits attained from lowest possible weld heat.
With with TIP TIG manual welds, the welds are being made with a “Semi-Automatic” TIG process that is readily Automated without the requirement for costly, automatic arc length adjustment equipment. The TIP TIG manual welder does not need skills to feed a weld wire. With TIP TIG, the weld wire is continuously fed into a TIG plasma sweet spot, something not possible from any manual TIG welder. The TIP TIG wire melt rate is both uniform and continuous, again something not possible from a manual TIG welder. With TIP TIG no foot controls required and no stopping of the weld for a new wire length. With TIP TIG the weld wire is not fed close to the tungsten, its fed instead into the edge of the arc plasma periphery, avoiding the chances of tungsten contamination, and tungsten melting into the weld is also dramatically reduced. Once a welder becomes familiar with TIP TIG, its likely in a shift that they may only have to grind their tungsten once.
FROM PIPE ROOTS TO PIPE FILL, LARGE OR SMALL PARTS, MANUAL OR AUTOMATED, YOU WILL FIND TIP TIG IS AN EASY TO USE PROCESS AND REQUIRES NO MORE THAN “THREE WELD SETTINGS” TO JUST ABOUT WELD ANY ALL POSITION STEELS AND ALLOY STEEL APPLICATIONS FROM 16 GAGE TO ANY THICKNESS. TIP TIG PROVIDES ANY COMPANY FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE ARC WELD PROCESSES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED TO FINALLY PRODUCE FIRST TIME, DEFECT FREE WELDS. NO ERGONOMIC OR WELD FUME ISSUES. NO METALLURGICAL OR DISTORTION ISSUES. REDUCED PREHEAT – INTER-PASS TEMP OR POST HEAT CONCERNS. NO WELD CLEANING & DON’T FORGET THE MINIMAL WELDER SKILLS REQUIRED.
THE PRIMARY ARC WELDING PROCESSES THAT HAVE CHANGED LITTLE IN MORE THAN SIX DECADES, & these. THESE PROCESSES ACCOUNT FOR MORE THAN 98% OF THE GLOBAL WELDS PRODUCED DAILY. A logical question would be why would any manger or engineer responsible for welds, ignore a new arc weld process that can provide numerous weld quality and cost benefits, a weld process that anyone who has never welded can learn in less than 10 days.
2018: THOSE WHY CHANGE THE WAY WE HAVE ALWAYS DONE IT WELD SHOPS CAN CONTINUE TO PURCHASE MAGIC WELD GAS MIXES OR WELD EQUIPMENT LOADED WITH COSTLY, USELESS ELECTRONIC BELLS AND WHISTLES OR GET A BLOODY GRIP ON WELD PROCESS OWNERSHIP AND ENABLE REAL POSITIVE WELD CHANGES FOR THEIR COMPANIES: With it’s latest Inverter TIG equipment, Miller proudly announced with the advanced electronics that it can speed a companies DC TIG welds by 17%. What does that mean? Well your DC TIG welder is making a weld on 3/16 or 1/4 stainless at a typical travel rate of 3 inch/min, that new Millers Inverter TIG power source now enables with the 17% increase in weld speed a new weld speed of 3.5 inch/min, yawn. In contrast, when TIP TIG equipment is added to that Miller power source, it usually enables 200 to 400 % in weld deposition rates that can enable 300 to 700% increase in TIG weld speeds. Remember weld speeds influence weld & clad heat, and weld heat influences weld – part metallurgical properties, distortion, stresses and oxidation.
Its common in high tech industries, to find that the managers & engineers responsible for welds, will often lack process control expertise and therefore lack the ability for weld process ownership.
2018: WHEN HIGH TECH. INDUSTRIES, THE ARMED FORCES & RESEARCH FACILITIES IGNORE OR ARE NOT AWARE OF AN IMPORTANT ARC WELD PROCESS THAT’S BEEN AVAILABLE FOR A DECADE, A PROCESS THAT REQUIRES THE LEAST ALL POSITION WELDER SKILLS, A PROCESS THAT ALWAYS ENABLES SUPERIOR WELD – PART QUALITY, AND A PROCESS THAN CAN REDUCE THEIR TIG LABOR COSTS BY APPROX. 70% . WHAT DOES THAT SAY ABOUT THOSE THAT ARE MAKING WELD DECISIONS?
LARGE CORPORATIONS COULD SAVE MILLIONS OF DOLLARS ANNUALLY ON CODE QUALITY WELD COSTS, THAT IS IF MANAGERS WOULD WAKE UP TO 21st CENTURY WELD PROCESS TECHNOLOGY CAPABILITY. Today’s large corporations will often separate their plants and businesses into separate profit centers, and the corporation will often loose sight of the big picture when it comes to it’s total annual weld labor and weld rework costs. Also most corporate managers would be astounded to find across their companies, the general lack of weld process controls expertise, a general lack of ability to attain weld quality and productivity uniformity, and a general lack of best weld practices. And if experienced, the managers would also note that the weld processes they are using in 2019 have changed little over the decades, also most of the weld procedures and specifications being used were likely established 20 to 30 years ago.
I would like to simplify the weld cost reduction potential that TIP TIG can provide to corporations that employ many TIG welders or any welders working on code quality welds. For every ten TIG welders hired, a corporation will have approx. a million dollars cost pear-year. The same weld work could be done with three TIP TIG welders for an approx. yearly cost of $250,000. Most of the following corporations will have hundreds of welders in their plants, so bean counters do the math and if you want someone to start this gravy train, give me a call and for a few thousand dollars I will be the catalyst and mentor needed get the ball rolling and provide the process implementation and training. The following are a few of the corporations that have the potential for dramatic weld quality improvements and cost reductions. GE, Westinghouse, NASA, SpaceX, Boeing, BP, Shell, Airbus, Exon, Lockheed, Saudi Aramco, GE Aviation, Northrup, Raytheon, Phillips, BAE, Total, Rolls Royce, United Technologies, General Dynamics. At these companies, most of steel and alloy steels, code quality manual welds are being made with the DC TIG DC TIG process or the inferior Pulsed MIG process. In these same companies you will also often find the use of outdated Weld Procedures & Weld Specifications, or find that that they will turn to costly Lasers and EB automated welds, when in many instances these two costly processes may not been necessary.
FOR THOSE LOOKING FOR NEW BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES OR FOR RAPID WELD COST QUALITY / PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENTS? Weld shop managers, engineers and supervisors might want to wake up to the weld quality & productivity benefits attained by TIP TIG, these are not the nickel and dime, hard to measure weld benefits that are usually proclaimed with the latest electronic Inverter DC TIG or Pulsed MIG equipment when welding steels and alloy welds. The highest all position weld quality and lowest weld heat means minimal concerns with even the most complex alloys. The beneficial weld process attributes from the easy to use TIP TIG process, enable game changing weld quality / production benefits that can dramatically impact any weld shop’s manual and automated weld application capability, think about the cost benefits from zero weld rework.
THE PULSED MIG LACK OF WELD FUSION ACHILLES HEEL: When it comes to delivering optimum manual arc weld quality, many steel and alloy steel welds are made with the manual Pulsed MIG process, with it’s weld fusion, porosity, spatter, arc stability and weld heat concerns. For more than three decades, many companies simply have not understand why Pulsed MIG can be a poor process choice when welding code quality steels and alloy steel parts > 4 mm, and especially welding alloy steels such as stainless and duplex, which have sluggish, slower weld solidification characteristics.
2019: The most critical defect any weld can have is lack of weld fusion and with many pulsed MIG welds you will find manual weld fusion concerns especially on fillet and groove welds on parts 3/16 plus. I have written three books on the weld fusion concerns with pulsed MIG, and for twenty years my weldreality.com web site has been presenting the pulsed MIG steel weld issues along with evidence of the poor pulsed MIG weld results.
There are two primary factors why Pulsed MIG will at times result in weld fusion issues.
 Pulsed MIG has to use a “low back ground current” to form and sustain the weld droplet and transfer. In contrast to MIG Spray transfer, the pulsed MIG back ground current takes weld energy away from the pulsed weld. To attain a higher energy pulsed MIG weld, the welder would have to turn the wire feed up and increase the weld deposition rates, (increase weld travel rates). From a cost perspective, high deposition rates are a good feature of a weld process. From a weld fusion perspective, increasing weld speeds does not enhance weld fusion capability.
 In contrast to SMAW (stick) and DC TIG , Pulsed MIG enables all position welds at much higher weld deposition rates. A welder could weld a 6 mm wall stainless pipe (fill passes) with pulsed MIG, and readily attain a weld deposition rate of 6 to 10 lb/hr. with typical manual weld travel rates on the vertical up welds usually between 10 and 15 inch/min. The same vertical up, pipe fill pass welds made with DC TIG or the SMAW process would typically be delivering approx. one pound/hr, with weld travel rates of 1 to 3 inch/min.
Note on the importance of weld travel rates and weld fusion: Its the low weld deposition and resulting LOW WELD TRAVEL RATES that enable the time required for all position weld fusion to occur with both the TIG and SMAW process. The all position weld fusion that occurs with these two low deposition weld processes is usually equal or superior weld fusion than that possible with the higher weld deposition, much faster weld travel rate, Pulsed MIG process. However from my perspective the weld speeds attainable with TIG and SMAW are too slow while the pulsed MIG travel rates are too fast. Manual or automated welds, there is only one process that provides the ideal weld speeds, with the highest weld energy, and that process is TIP TIG.
One easy to use process. No spatter, no fumes, no weld defects from pipe or plate root to fill. It would take 7 to 8 TIG welders to achieve in one hour, what we trained these two TIP TIG welders to attain for the Chinese National Oil Company welding sub-sea pipe.
The following are logical reasons why TIP TIG will provide superior weld fusion and lower weld porosity than any other arc weld process.
 TIP TIG ENABLES HIGHER WELD ENERGY THAN BOTH DC TIG AND PULSED MIG.
 TIP TIG IS THE ONLY ARC PROCESS THAT AGITATES THE WELD POOL SLOWING THE WELD SOLIDIFICATION WHICH NOT ONLY BENEFITS WELD FUSION AND REDUCES WELD POROSITY, IT ALSO ELIMINATES SLUGGISH ALLOY CONCERNS.
 TIP TIG PROVIDES WELD SPEEDS SUITED TO ATTAIN WELD FUSION, SLOWER THAN PULSED MIG & FASTER THAN TIG.
 TIP TIG REQUIRES LESS ALL POSITION WELDER SKILLS THAN TIG AND PULSED MIG.
 TIP TIG ONLY REQUIRES ONE PROCESS FOR ROOT AND FILL ON ANY THICKNESS.
 TIP TIG PROVIDES SOMETHING THAT TIG CANNOT PROVIDE, IT PROVIDES CONSTANT, UNIFORM MELTING OF THE WELD WIRE DELIVERED TO THE SWEET ARC SPOT.
Few global weld decision makers will be aware of the TIP TIG weld capability and weld benefits as both a manual, semi-automated process, or fully automated arc weld process. Few will be aware that TIP TIG is an easy to use process especially with all position welds. Few will be aware that it typically takes three to four DCEN TIG welders to do the work that one TIP TIG welder can do each hour. Few will be aware that TIP TIG will always provide superior weld quality than DCEN TIG, Plasma, Hot Wire TIG, Hybrid MIG and the Pulsed MIG process. Few will be aware that the DCEN TIP TIG process always enables not only the highest arc weld / part quality capability but also the lowest possible weld and part heat enabling the lowest weld distortion and never before attained metallurgical properties.
2019..YOU WANT TO VIEW THE WELD CAPABILITY OF A WELD PROCESS ON AN APPLICATION THAT REQUIRES BOTH THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE WELD QUALITY AND LOWEST POSSIBLE WELD HEAT? THEN WATCH DC TIP TIG WELD TITANIUM. The following video is a Titanium weld that in 2019 no Aerospace, Defense, Power or Energy company is capable of making using DC TIG, Pulsed MIG or Hot Wire TIG.
 “WHY CHANGE THE WAY WE HAVE ALWAYS DONE IT” SAID THE TITANIUM TIG WELDERS TO THEIR MANAGER. In 2010, when I was setting the TIP TIG weld parameters for my business partner Tom to weld some Grade 2. Titanium parts, the engineering manager from the large Philadelphia Titanium fabricator that supplied the test parts, asked why I was not going to use an argon gas trailing shield to protect the titanium weld and part from oxidation. I knew something that this engineer did not know. Though this was the first time titanium would be welded with TIP TIG in North America, I was well aware of the very low weld heat that I had already been attaining on numerous alloy and steel applications and that we would not likely need a gas trailing shield to minimize oxidation so that we could attain the desired weld SILVER color. By the way the titanium parts had not been cleaned and still had forming contaminates on, (the reason for the weld fumes). Weld travel rates / time and polarity are key to weld heat, (joules) attained with weld applications.
 WHY TIP TIG DID NOT NEED A GAS TRAILING SHIELD. At a DC TIG weld speed of approx 3 inch/min with one weld start and stop for a new wire length, the time to weld the above eighteen inch long, 1/4 thick titanium part with TIG would be approx 6 minutes. In contrast the time to weld the titanium part with TIP TIG travelling at 24 inch/min as shown on the video, was 44 seconds. The weld heat with DC. TIG 39,600 J/inch, the weld heat with DC. TIP TIG, 5.550 J/inch. Its the higher weld travel speeds attainable with DC TIP TIG that will always on most applications > 1.6 mm enable a remarkable weld energy difference between traditional DC TIG and TIP TIG. Keep in mind also that even tho. DC. Pulsed MIG could weld a little faster than TIP TIG, that DC.Pulsed MIG uses Reverse Polarity which concentrates the weld heat in the MIG plasma and this greatly influences the high weld and part HAZ heat you get with any Reverse Polarity MIG weld. Remember also that MIG requires reactive gases such as CO2 or Oxy. which influence porosity on any application. TIP TIG only requires argon and should never require helium. The TIP TIG weld benefits that apply to this titanium weld, also applies to any alloy or steel application you want to weld with TIP TIG.
 “WELDERS WANTED TO WELD TITANIUM VESSELS” A GOOD WORK ATTITUDE AND MINIMUM SKILLS ARE REQUIRED. Just like MIG, two hands on the torch just point and move. No foot control required. Always superior weld quality than regular DC TIG which is enabled from the higher energy agitated welds that provide superior weld fusion and the lowest weld oxidation & porosity potential.
2018: The bottom line in the why change the way we have always done it, and give me some time to play with the weld controls, or lets get weld advice from a salesman, weld industry, is that there is an excellent opportunity for front office weld decision makers to enable dramatic weld quality improvements and cost reductions, for their organizations. However to attain the weld quality / cost benefits front office personnel would have to do something many front office weld decision makers are often reluctant to do, step up to the plate, take process ownership, learn and embrace a 21st century weld process called TIP TIG (my TIP TIG program has all the training and procedure data you need for any application).
Consider providing yourself or employees with one or more of my TIP TIG – Advanced TIG – MIG – Flux cored or Robot MIG Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practice, Self Teaching / Training Programs. By the way, why the above submarine? If like me you have an interest in the never ending, dramatic, inexcusable weld cost consequences for the Navy and its prime contractors when they build subs or any sea going vessels, scroll down. For those that want more info. you can call me at 828 337 2695 Eastern time. For those like me that don’t have a life and love this stuff keep on trucking.
Traditional DCEN TIG Arc and Weld Wire influence on both the TIG weld Energy and weld Deposition.
FOR 7 DECADES, THE VERY LOW DC TIG WELD DEPOSITION RATES “RESTRICTED THE WELD APPLICATION POTENTIAL”: The DCEN TIG low weld deposition rates have for decades restricted the TIG weld capability and weld application potential. No one wanted to use traditional TIG on large weldments or thick weld applications so they would usually turn to MIG and always attain inferior weld quality, along with weld fumes, spatter or weld heat concerns. In contrast, on the left, these welds made with TIP TIG, (note the one hand and no stainless fumes) and the TIP TIG is producing superior quality than possible TIG with lower weld heat and weld fumes than any process.
Note: An application such as this would typically be welded with MIG Spray or Pulsed MIG, often resulting in weld fusion, porosity quality, spatter, weld fumes and distortion concerns.
LOW WELD DEPOSITION RATE CONSEQUENCES: So since it’s introduction, a prime issue with DCEN TIG welds that require filler metal has been the very low weld deposition rates, slow weld speeds and numerous weld start / stops. The DCEN TIG, large diameter 1/16 to 1/8 (1.6 – 3.2 mm) weld wires, and the manual wire dipping action into the welds typically results in average TIG weld deposition rates of less than one pound / hr. If the manual TIG welder utilized smaller weld wire diameters such as 0.035 or 0.045, (1 – 1.2 mm), the welder would find they lack the ability to continuously feed the small diameter wires in a controlled manner at weld deposition rates greater than that attained with the easier to control, much slower fed larger diameter wires.
Question: Em, as deposition rates are a large factor in weld costs, can you provide more detailed info. on the typical average weld deposition rate capability with manual DCEN TIG welding?
Answer. An average DCEN TIG manual weld deposition rate attained with a 1/16 or 3/32, (1.6 – 2.4 mm) steel or stainless wire is approx. 1 lb / hr with a 60 minute arc on time and typically a DCEN TIG welders arc on time may average between 10 – 20 minutes. Lets say the TIG welder is feeding the common 3/32 steel or stainless TIG wire into the weld pool at a controllable, approx. 8 inch minute, (20 cm/min) which delivers approx. 1 lb/hr with 60 minutes arc on time. If the welder decided to try and feed a smaller 0.035 (1 mm) wire. To attain a pound an hour with the 0.035 steel or stainless wire, the welder would require that the TIG welder continuously feed the 0.035 wire around 70 inches per-minute for 60 minutes, (not going to happen with traditional TIG). More on this subject below.
HIGHLY SENSITIVE ARC LENGTH & LOW DEPOSITION RATES DON’T MAKE A GOOD SEMI OR AUTOMATED PROCESS: With DCEN TIG, the use of low – medium weld current, the use of large wires and the wire placement in the arc plasma can result in rapid freeze welds that can interrupt the electron flow, creating “arc length sensitive”, conditions. Arc length sensitivity and low weld deposition rates have for decades made the DCEN TIG process unsuited as either a semi-automatic or fully automated arc weld process. When used for weld automation the traditional DCEN process typically requires costly automated arc length equipment and the welds are still made with very low deposition rates.
In contrast to DCEN TIG, the DCEN TIP TIG process provides;
[a] TIP TIG: A preheated, small diameter, continuous fed weld wire that melts at the plasma outer periphery taking minimal heat from the arc plasma and allowing more energy to the weld pool.
[b] TIP TIG: The higher energy weld pool is slightly agitated, both influence a reduction in the weld solidification rates.
[c] TIP TIG: Greater weld deposition rates that allow the use of higher weld current.
These weld energy factors will in contrast to DCEN TIG produce welds with more fluidity, welds with a more intense & wider arc plasma, factors which combine to reduces arc length sensitivity. This enables TIP TIG to be both a semi-automated and fully automated arc weld process.
THE WORLD’S HIGH STRENGTH STEELS AND ALL ALLOY STEELS ARE ALL INFLUENCED BY HEAT TREATMENT. TIP TIG IS THE ONLY ARC WELD PROCESS THAT CAN MINIMIZE THE NEGATIVE WELD AND PART METALLURGICAL INFLUENCE PRODUCED BY ARC WELD HEAT.
WHY MIG CAN NEVER COMPETE WITH TIP TIG WELD QUALITY AND WITH TIP TIG METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES. For seven plus decades, a unique attribute of the high arc temp. traditional DCEN TIG process, has been the “Electrode Negative” weld transfer that has the potential to promote rapid weld heat conduction into the Positive Work. However the DCEN TIG weld application reality has been that the metallurgical weld and part benefits that could have been from rapid TIG weld heat conduction, was in in most cases greatly restricted as the very low DC TIG weld deposition rates usually result in “very slow weld speeds” that are the prime factor in retaining the high TIG weld heat.
In contrast to traditional DCEN TIG and DCEN TIP TIG process in which electrons flow from the Negative tungsten to Positive work, both MIG (pulsed MIG on left) and Gas Shielded Flux Cored welds use Reverse Polarity Electrode Positive (EP) So with EP MIG polarity, the electron flow is from the positive work to the tip of the continuous fed MIG weld wire. Electrode positive polarity concentrates the majority of the arc plasma energy around the positive MIG and flux cored wire tip which enables rapid melting of the weld wire, producing typical MIG weld depositions rates that can be as high as 10 to 14 times than that attained with traditional DC TIG.
Even with the greater MIG and flux cored weld deposition rates that enable much greater weld speeds than DCEN TIG welds, that concentrated energy retention in the MIG arc plasma results in MIG and flux cored welds that typically produce Large Heat Affected Zones. The faster MIG and flux cored weld speeds and the use of reactive gases such as CO and oxygen in the MIG argon mixes can produce welds with lack of fusion, internal porosity, spatter, surface oxidation and weld fume concerns. With many alloy steel MIG weld applications, there is concern with larger weld heat affected zones, and welds & parts subject to high stresses and distortion.
So now we can examine what weld benefits are produced with a DCEN (straight polarity) TIP TIG, a process that can produce much higher weld deposition rates and faster weld speeds than TIG and this enables the lowest possible arc weld joules. More on the important subject of weld heat to follow.
To change that 70 year old DCEN TIG manual process into the easier to use, much higher weld deposition, semi-automatic or automated TIP TIG process, dramatic, innovative TIG process changes were required by the inventor Plasch, Austria. However its one thing to change the weld dynamics of an arc weld process and another thing to evaluate the often subtle differences and weld process and application benefits attained with TIP TIG against the competing, commonly utilized ac weld processes such as DC TIG and Pulsed MIG, and this is my area of expertise, its what I have done for a living in more than a 1000 weld shops over five decades.
For those like myself that love to look at what goes on in the depths of a weld arc plasma, and examine in detail the weld transfer characteristics of the weld metal being deposited, please note in the left DCEN TIP TIG video, how in contrast to the manual DCEN TIG weld below, the TIP TIG, constant fed, smaller wire diameter melts and forms droplets at the Outer TIG arc Plasma Periphery. This weld drop formation and the unique shaken wire droplet detachment enables the majority of the DCEN TIP TIG plasma energy to be consistently applied on the weld surface.
NOTE REMEMBER HOW A TRADITIONAL DCEN TIG WELD HAS TO UTILIZE A LARGE PART OF THE PLASMA ENERGY TO KEEP THE WELD SURFACE FLUID AND AN ALMOST EQUAL PART OF THE PLASMA TO MELT THE WIRE TIP. ALSO NOTE THAT THE DCEN TIG PLASMA WIDTH AND DENSITY BEING PRODUCED IS ALSO INFLUENCED BY THE LOW WELD DEPOSITION RATES WHICH RESTRICT THE WELD CURRENT UTILIZED WHICH INFLUENCES THE PLASMA WIDTH AND DENSITY
TIP TIG BENEFIT: It’s not just the small diameter TIP TIG wires, or the unique wire feed angle that places the TIP TIG wire at the outer plasma periphery (enables most of the plasma energy to be directed on the weld and part surface) that enables the small TIP TIG weld drops to transfer across the arc plasma into a weld surface which attains more energy than any DC TIG weld,, that are distinctly different than DCEN TIG, its also the patented TIP TIG “Wire Vibration” and resulting small “Weld Droplet Agitation” that enables the weld drops formed on the TIP TIG wire tip, to rapidly detach and transfer into the fluid weld area providing a slight agitation to the pool that can slow the TIG weld solidification reducing weld porosity potential to the lowest degree and also enable the best possible arc weld fusion capability.
I would like to emphasize what makes TIP TIG unique. Without the TIP TIG wire vibration that results from the patented wire feed action, those small weld drops on the wire tip may be slow to detach, or not detach and grow in size until the continuous fed weld wire runs into the weld pool disrupting both the wire feed and causing weld transfer issues.
The DCEN TIP TIG preheated Hot Wire(HW) and agitated weld drops when transferred into the fluid weld, create a slight stirring action of the puddle which assists in slowing the weld pool solidification. Apart from the current delivered to the tungsten from the TIG power source, the HW power source typically also delivers on average approx. 70 to 100 amps that heats the weld wire before it enters the arc plasma. The DCEN TIP TIG HW amps, plus smaller wires typically delivering 100 to 400% more weld than DCEN TIG. Remember more weld wire increases the potential for “increased weld current” than that possible with traditional TIG welds.
In contrast to DCEN TIG, the increased DCEN TIP TIG weld current capability, the HW amps, and wire feed agitation result in welds with that typically will have a wider more dense arc plasma, welds with increased weld surface fluidity, welds that will attain superior weld fusion and the lowest weld porosity, welds with increased arc stability and decreased arc length sensitivity. Also the capability to produce DCEN higher weld speeds enables the lowest possible weld joules, the smallest possible weld HAZ and the least weld oxidation. These achievements enable TIP TIG to be an easy to use, “all position”, SEMI-AUTOMATIC or AUTOMATED TIG process that is providing weld and part metallurgical application benefits never before attained in the weld industry.
TIP TIG, unique weld attributes and unique weld and part benefits.
Lets further evaluate the TIP TIG manual and automated weld / part application benefits between the following three widely used arc weld processes, and also discuss the weld shop reluctance to change which is common throughout the global weld industry.
 Traditional Manual DCEN TIG.
 Automated DCEN Hot Wire TIG.
 Reverse Polarity Pulsed MIG.
2019. WHY CHANGE THE 70 YEAR OLD WAY WE HAVE ALWAYS DONE IT? Since the 1940’s, DCEN TIG has been attaining the highest manual arc weld quality, however for more than a decade, TIP TIG has been a superior semi-automatic and automated arc process, providing many weld and application benefits.
Great weld quality with many weld shop issues & restrictions.
2019: Its been approx. 10 years since DCEN TIG evolved into a process called DCEN TIP TIG, however a primary issue in the global weld industry has been the slow acceptance of the TIP TIG process, and the weld reality has been that many companies that use traditional DCEN TIG are missing out on an opportunity for their companies to extend their weld application capability and make dramatic weld quality improvements with extensive weld cost savings. Its important to also note that out of all the common arc weld processes daily utilized, the DCEN TIG process has required the “highest manual welder skills” that when combined with the lowest weld deposition rates typically produces the “highest arc weld labor costs”.
One hindrance against weld shop progress and TIG evolution, is often weld shop attitude. Those that know me will be aware from my arc weld process controls – best weld practice books, 40 plus weld articles, and process control training materials and workshops, would be aware that for more than three decades, I have been more than a little frustrated with;
(a) the global, lack of management and engineer weld process ownership,
(b) the why change the way we have always done it attitude,
(c) the play around with the weld controls weld shop acceptance,
(d) the reliance on a weld salesman for weld advice,
(e) the lack of weld process controls and best weld practice expertise.
With the above in mind, I would like to start this blog on the now approx. decade old TIP TIG process, by asking a question.
“How long do you believe it should take experienced global weld decision makers to recognize the superior weld quality capability, the improved part mechanical or metallurgy properties and dramatic weld cost reduction benefits derived from a an arc weld process such as TIP TIG”?
 TIP TIG enables the lowest possible all position welder skills,
 TIP TIG always provides superior weld quality than manual TIG, and also Automated Hot Wire TIG and the Pulsed MIG process.
 TIP TIG while providing the highest possible arc weld quality, also provides the lowest possible weld heat. This unique combination enables extraordinary weld quality & part metallurgical benefits never before attained in the welding industry.
 TIP TIG with providing the lowest possible arc weld heat enables the lowest possible weld stresses and distortion.
 TIP TIG with the lowest possible weld heat and inert gas enables the lowest possible weld fumes.
 TIP TIG dramatically lowers hourly labor costs from increased TIG weld productivity typically in the range of 200 to 400%.
 TIP TIG is the first semi-automated and fully automated arc weld process that has the potential on most all position, steels. alloy steels and alloy welds, to eliminate the need for weld rework.
 TIP TIG requires less all position welder skills than any of the traditional arc weld processes.
As someone who has been requested by frustrated managers to solve their weld problems and improve their weld quality and productivity in over a 1000 weld shops in 13 countries, I am well aware that the majority of the companies employ front office personnel that lacked the Weld Process Control – Best Weld Practice expertise that’s necessary for front office weld process ownership.
In many companies, the front office personnel responsible for the weld shop will often rely on the weld shop personnel that when not playing around with their weld controls, will be asked to evaluate weld equipment or consumables that’s typically recommended by a sales rep. That sales rep will usually have had no previous experience in running a weld shop and will have limited weld process controls and best weld practice expertise.
As the TIP TIG process was not invented by the major global weld equip. manufactures, it’s unlikely a weld sales rep will turn up at your facility and discuss, or even be aware of the weld benefits of the TIP TIG process. Also, it’s not likely that any company that has to seek arc weld process advice from a weld salesman, will be anxious to seek out new weld technology that’s not introduced by the conventional weld distributors. However as the useless politicians in Washington keep informing us, “it’s time for change”. And let’s face it! there should be no room in the highly competitive, global weld industry for arc weld process confusion, weld process ignorance or weld process apathy, especially in any business in which the arc welds play an important role in their organization.
The DCEN TIP TIG process, is a unique arc weld process that provides a continuous fed, preheated and agitated weld wire into a DCEN (electrode negative) arc. Variable polarity TIP TIG can also provide remarkable TIG weld benefits.
With the TIP TIG there is a relationship between the TIP TIG wire diameter, the continuous fed wire feed rates, the wire to tungsten placement, the tungsten size, profile and current utilized. To attain weld optimization with TIP TIG, there are specific techniques and best weld practices that should be applied. All of these requirements are provided and simplified in my TIP TIG process control and best weld practice self teaching / training program provided below.
WHILE AMERICA SLEEPS AT THE WHEEL:
It’s ironic that the first customer for TIP TIG at our USA facility, was the “Chinese National Oil Company”.
TIP TIG and Welder Skills: AS the TIP TIG weld wire does not have to be fed manually, and a foot amp control is not necessary, in contrast to regular TIG, the TIP TIG process dramatically reduces welder skills. However to attain the full TIP TIG weld process and weld application potential, and to also break the common weld shop “Play Around” with the weld controls approach to many arc welds, it would be beneficial if in 2019 that management take a role in process ownership and ensure that both the TIP TIG process controls and best weld practices are learnt.
To learn the “all position” TIP TIG pipe welder skills would take a TIG welder between 1 to 2 days. And with someone who has never welded with any process, it would take them with TIP TIG, if taught correctly, 3 to 5 days to pass any code pipe welder qualification test.
TIP TIG and Weld Practices: No matter what the skill level of the welder is, the weld personnel should learn the unique TIP TIG weld practices, techniques, and the few required optimum weld settings. These are available in my TIP TIG Self Teaching – Training program. This program requires approx. 10 to 12 hours.
As I write this in 2019, I hope this blog will help take some of the weld process and application confusion out of the TIP TIG process. I also hope that the TIP TIG info and application data at this site speeds up the acceptance of this unique, important weld process and enable weld decision makers to be aware of where DCEN TIP TIG process belongs throughout the global weld industry.
Importance of Weld Process Controls: I recognize that while the lack of Manual and Robot MIG weld process control expertise and best weld practices maybe an acceptable way of life with the majority of front office weld decision makers in the global Auto & Truck industry, an industry that is used to daily accepting 30 – 60% daily robot MIG weld rework and extensive daily robot down time. However this lack of expertise should not be considered acceptable in weld shops that produce code quality welds. Weld shops that have an interest in enhancing their company’s weld capability and reputation. Weld shops that have an interest in reducing their weld costs and increasing profits.
You don’t need to be a rocket scientist to figure out that the global lack of arc weld process controls & best weld practice expertise, along with the too common reliance by weld shops for weld advice from sales reps, would influence the weld shop and the front office culture and possibly have a negative impact on the acceptance of a new arc weld process such as the TIP TIG.
Sales Influence on weld shops: Lets face it, when weld sales reps are required to guide key weld shop decision makers on arc weld equipment or consumables, products that in reality have changed little in decades, this is usually an indication that the company lacks the ability for Weld Process Ownership. When this expertise is lacking, someone will pay a steep price.
MIG – FCAW – Advanced TIG – TIP TIG or ROBOT MIG, every weld shop will benefit from focus on Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practice Expertise.
A GLOBAL INDUSTRY THAT TOO FREQUENTLY RELIES ON INEXPERIENCED SALES ADVICE TO RESOLVE THEIR WELD PROCESS ISSUES:
Costly power source Bells and Whistles. It’s not difficult to comprehend that much of the traditional Pulsed MIG weld equipment purchased over the last three decades, will have been purchased as a result of weld sales influence, and as a result of dubious product marketing weld claims from weld equip. mfgs. The MIG equipment purchased would often be loaded with costly, useless electronic bells and whistles, circuit boards that rarely influenced the weld quality or productivity, circuit boards that however typically enabled the weld equipment and distributor’s to increase their MIG power source profits.
Salesmanship also has influenced the purchase of weld consumables. For example, instead of the four MIG gas mixes required for all global MIG welds, we have more than 40 mixes to choose from. (Ed – Em, was a key writer of the AWS MIG gas specifications). And instead of using MIG wires many companies will often purchase unnecessary and more costly, Flux Cored or Metal Cored wires.
What makes TIP TIG Unique? In contrast to many of the weld power sources produced in the last two decades, the DCEN TIP TIG process does not derive its increased TIG weld quality productivity and weld application capability from a weld power source loaded with electronic bells and whistles. TIP TIG DC Weld Current. The TIP TIG weld amps are derived from a conventional, suitable, 300 to 500 amp DC TIG power source. That TIG power source is combined with a patented TIP TIG Wire Feed delivery system, a small Hot Wire TIG power source and a unique torch.
TIP TIG Mechanical Wire Action drives TIP TIG benefits: Through a patented mechanical action, the TIP TIG wire feed drive roll mount goes back and forth at high speed. This action on the wire creates a restricted tension and release on the continuous fed weld wire. The mechanical action on the TIP TIG continuous fed wire creates an agitation effect on the weld wire, which when viewed is similar to a vibrating guitar string. The pre-heated agitated TIP TIG weld wire is fed through the unique TIP TIG torch that delivers the wire to a specific point near the tungsten.
TIP TIG WIRE AGITATION AND WELD BENEFITS:
TIP TIG Wire Agitation enables benefits. As the TIP TIG weld wire makes contact with the outer periphery of the TIG arc plasma, the wire tip melts and a droplet is formed. The TIP TIG wire agitation helps detach and speed up the transfer of the molten weld drops into the fluid weld pool. Without the wire agitation the droplet at the wire tip could grow larger, and the continuous, rapid fed wire could be driven into the weld causing a disruption. No Manual TIG welder could provide a continuous fed weld wire consistently at the TIG arc plasma sweet spot. The TIP TIG optimum wire placement at the sweet spot in the arc outer plasma periphery, is using an area in the plasma in which minimal plasma energy is utilized for the wire melt, and therefore in contrast to regular DCEN TIG, more of the TIP TIG arc plasma energy can be maintained over the fluid surface of the weld.
TIP TIG Plasma Heat Distribution is different than TIG. Again note with regular DCEN TIG, the plasma distribution and the intermittent plasma task between melting the large diameter TIG wire and heating the weld and part surface. The TIP TIG wire agitation and the wire preheat are the defining difference between TIP TIG and the traditional, manual, DCEN TIG process. The TIP TIG wire agitation is also the prime difference between TIP TIG and the Automated Hot Wire TIG process.
Note: TIP TIG is highly suited as both a Manual and Automated weld process. In contrast, regular DCEN TIG is rarely suited to weld automation, and the Hot Wire TIG process is rarely suited as a manual arc weld process.
TIP TIG weld benefits especially with complex metals and difficult weld applications.
TIP TIG should be the logical manual and automated arc weld process of choice for the high tech industries. From welding investment castings in fighter planes or welding super alloys, armor plate, duplex, titanium, hastelloy or high strength steels on submarines and tanks. With many alloy welds welds, the high tech industries industries often look towards complex, automated weld processes such as the Electron Beam, Laser, Plasma or the Friction Stir process, to produce high quality welds with minimal influence on the weld Heat Affected Zones, which in many instances, (weld joint design permitting), may also be delivered by the much lower cost, manual or automated TIP TIG process.
Think of the manual or automated weld application possibilities.
Please remember that TIP TIG is both a manual and easily automated weld process. If the TIP TIG manual or automated process is suitable to the joint design, (the alloy is usually not relevant), remember that in contrast to the sophisticated automated weld processes, if TIP TIG is suited to the weld joint design and thickness, that the TIP TIG weld equipment that will typically costs 5 to 10% of a laser or EB unit, will produce the weld quality desired with minimal weld heat influence on the part weld’s HAZ.
Note: The easy to use TIP TIG process would not require the special process expertise that comes with a Laser, EB or Friction process. TIP TIG would also have less weld dimension tolerance concerns and less weld fixture requirements than is typically required with the mentioned automated weld processes.
Why would anyone not consider TIP TIG for welding LNG Vessels?
A moment on Pulsed MIG. I have spent over 35 years evaluating the Pulsed MIG process and written hundreds of pages on why so many weld issues occur with this process. After 35 years of pulsed MIG evaluation, the same weld quality issues are occurring especially with steels, alloys and alloy steels >5 m. My web site weldreality.com and my weld process control training programs go into extensive details why the use of this process requires weld shop caution on many applications. However the reality is for three plus decades, pulsed MIG has been presented by the weld equipment manufactures and distributor sales reps as the greatest thing since sliced bread, of course many weld shops will buy into another crutch for their steel and alloy steel welds.
Without question pulsed MIG provides excellent weld benefits for aluminum welds that benefit from the moderate weld energy attained. In contrast steels and sluggish alloys benefit from “consistent high weld energy”, so the weld shop has the option of pulsed MIG which spends 50% of its time at a low back ground current usually less than 120 amps and the traditional MIG spray mode in which the high energy is relatively constant.
Pulsed MIG weld Fusion and Porosity: One thing that influences both Pulsed MIG and Spray weld fusion is the weld deposition rates typically attained with these two weld transfer modes are often too high, and will require fast weld travel rates. The rapid weld speeds and the pulsed MIG weld energy produced on many steel and alloy welds especially on parts > 5, may produce marginal weld fusion or lack of weld fusion.
In contrast to pulsed MIG welds, TIP TIG provides a much “higher arc temperature” and “lower deposition” rates that require slower weld speeds than pulsed MIG. Remember slower weld speeds are helpful in attaining good weld fusion especially with all position welds and welds on sluggish alloys. Also with TIP TIG you have the weld metal agitation which when combined with the higher TIP TIG arc and weld temperatures should enable TIP TIG to always produce superior weld fusion than any pulsed MIG weld. As TIP TIG does not use the reactive gas mixes required by pulsed MIG, TIP TIG with its inert argon and high temp welds, should always enable the lowest weld porosity potential.
If a company is considering manual pulsed MIG for welding submarine high strength steels, the duplex and stainless metals on LNG vessels, or for that matter welding any code quality welds on parts thicker than 5 mm, be warned. Do weld section macros first on scrap of the same metal type and thickness. Apart from the middle of the weld joint where you will often find marginal weld fusion, also make sure you examine the first inch of weld, and any weld tie-ins. There is a good chance you will reveal lack of weld fusion or porosity. That weld defects are not likely to occur with TIP TIG welds made in any weld positions.
As someone who for a short time was involved with weld joint design and weld process decisions on the Moon & Mars Orion Spacecraft, I am well aware that many of the weld joints required in Aerospace, Defence and Power industry are unique, and yes many will justify the use of EB, Laser or Friction Stir. However lets face it, a good engineer in the high tech industry would be aware of the practical and cost effective weld technology available. And when possible, that engineer should be making practical, cost effective weld process decisions. YAWN.
TIP TIG and dramatic weld Heat Reductions: Few of the engineers that deal with high strength steels and alloys will be aware that in contrast to regular TIG and pulsed MIG, that TIP TIG has the capability not only to meet any weld quality requirements but also provides the ability to reduce traditional TIG and Pulsed MIG weld joules input by approx. 60 to 75%. Proof in TIP TIG video below.
What could the remarkable TIP TIG weld joules reductions do for the parts that your company daily welds?
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low heat and the reduction of stresses that reduce weld crack and weld HAZ potential.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG lowest weld heat and ability to eliminate weld distortion concerns.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low weld heat that enables the smallest weld HAZ and easily attains the best possible mechanical and corrosion properties.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low weld heat and producing arc welds with the lowest possible oxidation potential, reducing weld porosity concerns.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low weld heat capability, and the weld shops present use of ASTM and other specification guidelines for preheat – inter-pass and post heat treatments with high strength. alloy steels and alloys. The common heat treat recommendations typically used in the global weld industry in 2019 belong to arc weld processes such as MIG – TIG and Flux Cored that on average will put 50% more weld joules into the welded parts than the DCEN TIP TIG process.
Weld Preheat, Inter-pass or Post Heat may be reduced or eliminated.
With DCEN TIP TIG, your typical preheat, inter-pass and post heat weld heat recommendations may either be eliminated or dramatically reduced. As you will see in the video below, the weld heat from DCEN TIP TIG is so low, that welding heat sensitive Titanium can be done without a gas trailing shield.
2019. The following SpaceX 300 series, stainless vessel will be the world’s largest, 21st Century spaceship. It’s a pity that TIP TIG which has been around more than a decade, would likely not have been given the consideration it deserves for some of the required welds.
It’s also a sad engineering fact that 20 Century arc weld processes, weld specifications and weld procedures are still being used for 21st Century space travel.
In a few years, Mr. Musk wants to send humans on a round trip to Mars in his companies giant, 300 series stainless spaceship. It’s understandable that Mr. Musk at his Tesla CA. facility, possibly did not understand the human, arc weld process controls & best weld practice expertise that was and still is required by his MIG and Resistance robot workers, however the sad reality is that it’s also likely that when welding the parts for his SpaceX vessels, the SpaceX engineers will like their peers at many of the other aerospace companies. likely will not be aware of the TIP TIG weld application potential, and also these companies and SpaceX will be using Arc Weld Specifications and Weld Procedures and weld guidelines that were likely first established three decades ago.
If you worked in a weld shop, you may have heard this.
Many weld shops have a hard time breaking from the welding PAST: In 2019, at the majority of the major global high tech companies, most of the manual, code quality arc welds will be made using the 70 plus year old DCEN TIG, (GTAW) process. And if not using traditional DCEN TIG for their manual welds, the weld shops will likely be using pulsed MIG, SMAW, and the Gas Shielded Flux Cored process. These arc weld processes will require higher welder skills and always provide inferior weld quality with higher weld heat than DCEN TIP TIG.
For decades the global weld industry has been utilizing arc weld processes, in weld shops that expected weld REWORK.
As most weld shops will be aware, when X-Ray weld quality was required, with the traditional, primary manual arc weld processes that have been utilized for decades, costly weld rework was the expected norm. This should no longer be the case when the TIP TIG process is selected.
SHOP ATTITUDES CAN INFLUENCE WELD QUALITY, WELD COSTS AND WELD SHOP EVOLUTION:
How weld shop attitudes can also affect weld process evolution & progressive weld process changes in weld shops. Lets face it, who has not heard the following two phrases in their weld shop. “Why change the way we have always done it”. Or what about that old weld shop favorite. “Can you give me sometime to play around with the weld controls?” Welder skills also play an important role in new process acceptance. Traditional DCEN TIG for example requires the highest welder skills, and in some weld establishments these skills can create a welder diva mentality, whereas some of those TIG welders may proudly proclaim, “I am a Nuclear TIG Welder” or “I am a Titanium TIG welder”. TIP TIG takes a few days to learn and it takes weld quality to higher levels ever attained by manual TIG welders.
So what is more complex to weld than large scale TITANIUM parts?
Weld Costs, Skills and Processes. Apart from the weld deposition rates attained and weld rework required, weld costs are also influenced by the required welder skills. Weld shops take note, all of the traditional arc weld processes such as traditional DCEN TIG, Pulsed MIG, Flux Cored or the SMAW process, require higher all position welder skills than required with TIP TIG. Also as we are all aware when hiring TIG welders, the welder skill requirements will influence the hourly labor costs, and also the manual welder skill differences will affect weld defects.
Note. Every business is aware that in 2019, all position skilled weld personnel are in short supply. With TIP TIG not only do you enable the highest all position weld quality, this also is a process that requires the lowest all position welder skills.
With TIP TIG, in contrast to TIG, the weld application size and thickness are no longer that relevant.
Weld quality and Process influence: Weld quality is not only influenced by manual welders skills, but also by the weld process selected. Apart from what influence a manual welder has on the welds being produced, the weld process selected will also influence the weld quality attained. Most weld shops are aware of the potential for lack of weld fusion and porosity with the Pulsed MIG process. And weld shops will expect trapped slag and porosity from the Flux cored or SMAW process. The high welder skills as required by traditional DCEN TIG, will also influence the weld quality attained, and the slow TIG weld speeds will influence the weld heat and hourly weld labor costs.
Effectiveness of QA weld programs: There is something else that surprisingly influences the opportunity to attain optimum weld quality at the lowest weld costs. With many companies, the QA department is supposed to be a driving force for the company’s attainment of consistent optimum weld quality.
Many QA weld programs are simply not cost effective, as the programs implemented rarely enable the company to attain the best possible weld quality at the lowest possible weld costs.In many companies, costly weld QA resources are typically focused on FINDING weld defects, rather than on using weld process control and best weld practice expertise that could enable weld defect PREVENTION or reduction.
A missing link in the QA department: It’s ironic that at many of the companies that weld, that most of the weld supervisors, and QA inspection personnel responsible for critiquing and finding the weld defects, will usually lack the Weld Process Control and Best Weld Practices expertise that is necessary for the prevention or reduction of weld defects.
If you owned the weld shop, do you believe it would be more cost effective for the shop to place it’s focus on FINDING or on PREVENTING weld defects?
Note: When the key weld and QA decision makers lack weld process control – best weld practice expertise to guide their organization in the requirements for weld process optimization, this is usually another hurdle to overcome in the acceptance of of new weld technology.
After assisting over 1000 companies in 13 countries with their weld issues. From my perspective, it does not matter if someone works in the front office, the QA office or on the weld shop floor, the first management and engineering priority should be on the organizations Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice expertise. These are subjects that over a thirty year period that I have both simplified and condensed. If you can give any of these process subjects 15 – 20 hours of your time, and pay the cost of a good dinner for four, become an expert. My Training / Self teaching resources are available here.
Its 2019, and the majority of prime Aerospace, Defense and Nuclear companies and their contractors have for more than a decade been using the outdated arc weld processes, outdated weld specifications and procedures, and not being aware of the arc weld process controls and best weld practices required for weld process optimization.
2018: The Navy is unhappy with its primary submarine builder Electric Boat, and will pay closer attention to EB and their contractors work on its top priority program, the $128 billion Columbia-class nuclear missile submarines. Apart from the usual excessive weld rework costs that are common in most ship yards, unexpected “weld defects” were revealed in the Columbia ballistic missile tubes. The poor weld quality problem also affects English Royal Navy Dreadnought – class submarines.
Over the summer, the Electric Boat contractor BWX, discovered the welding problems on the missile tubes and notified Electric Boat, leading to a halt to the installation of the missile tubes. The company admitted this week that the faulty work on this easy to weld application will cost at least $27 million to fix over the course of the next year.
Electric Boat president Jeffrey Geiger response to his companies poor weld quality results, ” Electric Boat needs to change it’s “inspections and quality control practices at the supplier,” and discussions were also had on the difficulty of getting skilled welders.
Note from Em: The Electric Boat, BWX and Navy weld fiasco, is again more evidence that for decades the Navy and its prime contractors responsible for the welds, will in too many cases lack the ability and accountability for Weld Management Process Ownership. You will note when discussing the Electric Boat / BWX weld issues, how the company senior management talks about its inadequate weld inspection. Did they forget that the QA / Inspection dept does not create weld defects, and as they have done for decades, the management never gets to the root cause of their costly, never ending weld quality issues.
I agree that the QA/ Inspection departments have a partial responsibility for weld quality, and also would again like to emphasize that that most companies take a poor QA / Inspection approach to weld quality in that they take an approach in which the focus is on finding defects rater than giving the weld inspection personnel with the process controls – best weld practice expertise to help prevent the weld defects. And as for the so called difficulty to find skilled welders there is no MIG – flux cored or TIP TIG weld that cannot be done in a Navy yard by someone who has “never welded” and within two months with the “proper training” apply optimum weld quality on a submarine or a ship. Also what you wont see is that the Navy is allowing its contractors to utilize outdated weld specifications & weld procedures, and that the Navy is ignoring weld technology that could dramatically improve their weld quality potential, reduce welder skills and dramatically lower weld costs. From the Navy to some of the world’s largest defense companies, you are in weld reality witnessing management, engineers and supervisors that lack weld process control and best weld practice expertise.
Note from Em continued: For decades the Navy had cracking concerns with the high strength steels used for their Sub hulls. I fully understand that being cautious in the acceptance of new weld technology or improved weld mfg. methods and practices is an understandable Navy engineering trait, let’s face it, when it comes to Subs, everything should be tried tested and proven. However the approach taken at this time to welding by both the Navy and it’s contractors is simply an outdated joke at the taxpayers expense. If someone comes along with a better weld approach that would result in higher weld / part quality and lower weld costs, then as we know, weld quality and part destructive and metallurgical tests are not rocket science, and it would not be not be difficult task for most engineers that have an interest in thinking outside the welding box to quickly reveal and compare the weld results obtained from any arc weld process tested and from any new weld methods developed.
2019. Like many Aerospace companies, will the Navy continue to create advanced technology products, yet keep allowing inferior arc weld technology and the use of ineffective methods for weld quality control?
Sept 2018. WHY AUSSIES ARE LEADING THE WAY IN SUBMARINE WELD REPAIR TECHNOLOGY:
While the world’s prime defense contractors are usually stuck in an arc weld time warp, ASC Pty. Ltd, an Australian Government business owned ship builder has proven that the TIP TIG process attains astounding weld quality and cost results on it’s Submarine Hull Weld Tests.
TIP TIG was brought to Australia in 2009 – 2010 by myself, and my business partner Tom O’Malley, (both formerly TIP TIG USA owners). We established the Australian TIP TIG distributors and TIP TIG USA trained the Ausy personnel in the use of this unique weld process. In 2019 the Ausy government placed an order for 50 billion dollars to purchase submarines, and I know with TIP TIG that they will now feel confident that when it comes to doing future sub weld repairs it will be a simple task with TIP TIG.
In conclusion from Em: The following are a few of the things that would help any shipyard working on Merchant or Navy contracts.
 Have the ability to take less advice from weld sales personnel.
 Do not accept any welder training program that produces welders who “play around” with weld controls.
 Those that make make weld decisions, ensure you have the expertise required for weld process ownership.
 Where appropriate for all position code quality welds, consider TIP TIG.
 For MIG – Flux Cored and TIP TIG welds, implement Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practice Training for welders, inspectors and involved front office personnel.
 Change the QA weld inspection approach from defense to offence so inspection personnel , learn how to prevent rather than simply reveal weld defects.
More data on on the dramatic weld cost issues in Ship and Sub building in my weld programs at www.weldreality.com.
If you want to discuss TIP TIG call me eastern time U.S. 828 337 2695. If you want Arc Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practice Self Teaching / Training Programs that are necessary for process optimization and ownership, check the following link.
When using traditional DCEN TIG and welding a complex, heat sensitive alloy such as Titanium parts > 1/8, the weld shop will be aware of the sensitivity of the titanium to weld heat and the oxidation formation potential. This is an oxidation revealed when welding in the weld color, and that color will often be the subject of many QA personnel decisions that often result in costly titanium part rejects. To prevent the oxidation that occurs with the weld solidification and cooling of the titanium welds, a cumbersome inert gas trailing shield will be attached to the manual TIG welder torch, who typically will be welding at slow weld speeds that are the primary cause of the weld heat generated.
In contrast, the use of DCEN TIP TIG on the > 1/8 titanium parts, would reveal that not only will TIP TIG not require the gas trailing shield, it will always create the highest possible arc weld quality with the lowest possible weld heat. As for the welder working with TIP TIG they will not require the typical welder skills of feeding a weld wire and will not require a foot control. The bottom line is most titanium applications can be welded with two simple weld settings using the same weld practices as they would use on simple steel or stainless applications.
Take a moment with the TIP TIG video below. Welding a complex titanium alloy without using a gas trailing shield.
When I set the TIP TIG data for a first time attempt on these titanium vessel parts, I knew as I set the weld data for Tom to weld the titanium, that we would not need to use a gas trail shield.This I believe was the first time in North America that titanium was welded successfully without the use of a gas trail shield.
The above TIP TIG weld was made on scrap titanium parts that were dirty and not cleaned before weld, (smoke from cutting lubricants still on parts). Note that No Gas Trailing Shield was used. Note the fast TIP TIG weld speed for this 5 – 6 mm weld. Also and most important, take a look at the finished, acceptable SILVER weld color which shows the weld heat was so low that no detrimental titanium weld oxidation took place. Imagine this high quality, low weld heat on your alloys or high strength heat sensitive welds.
Concerned about weld distortion and the cost
consequences of weld rework revealed by NDT?
Reminder on a few of the TIP TIG weld benefits: Reduced all position welder skills – reduced weld defects – reduced weld distortion – superior mechanical and corrosion properties – the lowest possible weld fumes.
Managers and engineers involved with welding alloys and high strength steels should be aware that TIP TIG not only reduces the welder skills, it also dramatically reduces the weld defect potential and enable the highest possible weld properties with the lowest possible weld stresses and distortion.
Finally, attaining all position, code quality welds that should not require weld rework is a simple task with TIP TIG. Also any TIG welder that occasionally feels the twinges of aching finger or leg weld joints, should appreciate the TIP TIG weld benefits obtained from not having to manually feed a TIG weld wire through their fingers, and being able to use one or two hands to control their weld torch. And lets not forget no leg work required as no foot amp control required.
2019. For seven decades, pipe welds were never this simple. If you can lean on a pipe, move your hands in a controlled manner with TIP TIG you will make a good pipe welder.
So what do you think is unusual in the above TIP TIG, P91 pipe weld application? Apart from the use of one hand, no foot control, no weld spatter, no weld smoke, pipe welder skills reduced and each hour the three to four hundred percent increase in the TIG weld deposition being produced for the weld shop.
P91 TIP TIG weld from first time user, (above video) and
of course NDT revealed defect frees.
What you don’t see with the above TIP TIG pipe weld is the best possible weld fusion and lowest weld porosity potential is attained. What you also don’t also see is always the lowest possible distortion and lowest possible weld stresses. What you also don’t see is the best possible metallurgical results. You cannot attain the same weld results with regular TIG or Pulsed MIG, and it takes a less than one hour to demonstrate the results.
Note: As all position TIP TIG welds are easy to do, the weld position presented is not that relevant which means with many of your parts less positioning of the parts.
Also on most parts welded > 1.6 mm, the weld application, steels and alloy metal types are not that relevant. And remember with TIP TIG in the weld shop, it does not matter if the welds are either manual or automated.
A 60 MINUTE TIP TIG DEMO, NO SALES CHAT, & IT’S EASY TO PROVE THE NUMEROUS WELD CLAIMS AT THIS SITE:
As below, a company can spend money on fancy TIG welder jackets, helmets gloves, yet in this weld shop the welders will still be using in 2019, a 70 year TIG process which takes 3 times longer to do the TIG welds. Using a process that provides inferior weld quality and higher weld heat and costs than attained with the TIP TIG process.
Manual or Automated weld, it’s all the same with TIP TIG. While traditional DCEN TIG is not suited as a Manual, Semi-automated weld process, and it also makes for a poor fully automated TIG process. And also lets not forget that the Automated Hot Wire TIG process is not considered practical as a Manual TIG weld process.
In contrast, the TIP TIG process is ideally suited both as a Manual, Semi-automated process, and an easy to use fully Automated arc weld process. As TIP TIG provides respectable weld deposition rates it should be given consideration instead of Pulsed MIG as TIP TIG will produce far superior weld quality with much smaller weld HAZ that will always enable superior mechanical properties, less distortion and stresses.
Question. So why can’t the weld shop just attach any old MIG wire feeder to a TIG torch and make the regular, 70 year old DCEN TIG process into a Manual Semi-Automated TIG process?
Answer. A prime issue for decades with both the traditional manual DCEN TIG and also the Automated DCEN Hot Wire TIG process, is that they are both have wire feed restriction issues and both are arc length sensitive.
Restrictions of the manual DCEN TIG & weld heat.
 The lack of ability with regular TIG, to manually feed a small diameter wire typically above one pound/hr into a rapid freeze weld usually results in welds with very slow weld speeds that with the high TIG arc temperatures, will often result in high weld heat. Remember it’s the slow weld speeds and high TIG arc temp. weld heat will often affect the part distortion, weld cracks, weld and part stresses, and the metallurgical properties.
 Plasm Restrictions and arc length sensitivity. DCEN TIG arc length sensitivity is influenced by the amount of current and voltage used, also by the TIG arc plasma energy that’s delivered directly to the weld surface.
The traditional DCEN TIG plasma energy is influenced by its function of melting a large TIG wire and the wire placement at the leading edge of the arc plasma. This large wire placement and melt requirement intermittently deprives the TIG pool of a good portion of the plasma energy from the weld pool surface that can result in a small fluid, fast freeze weld pool that’s sensitive to electron flow disruptions. (arc length sensitivity).
In contrast, TIP TIG reduces the TIG fast freeze weld effects and arc length sensitivity by the following: The use of small diameter weld wires, and increased deposition rates that enable higher amps and volts to be used.
TIP TIG’s consistent weld wire placement at the plasma outer periphery does not deprive the plasma energy from the weld surface. The TIP TIG wire is angled to the outer periphery of the plasma. With the smaller diameter TIP TIG wire, there is sufficient energy in the plasma periphery to melt the wire and uninterrupted, plasma energy on the TIP TIG weld surface is part of what makes TIP TIG unique. (The TIP TIG wire placement and small weld drops takes minimal energy from the TIP TIG arc plasma).
TIP TIG’s wire melt at the arc plasma periphery enables most of the TIP TIG plasma heat to react on the surface of the weld part, this not only assists with electron flow that reduces arc length sensitivity, it also enables increased weld fusion and lower weld porosity.
TIP TIG’s patented agitation of the weld wire not only assists in the small. rapid droplet transfer from the wire tip. The agitated drops also result in a slight stirring action of the fluid pool. Any agitation of molten metal should slightly slow down the weld solidification times, an action that assists in electron flow so it helps reduce arc length sensitivity concerns, and assists in weld fusion and weld porosity reduction.
TIP TIG is a Manual or Automated arc process. The above unique DCEN TIP TIG arc plasma attributes combine to allow for a weld that in contrast to DCEN TIG, will provide much higher weld travel rates, a dramatic reduction in weld heat, and the increased arc energy enables slower weld pool solidification and improved electron transfer stability. These benefits enable the TIP TIG process to be either a Manual Semi-automated or fully Automated TIG process.
Please note: All of the TIP TIG info. at this site and in my other blogs are my own original thoughts on reviewing the TIP TIG process for the last decade. This site is copyright protected and this information is not printed elsewhere. If you want to use it, please at least require my permission
That DCEN TIG Arc Length Sensitivity (ALS) has Cost Consequences. ALS can cause arc / weld outages and is one reason why the automated Hot Wire DCEN TIG process, will depending on the weld application, often require costly Automated Arc Length Control (ALC) equipment. However as you see below with a common stainless tank welds. Arc Length Control equipment is not a requirement with Automated or Robot TIP TIG welds.
Below: TIP TIG attached to low cost automated carriage. The multi-pass stainless TIP TIG welds are being made without the usual TIG “arc length sensitivity concerns” that would occur with HW TIG.
No Arc Length Sensitivity issues with automated TIP TIG.
I DOUBT IN THE 21st CENTURY THAT THERE WILL BE ANY OTHER ARC WELD PROCESS THAT CAN DELIVER HIGHER MANUAL OR AUTOMATED WELD QUALITY: Costly NDT will be utilized on most TIG and MIG welds to primarily reveal lack of weld fusion and excess weld porosity. In contrast to DCEN TIG welds, or from any available MIG Spray or Pulsed MIG welds, the higher TIP TIG weld pool energy generated with any all position TIP TIG welds, should always enable the best possible weld fusion potential and always the lowest weld porosity formation potential. Always remember that apart from attaining the highest manual or automated weld quality potential, TIP TIG will also always enables the lowest possible weld heat input. And now think about what that does for mechanicals, for corrosion, distortion, stresses and cracking concerns.
Please note when comparing TIP TIG with Pulsed MIG, that the TIP TIG welds not only provides much greater arc temperatures, the TIP TIG weld are also protected by an inert gas. So in contrast to MIG, with TIP TIG there are no CO2 or O2 reactions that always influence MIG weld porosity and MIG weld surface cleaning. Also with the Reverse Polarity (RP) Pulsed MIG weld, most of the MIG weld energy is highly focussed in the arc plasma, which is necessity to melt the MIG wire.
That MIG Reverse Polarity plasma energy concentration at the wire tip area of the plasma, results in high localized weld heat that has great influence on the MIG weld heat affected zones. In contrast with the electrode negative (EN) polarity TIP TIG process, the majority of the TIP TIG plasma energy is driven to the base metals and with the weld speeds attained, enables the lowest possible weld heat input which enables extraordinary weld and part metallurgical benefits as discussed below.
WHEN ITS EASY TO USE IT ENHANCES THE WELD QUALITY POTENTIAL: The following, relaxed, pipe root TIP TIG welder still uses on the root, the same walk the cup welder techniques as any TIG welder, however with fillet welds the TIP TIG welder will use weld techniques similar to MIG welds.
Question. Some may wonder how TIP TIG enables both the highest available arc weld energy while enabling the lowest weld heat capability?
Answer on weld energy. In contrast to a traditional DCEN TIG weld, the constant fed, smaller diameter TIP TIG weld wires typically enable a 100 to 400% increase in the TIG weld deposition rate capability. The increased weld deposition with the smaller TIP TIG weld wires enables increased TIG weld current to be used. As the TIP TIG weld wire and weld droplet transfer into the weld plasma provide minimal influence on the TIP TIG arc plasma energy and on the weld surface, therefore with the higher TIG weld current used, smaller wires utilized and more of the TIP TIG plasma affecting the fluid weld surface, the TIP TIG welds will provide greater weld energy than any other arc weld, and lets not forget the influence of the TIP TIG weld agitation which also helps slow down the weld solidification and adds to the weld fusion and reduced porosity capability.
For those weld shop managers and supervisors that care about looking for real world methods to reduce their weld shop labor costs, please note the TIP TIG increased weld deposition reduces DCEN TIG weld labor and weld gas costs typically in the range of 100 – 400%. Also in contrast to TIG, the weld wire costs are reduced typically by 15 – 25%.
Answer on Low Weld Heat. The increased TIP TIG weld deposition that’s possible on most parts > 1/16, (>1.6 mm), enables “higher TIG weld speed capability”. The faster TIP TIG weld speeds combined with DCEN polarity, (EN = work becomes large heat sink) enables extraordinary TIP TIG low weld and part heat that can provide extensive reductions in weld distortion and weld stresses. The low weld heat enables extraordinary weld & part metallurgical results that have never before been attained anywhere in the arc weld industry.
So today in most weld shops, we have traditional DCEN TIG with often slow weld travel rates of 1 to 5 inch/min that can create high weld & part heat, and we also have reverse polarity MIG and Gas Shielded Flux Cored that also provide high part heat, so these three arc weld processes typically end up with large weld heat affected zones.
In my next blog and in my TIP TIG self teaching / training program there is much data on TIP TIG welding alloys. And you will see why in 2019, that the TIP TIG process is the only global Arc weld process with it’s low weld heat ability that can weld most titanium parts > 3mm, without the use of a Gas Trailing Shield, and those titanium welds will meet any Aerospace, Defence. Oil or Nuclear weld quality requirements.
As most alloys and high strength steels are relevant for most global weld shops, and those alloys mostly attain their properties through heat treatment, why would any weld shop ignore an easy to use, ten year old process such as TIP TIG that always enables both the highest weld quality potential with the lowest possible weld joules.
I did the following untouched steel fillet weld.
Is your weld shop using more than one weld process
for root and fill passes?
Most global weld shops would consider choosing two arc weld processes for their open root and fill passes on pipe or plate welds. Processes such as TIG & Pulsed MIG or Stick & FCAW and TIG & FCAW or STT / RMD MIG & flux cored. Please remember that TIP TIG is optimum for all position roots and for all fill passes.
Irrespective of the weld automation or the manual welder’s skills utilized, with MIG, SMAW and flux cored, as NDT would reveal, there will often be process influenced weld fusion – weld slag – weld porosity issues, and with the inconsistent manual welder skills, the weld shops will typically anticipate some weld rework.
Of course the weld shop may may simply choose to do the pipe root and fill passes completely with the super slow, time consuming DCEN TIG process as any country’s Navy will attest, the weld defects mostly a result of the welders skills will still be an issue. In contrast, using my TIP TIG training program and the two simple TIP TIG weld settings that I recommend for any pipe or plate welds, the weld shop should anticipate using X-Ray evaluation, zero weld rework. The easy to use TIP TIG process will be highly cost effective for any pipe or plate fill passes with any pipe / plate wall thickness or any pipe diameter.
TIP TIG Small Tubes Heat Exchange.
Imagine the weld benefits on these small diameter heat exchange tubes when you don't have to feed a wire and don't need a foot control. These welds easily made were as good as the welds made with automated equipment and TIP TIG put in less weld heat.
From pipe to heat exchange tube welds, with minimal manual skills, the manual TIP TIG welds as below, should look like automated welds.
TIP TIG larger tube Heat Exchange welds.
Note with these untouched all position, manual TIP TIG welds. Note the weld continuity, the smallest possible weld HAZ, the optimum weld tie-ins, and a weld appearance that look like automated welds.
Weld Automation and more on TIG Arc Length Sensitivity.
Automated TIP TIG Weld Benefits. In contrast to pulsed MIG which is often used with automated welds, the TIP TIG automated welds will produce welds with much smaller weld Heat Affected Zones. The TIP TIG welds will enable the smallest possible weld distortion and stresses. The TIP TIG welds will have no spatter, no weld fusion, no porosity or fume concerns. TIP TIG welds with low oxidation potential will also be easier to clean. And for the first time in 70 years this sentence can be written about an arc weld process. With attention to weld placement, TIP TIG welds should not require weld rework.
So with regular DCEN TIG, its the the common low weld deposition rates with slow weld speeds and the restricted current content that’s based on those weld deposition rates, and also the TIG tungsten erosion that’s influenced by the large weld wire placed in close proximity to the tungsten tip along with the TIG arc length sensitivity, are the reasons that the traditional DCEN TIG process has often been a poor choice for automated weld applications which require filler metal, applications that don’t have automated arc length control equipment.
Why Arc Length Control equipment is not required with automated TIP TIG welds: In contrast to TIG, the TIP TIG process provides higher deposition rates usually 100 to 400% more weld that results in higher weld speeds that are better suited to weld automation investment. The higher TIP TIG deposition rates enable increased weld current, and the unique TIP TIG weld droplet transfer that enables more of the arc plasma to impact the surface weld energy are factors that assist in the electron flow which reduce arc length sensitivity concerns. With TIP TIG you are getting a multi-process from the use of a manual process, or very effective automated process.
TIP TIG easily adapted to robots.
Click here for my robot and manual MIG and TIP TIG weld process controls – best weld practice, self teaching / training programs
When I was the USA weld manager at ABB Robotics, one of the world’s largest Robot Mfg, companies, the engineers and I would not be comfortable with robot applications that required the traditional DCEN TIG process. The prime reasons for the discomfit was due to the TIG arc length sensitivity issues, the tungsten contamination, wear influence on the welds, the arc stability influences by electron flow issues, and also the typical slow weld speeds. A few years after I left ABB, I returned to their Colorado location introduced the ABB USA welding group to the TIP TIG process.
TIP TIG brings a unique process to welding robots.
Around 2010, a few years after I left the ABB Robot company, I went back to the ABB head office in Fort Collins CO, to provide their engineers and managers with a seminar on TIP TIG. The seminar was about the new unique robot weld application opportunities enabled with the TIP TIG process. During the workshop, I went step by step over why the TIP TIG process was unique and the weld and application feature benefits. I also pointed out how TIP TIG eliminated the normal TIG robot weld concerns. I pointed out to the ABB group that this new process was ideally suited to numerous, new robot applications, and would especially be beneficial with any code quality welds and on all high strength steels, low alloy steels and alloy applications. Think about those new robot Defense, Aerospace, Power and Oil – Gas applications.
The ABB engineers were impressed, however like many young weld engineers and managers from Ohio State and LeTourneau they also lacked arc weld process controls and weld application expertise, and so they lacked the confidence that was necessary for them to buy into marrying TIP TIG to their robots. However all was not lost, as eight years later, around 2017, some brighter ABB engineer or sales manager woke up to weld reality, and finally figured that TIP TIG would open up many more robot weld application opportunities, and therefore should be their arc weld process of choice when in contrast to DCEN TIG and Pulsed MIG, superior weld quality, superior weld & part mechanicals and the lowest possible part distortion was required.
Sometimes managers will lament. “Another big job coming up and we can’t find the necessary SKILLED TIG WELDERS”
With no wire to feed to the welds and no foot control required for controlling the weld amps, the TIP TIG job on the left is simplified, and let’s face it, the welder is much safer in that they can can hold on to the part while TIP TIG welding. The company wanted no spatter, no distortion, no fume concerns and no weld rework, that’s what they got.
TIP TIG dramatically reduces all position welder skills. A TIG welder needs a day to learn this process and about 10 hours with my TIP TIG self teaching / training course. Someone who has never TIG welded can in a week pass most all position code welder qualification tests. With TIP TIG another skill not required is the correct wire placement. The TIP TIG weld wire is always delivered into the arc plasma periphery sweet spot. Also as with MIG, the continuous fed TIP TIG weld wire drives the welders speed. With TIP TIG a foot control is not necessary, weld start and stop data is always optimum and delivered from the TIG power source with the torch trigger commands.
In contrast to any all position DCEN TIG, Pulsed MIG or Flux Cored welds, a five minute demo would show the weld shop how easy it is to use the TIP TIG process. Below, first time, TIP TIG rotated pipe weld reveals to the weld shop, pipe weld quality never before attained.
TIP TIG defects not allowed.
Can we produce welds that will meet the most stringent ASME NDT requirements and not require weld rework? For seven decades this not something that weld shops would want to hear when using traditional, manual arc weld processes. However with TIP TIG, it could be proven in minutes.
Think about the billions of dollars annually spent around the world on the costs associated with weld testing, weld rework and weld rejects.
If used correctly, TIP TIG is a weld process in which you should expect ZERO weld defects, and with the highest weld quality with lowest weld heat you should also always first time expect to attain the best mechanical and corrosion properties with all steels, alloy steels and alloy applications.
By the way, with my Self Teach or Training Materials, it would take you approx. 20 hours to become a weld process control – best weld practice expert in one of the following. Manual / Robot MIG, Flux Cored, Advanced AC/DC TIG Aluminum, and also with the DCEN TIP TIG process. Click here to take a look at the programs.
Nice to be able to put two hands on the TIP TIG torch, and
not be bothered by a foot control, weld spatter or fumes.
While the low deposition, regular DCEN TIG was often poorly suited for large size and thick applications, this has changed with TIP TIG. Weld applications any thickness > 1/16, applications big or small, the all position TIP TIG welds can typically be done with a couple of weld settings and with no weld cleaning, no distortion, no weld rework be cost effective. It’s also as above nice, to enable lower welding skills and be able guide the light torch with two hands, and not worry about weld fumes
Remember benefits from reduced weld preheat – interpass or postheat. By the way as a reminder, remember when you dramatically reduce weld heat input, it’s also likely you can eliminate inter pass weld temp and reduce or eliminate preheat and post heat. Of course you could ignore these game changing weld benefits, as as most do in 2019, continue to arc weld the way it’s been done since TIG was first introduced in the 1940s.
TIP TIG is much more than a “ONE OFF weld process solution for a companies weld problem.
Many of the few global TIP TIG sellers while exited by their TIP TIG sales growth will also be aware that in many instances, their TIG TIG units are purchased by weld shop as a one off weld process solution. For example, the weld weld shop may have a weld problem with a specific alloy like Titanium, Duplex or Hastelloy, or have a difficult, crack sensitive weld application that if weld repairs were required would result in costly rejects or weld rework. Of course, TIP TIG with it’s highest weld quality and lowest weld heat potential should provide the best possible weld solution. Meanwhile, in the same weld shop that purchased the TIP TIG unit, the primary weld processes used daily in the weld shop for the code quality welds continue to be traditional TIG, pulsed MIG or flux cored process. What most global weld shops often don’t realize, especially with manual or automated, all position, code quality welds on steels, alloy steels & high strength steels on 16 Gage to any thickness, is that TIP TIG is superior to all arc weld processes and can provide numerous, unique, game changing weld quality and weld cost benefits. By the way consider the new business opportunities that come with TIP TIG as any alloy welded with this process is as easy to weld as carbon steels.
2019. So now TIP TIG has been available for more than a decade:
 Consider TIP TIG when quality welds are required that will not require weld rework.
 Consider TIP TIG when the lowes weld distortion or stresses are a benefit.
 Consider TIP TIG if you are now using two weld processes for the part welded.
 Consider TIG TIG FOR when all position welds are required.
 Consider TIP TIG if you want the cleanest welds with lowest weld fumes.
DCEN TIG: Welds and Costs: TIG weld costs are rare discussion with a process that often produces welds at the speed of a turtle. It’s more likely the weld shop will be concerned about not having enough skilled TIG welders. So let’s take a look at TIP TIG weld costs. So below we have two weld shops bidding on a new five years code quality weld contract, they need compete with each other.
Shop One: USED TRADITIONAL TIG:
To get a welding project contract, shop one figures it needs to hire 10 DCEN TIG welders. The welders will mostly be welding on high strength steels and alloy steel, ASME code applications. Most of the parts TIG welded will be 3 to 25 mm thick. The project will last at least 5 years. The basic labor and power source budget for the shop one. Weld labor first year. 10 welders x $65.000 = $650.000/yr. Plus 10 Inverter DCEN TIG power sources, $7000 = $70,000. SHOP ONE first year labor costs plus weld equip.= $720,000. Remaining 4 years of TIG labor costs 4 x $650K = $2.6 million, plus year one costs of $720,000 for a total 5 year weld labor / equip. costs $3,320.000.
Shop two: BID ON THE WELDS USING TIP TIG:
This shop also is looking to bid on the above contact. These guys had progressive weld management that selected the TIP TIG process. With TIP TIG the weld shop can expect a minimum 300% increase in the TIG weld production obtained each hour. Shop TWO was going to bid on the job with three welders for the TIP TIG units. As much less welder skills are required with TIP TIG, it typically takes a few days to learn. The TIP TIG equipment costs were approx. $26,000 each = x 3 = $78,000.
Shop two employs 3 TIP TIG welders at an annual labor costs per-year of $195,000 + $78.000 equip. costs, = first year weld costs of $273,000. Shop two, 4 year labor costs x $195,000 = $780,000, plus year one costs $273,000. Shop two five year labor / equip costs $1,053.000.
Note, zero weld rework can be anticipated with TIP TIG, and also an approx. 300% reduction in the annual argon gas costs. I am aware of many defence, aerospace, power, oil and other high tech companies that employ in their global facilities hundreds of TIG welders each year, thanks to their poor management and engineering decision they don’t seem to mind throwing millions of dollars away every year.
Rarely discussed in weld shops. DCEN TIG Deposition rates.
Let’s say that manual TIG welder is welding pipe and using a common 3/32 steel or stainless TIG wire for the pipe vertical up fill passes. The welder typically would feed around 8 to 10 inch of the 3/32 wire length each minute. 8 inch/min of 3/32 wire is approx. 1 lb/hr. However with a manual DCEN TIG deposition of 1 lb/hr and an average arc on time of 20 min/hr, those TIG welders are typically depositing on average approx. 0.03 – 0.4 lb/hr.
In contrast to a manual TIG welder, a TIP TIG welder putting in the vertical up fill passes on any steel or alloy steel pipe would average with an 0.035 MIG reel, about 180 inch/min of wire or approx 2.5lb/hr. As TIP TIG is a Semi-automated or fully Automated TIG weld process, it would of course when used manually also increase the TIG arc on times dramatically.
While the manual DCEN TIG pipe welder is depositing 0.4 lb/hr, in contrast, with the manual TIP TIG pipe welds, and the increased arc on time of say 40 min/hr, the TIP TIG welders would typically deposit on average about 1.6 lb/hr, this simply means the TIP TIG welder is depositing 300% more TIG weld each hour than the regular TIG welder.
You don’t have to be a rocket scientist, to figure out that this simple weld cost comparison between a manual TIP TIG and manual TIG welder would have has major weld cost and labor requirement ramifications for any company that employs welders.
Confusion between Automated Hot Wire TIG & TIP TIG. In the last decade, while providing weld solutions for numerous plants, I found out that when discussing the merits of the unique TIP TIG weld process, that there was much confusion between the strictly Automated Hot & Cold Wire GTAW DCEN TIG processes, and the Manual – Automated TIP TIG process.
There are many different trade names automated Cold Wire (CW) TIG processes available, from my perspective they are a waste of money as they usually provide limited weld application value.
The reason for the ditain with the TIG Cold Wire processes is that the weld deposition rates attained is typically no more than what a manual TIG welder can attain on the same application. The CW processes are also arc length sensitive and arc outages during the weld are prevalent.
Typical Hot Wire TIG High Amp Clad Application.
HW always works better with high amps as the plasma is usually larger and more intense and therefore less arc length sensitive. With low to medium HW weld amp applications there is increased arc length sensitivity concerns with the faster weld freeze applications and they may require costly Automated Arc Length Equipment. Also on some applications the HW torch may require to attain it’s wire melt continuity, by feeding the weld wire into the rear of the arc, see video below.
In contrast to HW, with TIP TIG you have a process suited to both manual and automated, low to high current applications whereas Cold Wire is a waste of money and Hot wire is not suited to most manual welds. Take a moment to view the HW weld below.
Why TIP TIG could be ideal for Clad Welds. Many clad weld applications, will thanks to the weld dilution require two or three weld layers to get the desired chemistry which likely could be attained with one weld layer using TIP TIG.
How does TIP TIG enable optimum clad welds on many parts? TIP TIG enables very low weld heat and also without Arc Length Controls, enables fast weld speeds with rapid weld weave oscillation without concern for arc outages, The EN polarity, the fast weld speeds and rapid rate weld weaves can enable the lowest possible single pass weld dilution.
In contrast to HOT WIRE video above,
again take a close look at TIP TIG.
EVALUATING HOT OR COLD WIRE WELDS, PLEASE EXAMINE THE WELD WIRE SIZE USED, THE WIRE FEED RATE AND THEN WORK OUT THE WELD DEPOSITION:
With many thin wall applications < 1/4, < 6mm, when using HW or Cold Wire on all position pipe welds, take a look at the wire feed rates being achieved. Remember a manual TIG welder puts in a little more or less than one pound per/hr. That HW or Cold wire automated weld using an 0.023 steel wire maybe running in at approx. 140 inch/min. That sounds much more cost effective than the manual TIG welder feeding their 3/32 wire at 8 inch/min. However that 140 inch of 0.023 wire also provides a pound/hr. Or the HW weld maybe using an 0.030 steel wire running at approx. 80 inch/min again a pound/hr.
To help you work out wire size, feed rate to deposition, 70 inch/min of 0.035 (1mm) wire is approx. pound/hr. While 70 inches of 0.045 (1.2mm) wire, is approx. 2 pound an hour.
As you become more aware of the manual DCEN TIG and the automated DCEN Hot Wire TIG process limitations as revealed in this blog, you become more aware of why these processes simply cannot compete with DCEN. TIP TIG.
Today after more than 50 years in this business. and all I have to do is walk my dog, think and write about welding, I figured that a weld process comparison blog such as this, and access to my unique Weld Process Control self teaching / training programs on TIP TIG – Advanced AC/DC TIG – MIG / Flux Cored and Robot MIG welds, would be helpful for those few that are beginning to believe in the importance of weld process ownership and weld process controls – best weld practices.
Em in 2018.
Feb 4. 19. Ready for change. Contact Em at firstname.lastname@example.org. If you want a TIP TIG, flux cored, MIG or Robot MIG process control workshop, seminar or training at your organization, give me a call. 828 337 2695. For Em’s TIP TIG, or MIG and Flux cored Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Self Teaching / Training Programs.