The World’s Largest Web Site on MIG, Flux Cored, TIG and TIP TIG Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practices

Weld Reality

No, its not Hot or Cold Wire TIG, but it is TIP TIG the perfect  ARC weld process.

If you are not using TIP TIG for code quality welds, don’t worry,  like most others you are only a decade behind the times.

08- 31 -19: Welcome my name is  Emily  Craig, you will find at this web site in the above Programs section the following:

[]  Many of the issues generated by Miller, Lincoln, Panasonic, Motoman and ESAB faulty and unstable Pulsed MIG equipment.
[] Many reasons why you should not be using Pulsed MIG, and when to use Pulsed MIG.
[] The solutions to improve Robot MIG weld quality and productivity, and also  how to dramatically reduce robot down time.
[] Why most of the MIG Gas Mix compositions  sold are usually from the vivid imagination of a VP of gas marketing  executive who knows little about MIG.
[] There are optimum MIG and flux cored weld settings, techniques and practices to prevent weld defects and optimize weld productivity, do you know them?
[] The reasons why many experienced  MIG and flux cored weld personnel “play around” with their weld controls, and of course always the solutions.
[] Any weld shop that is using GTAW, Pulsed MIG or Flux Cored for code quality welds where internal weld quality is verified, has for a decade been making a costly weld quality mistake, see my TIP TIG section and comments below.
[] This is the only web site in the world that provides Arc Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practice data for front office weld process ownership, and provides the requirements for welders to always achieve  MIG – Flux Cored and TIG process optimization. These subjects may not be a topics discussed in most weld shop, however its a subject that over 35 years that I have  focused on  and developed  training programs for.  However few will listens to me, but they might want to listen  to the words Assistant Secretary of the Navy. This man is partially responsible for spending 205 billion dollars next year, and as you will read below,  PROCESS OWNERSHIP – PROCESS CONTROLS geared towards fabrication / welding improvements and cost reductions  are  subjects dear to his heart. See Navy below.

If  you were to traverse this web site over the last twenty years, or over the last 30 plus years read my process controls – best weld practice  – training books and materials, you would see a common repeating theme of;

[a] Lack of global weld management, engineering and supervision “arc weld process ownership”. 
[b] Lack of front office and weld shop MIG – Flux Cored, Advanced AC/DC TIG and now TIP TIG Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practice Expertise,
[c] An extremely global slow  weld shop evolution that’s kept the majority of weld shops embedded in the 20th Century. 

The too common lack of ability in many weld shops to produce consistent, optimum manual or robot arc weld quality is often influenced by the following: 

[1] The MIG and flux cored processes used in weld shops have two simple weld controls, been established for decades and  yet the daily, global weld rework, weld rejects and weld warranty, liability costs and concerns are staggering. The weld reality is the common lack of ability to attain, consistent  optimum weld quality at the lowest weld cost is simply a  result of lack front office and weld shop arc weld process controls – best weld practice  expertise that’s  necessary for  arc weld weld shop process optimization and front office weld process ownership. 

[2] The reliance of weld shops management / supervision  on local sales personnel to solve their weld shop issues, (reveals lack of management process ownership).

[3] A lack of front office understanding of manual MIG and Flux cored weld costs, and how to control and minimize those costs.

[4] An acceptance throughout the global weld industry for  outdated welder training methods that result in weld graduates playing around with weld controls and lacking  the ability to maximize the weld quality and productivity potential from the arc weld process and weld consumables utilized.

The Ship Building Industry has great potential to save millions of dollars monthly.  All it takes is for mangers, engineers and supervisors to learn process controls to take responsibility for Weld Process Ownership. Engineers are rarely  taught weld process control or best weld practices this if they and their managers and supervisors want it, my   MIG,  Flux Cored, Advanced AC/DC TIG and also TIP TIG Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Training or Self Teaching Materials will takes a few hours to learn, but this  missing link is the key to weld process optimization and ownership. 

For any ship yards, few hours of  training on  Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practices  and millions of dollars saved. However this does require CHANGE. 

Mr. J Geurts, the Assistant Navy Secretary for Research, Development and Acquisition,  spoke at a Defense One Tech Summit. The following summarizes  his points of view at the seminar…

Geurts. “The US Navy can’t build our future planned fleet and attain the 355-ship fleet goal required by our national strategy, unless it finds ways to dramatically reduce the ships and submarine build and repair costs”.  

Geurts.  When you see what’s happening to fabrication – weld – engineering costs here in North America , please remember that it was only a few years ago that the USA had the world’s most capable and cost effective shipyards. Today in North America when we look at our general lack of industry &  Navy Management / Engineering PROCESS OWNERSHIP, we need to go way beyond labor costs as the root cause of our mfg, / job demise. Perhaps we also should spend a little more effort to examine our engineering and fabrication Expertise and Capability

Note from Em. What Mr. Geurts  stated  above in  2019,  is what I have been saying  in my articles, web site, books and process control training resources for at least  35 years. I love the message delivered by Mr. Guerts,  but also  I hope he recognizes that the most resistant organization in the industrial world that is resistant to process change, would likely to be the NAVY..


From the Aerospace to the Defense industry, from Ship Yards to the Power industry, and  from something as diverse as the Automotive to the  Oil  industry, for more than three decades in over a 1000 weld shops I witnessed the common lack off  effective front office weld process ownership  and lack of shop floor weld process controls / best weld practice expertise. For those that grew grey hair or lost their hair  in the weld industry, most of you reading this will be aware  that the MIG – Flux Cored and DC TIG weld quality and productivity that will be  produced  in 2020, will  be little different than that  I attained  in 1960’s when I was MIG and FCA welding tractors at Massey Ferguson. Many of you that have had a diverse weld back ground would also recognize  that the following is also common for many global weld shops.

[a] Unnecessary inconsistent or  poor “arc” weld quality, weld production, weld rejects and rework that has changed little with the two control arc weld processes that are usually older than the welders using them.
[b] The too frequent frustrating  over  budget weld costs, welded  part warranty and liability concerns, especially at a time when most third world countries have attained the weld capability to bid on most global weld projects.
[c] The unwarranted concerns for hiring welders, and  the ridiculous old fashioned notions that it takes months to years to  train weld personnel, when the reality is it would take me takes me less than 20 days to teach none welders to master any arc weld process so that they could meet any code  welder qualification requirements.

Most Fortune 500 companies in 2019  are applying a less than optimum  20th Century approach to their weld quality, productivity and costs. One consequence  from the common lack of management and engineering process ownership  is the following common global weld shop attitude. 

In my visits to over a 1000 weld shops in 13 countries,  I heard this at 90% of them. 


Back in the 1960’s, at age 16,  I was in MIG  and flux cored welding tractors at Massey Ferguson in England. If you were to compare the weld shops from the 1960’s with weld shops today in 2019 the results may surprise many. As  I think about the 1000 plus weld shops in 13 countries that I was asked to resolve weld issues, well my weld reality is that  in most instances, it would be difficult to differentiate a  1960’s weld shop from the majority of the 2019 global weld shops I visited. One could ask what happened over the last 60 years to weld shop progress and the general lack of weld industry evolution?

2019..Perhaps you will recognize some of the following, and please remember, that the MIG and flux cored weld process information that dominates  this site, is dealing with arc welding processes that have two simple weld controls, two processes that have changed little in decades, two processes that daily account for approx. 90% of the global arc welds produced daily.

[] In 1960’s, MIG and flux cored welders “played around” with the two  weld controls and rarely used best weld practices, (prevalent today).
[] In 1960’s, few front office weld decision makers could quickly work out the cost of a common MIG or flux cored weld, (prevalent today).
[] In 1960’s. front office, weld management rarely understood either the weld quality or productivity potential of MIG and flux cored, (prevalent today).
[] In the 1960’s, irrespective of the welders skills, few weld shops understood the relationship of the arc weld processes utilized and the weld defects generated.
[] In 1960’s, weld shop decision makers usually relied extensively on a weld salesman for weld advice, even tho the salesman had rarely worked in a weld shop, (prevalent today).
[] In 1960’s, weld shops were confused about MIG gas mix selection and many bought into useless  three part MIG gas mixes, (prevalent today).
[] In 1960’s, weld shops and front office personnel did not understand the importance of they and their employees having weld process controls and best weld practice expertise,  (still prevalent today).
[] In 1960’s, weld inspectors spent their days revealing and reporting on weld defects without the knowledge to help prevent weld defects, (nothing changed).
[] In 2019, global community Colleges and Universities that teach welders and engineers  are  too often using weld courses similar to those developed in 1960’s. I don’t know of any global weld education facility that teaches their students weld process controls – best weld practice  expertise. 

Of course weld shop improvements, process optimization  and  weld & fabrication evolution should start in the weld shop’s front office with the managers, engineers and supervisors leading the weld quality and productivity enhancement changes, however thanks to the common  global lack “arc weld process controls & best weld practice expertise” and reliance by the weld decision makers on weld salesman, weld progress with many of  those that use the world’s most common arc weld processes such MIG, DC TIG and Flux cored has been stuck in the 20th Century. 


Few weld shops will be aware that in 2019, that if a company welds Stainless, Stellite, Duplex, Hastelloys, Titanium, Invar, Nickel alloys, Brass, High Strength Low Alloy Steels, High Carbon Steels and many Aluminum  or Carbon steel code weld applications, and they are utilizing GTAW (TIG), Pulsed MIG  or  traditional CV MIG on parts over 1/16 (>1.6 mm) thick, that with the majority of their weld applications, for more than a decade, they have been using  outdated arc weld processes and  providing inferior weld quality and often reduced weld productivity. See the TIP TIG weld below and there is extensive info on this important process at my  TIP TIG section, link at top of page.

Single pass, untouched  TIP TIG weld.

2019: It does not matter if  semi-automatic manual TIP TIG,  or automated TIP TIG is utilized, the welds will usually look similar. Examine closely the above “untouched”  TIP TIG weld. Note the weld quality consistency and also the lack of  weld face oxidation, no brush cleaning used, and also note with this large single pass weld, the small  weld HAZ that enables superior weld & part mechanical properties and the lowest weld distortion potential. Ten years ago, your weld shop could have been producing stainless, duplex high strength steels or alloy  steel manual or automated welds that look like this?


Any global  weld shop would be wasting it’s time trying to duplicate this single pass, TIP TIG untouched 5/6 (8 mm) fillet. 


2019: TIP TIG IS AN ARC WELD  PROCESS THAT DELIVERS WHAT MOST GLOBAL WELD SHOPS CAN’T DELIVER: I made the above TIP TIG fillet around 2008. Anyone  that understands arc welds would look at my  TIP TIG fillet weld and note the unusual weld color that reveals very low oxidation that’s been derived from  low localized weld heat (rapid weld heat dispersion). Also note the small weld heat affected zones that also reveals the  low weld heat input.  Someone might  also note  the evident surface weld fluidity and straight edges of the fillet weld toe tie-ins that suggests the weld was made with the high weld energy that enables the required weld  fluidity required for optimum weld fusion. 

ITS NOT LIKE ANY OTHER ARC WELD PROCESS:   So it would seem that  with TIP TIG, that we have what I call, an “oxymoron arc weld process.” Its a unique weld process that delivers both high weld energy  & low  part heat. The unique TIP TIG  arc weld & energy distribution attributes simply cannot be attained with pulsed MIG, Flux Cored,  AC/DC TIG or the Hot Wire TIG process. TIP TIG is so different than any other arc weld process that  it can even weld many titanium applications without using a gas trailing shield, (see video in my TIP TIG section). By the way, this last statement is one that you would think that anyone who welds alloys would get exited about. The weld reality is the engineering apathy about this process is sad, and the silence is deafening.

When arc weld  process control expertise is lacking,  many weld decision makers look to “sales influenced weld solutions”.

The  definition of weld process ownership for many weld shop managers, engineers  and supervisors is “relying on a weld salesman.” 

In the frequent “PLAY AROUND” with weld controls industry, many weld shops will often purchase   electronic MIG power source typically  loaded with useless bells and whistles, or consider the latest magic three part gas mix, (crutch) to solve the never ending daily weld quality – productivity issues. The  common lack of  arc weld process controls – best weld practice expertise plays a major role in the hundreds of millions of dollars that each day result from unnecessary manual weld rejects, rework and grinding. And lets also not forget the majority of the global automotive / truck plants that  daily fails to consistently  attain  the highest possible  weld quality and productivity  potential from their  robots.

BEEN THERE, DONE THAT: As someone who over too many decades provided manual and robot weld process improvements and implemented best weld practices in over 1000 companies in 13 countries, I know a thing or two about who has the primary influence on the daily welds being produced in weld shops.  And the weld reality in the majority of companies that I visited was that the front office and weld shop floor process ownership was  none-existent. You will find this lack of process ownership message theme repeats numerous times throughout this site. Its a message that I have been preaching and writing about for decades, and yes, I do wonder in this highly competitive industry, when the majority of global “weld decision makers” will wake up to the low cost, weld process controls – best weld practice methods that would enable their companies to consistently attain the highest possible arc weld quality and productivity, always of course at the lowest possible weld costs.

I MADE SETTING OPTIMUM WELD PARAMETERS EASY TO LEARN & REMEMBER. While front office personnel watch their MIG welders play  around with the 60 year old, two control MIG process, it may surprise them  to hear that MIG welding has never been a  grey technology.  From my perspective there are specific rules and  optimum practices that apply to the process, the weld transfer modes, the consumables  and  the applications.

Please note: No matter what a persons weld expertise or background is, my Arc Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practice Self Teaching / Training Programs have been both simplified and condensed, however they takes approx. 12 –  15 hours to learn. Surely instead of listening to another weld  salesman, or spending time putting out weld shop fires and  sitting in those long winded weld team meetings  in which too frequently there will be incorrect weld process opinions and solutions provided for  the daily weld process issues. It has to be logical that from the front office to the weld shop floor, that all the companies weld decision makers are provided with the manual or robot arc weld  process controls and best weld practice expertise, ensuring they all walk the same path to weld process optimization. This will have an immediate positive impact on any companies weld quality and productivity.

I FIRST WROTE THIS ON MY WEB SITE IN 1999. “THE WELD TEAM”:  Many weld teams in large organizations are typically comprised of a number of  unqualified individuals who sit around a table and too often provide  incorrect  weld process opinions and solutions for their never ending manual and robot  arc welding problems. The fact that plant has not employed one individual capable of of solving the plants manual or robot weld issues is an indication  that the plant management  & engineers lack the required process ownership expertise that in reality at least one individual should have and they would pass that expertise on to all those in the plant that make weld decisions.

For the price of a good executive dinner for four consider. my  Manual or Robot, MIG,  Flux Cored, Advanced AC/DC TIG and also TIP TIG Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Training or Self Teaching Materials. Yes it takes a few hours, but this is your missing link to weld process optimization and ownership.

Note: An effective weld team would be comprised of the key weld decision maker, (based on their weld process control expertise),  an engineering manager, a maintenance and production manager, these are experts that should  take ownership for the welds, fixtures,design or part  issues . 

Of course its time for  a bloody change, the weld specifications & procedures we use were written in 1985.

2019: For the last 30 years, with my seminars, books, articles and this web site, my stand alone, often unappreciated  message to weld shops has been constant. “A major missing link found throughout much of the global weld industry, is the lack of weld process control – best practice  expertise that’s necessary for front office, engineering and supervision  to attain weld process ownership”.

GLOBAL WELD DECISION MAKERS MAY WANT TO REVIEW THE FOLLOWING:  If  weld decision makers  wanted to  enhance their companies weld quality and productivity, rather than listening to a weld salesman or  watching their welders or technicians play around with their MIG or flux cored weld controls, they could ask the following. 

[1] Why  the general lack of front office comprehension on what weld process controls and best weld practices could achieve for the weld shop?
[2] Why the general lack of front office, management, engineering and supervision weld process ownership?
[3] Why the general front office reliance on weld sales advice for the weld shop issues?
[4] Why the general front office acceptance that its OK for their weld personnel to  “play around” with their MIG and flux cored weld controls”?
[5] Why is the QA/QC department and personnel focus on finding rather than on preventing the occurrence of weld defects?
[6] Why the acceptance of  large expenditures on grinding consumables & grinding labor costs to attain the weld quality desired?
[7] Why the general front office lack of ability to work out MIG and flux cored costs of the common welds daily produced  in the weld shop?
[8] Why for decades has there been a general lack of weld equipment standardization in weld departments?
[9] Why the purchase of costly pulsed MIG equipment for steel welds, equipment that’s often loaded with useless electronic bells and whistles? 
[10] Why the
purchase of useless three part gas mixes and the confusion over two part gas mixes ?
[11] Why are companies welder training programs often inadequate?
[12] Why do most  community colleges  that train welders and and universities that train engineers provides graduates that have to  “play around with MIG and Flux Cored  weld controls? (Weld process controls – best weld practice education is rare at most education facilities).
[13] Why do few front office weld decision makers have the ability to attain the full MIG – Flux Cored productivity potential from either their manual welders or from their robots. 

When you have a moment also check out this sites “all program page”  where you will find a wealth of practical weld programs that deal with the weld issues in most weld shops and also provide the resolutions for most manual and ROBOT MIG and Flux Cored arc welds that have been occurring for decades. 

OPTIMUM MIG WELDS ARE ALWAYS SIMPLIFIED WITH OPTIMUM MIG DATA AND BEST WELD PRACTICES. As viewed below, I quickly taught my friends  11 year old nephew on how to set the optimum MIG weld data to weld the Imperial Oil  Nat Gas pipe  root (test samples) below. Once I had taught this young man the MIG process controls to set  the optimum MIG root settings, I  quickly taught him  the best MIG pipe root weld practices. Then all it took was his  steady hand to provide an optimum pipe MIG root weld. Please remember  that welder while welder skills and length of experience are the prime requirements for most weld shops that its weld  process controls and best weld practice expertise that are too often the weld shop missing links and the important keys necessary to daily, consistently produce the best possible MIG or flux cored weld quality and productivity with always of course the lowest weld costs. 

From welding cars or pipes, when the welder  does not have MIG or Flux cored Weld Process Controls and best weld practice expertise, they will play around with the weld controls  and may use practices that will enhance the opportunity for weld defects.

Anyone can hold a MIG or Flux Cored  weld gun, its what the welders know about weld process optimization requirements that  makes them a weld professional  and enables the highest weld quality & productivity, always of course while attaining the lowest weld costs.

Many welding personnel who have welded for decades are not aware  that welder skills are only a small part of being a weld professional. Both welders and anyone that makes weld decisions should have a comprehensive understanding of the weld processes and consumables utilized and the necessary weld process controls and best weld practice expertise for process optimization, now that’s when you have a real weld professional.

For those interested in my self teaching or training resources that can enable anyone to fully understand the manual or robot weld process controls and best weld practices for MIG, Flux  Cored, Advanced AC/DC TIG and  TIP TIG, they are here.

HOW MANY DECADES DO WE HAVE TO WAIT BEFORE WELD SHOPS THEY FIGURE IT OUT? Robot MIG welding high volume, thin gauge or  thicker steel parts in auto. or truck plants, or providing Manual MIG and flux cored welds on bevel plates or pipes in a shipyard, and  at the other end of the spectrum, welding parts that will go on a rocket to Mars, few global weld departments will daily achieve consistent, optimum, manual or automated arc weld quality & productivity. And even fewer are producing their welds  at the lowest weld costs, It was this way in 1960’s, and its still this way in 2017 when I was  providing weld process and design advice on parts for the Orion spaceship that will one day likely end up on both  the Moon and Mars. 


In most of the auto. – truck  plants that I was requested to resolve their robot weld issues, in my role as weld Manager for ABB Robots North America, and later in my role as a weld process improvement consultant, when assisting companies such as  VW, Toyota, GM, Ford or Chrysler and most North American Tier One suppliers,  apart from evaluating and training the plant’s robot technicians, I used to also evaluate the plant management & engineers response to  their robot weld issues. In general no matter what auto plant I visited in 13 countries, the production and plant management simply wanted me to  provide  a quick robot cell fix and typically the front office personnel showed little interest in either the cause of robot weld issues or in the resolutions. 

SOMETHING IS WRONG WHEN ENGINEERS HAVE TO RELY ON ROBOT TECHNICIANS TO SOLVE THE ROBOT WELD ISSUES. It used to amuse me that while working in the auto plants, when I heard the production stopped  alarm go off, this would frequently indicate a robot weld line had stopped often due to a robot  weld issue.  The common  global reaction from many  of the engineers and supervisors who were on the floor at the time of the alarm , would be  to reach into their pockets,  pull out a cell phone and request help from the under-trained robot technicians or from maintenance personnel. From my perspective, this was often ironic as the robot technicians and maintenance  personnel like the engineers and supervisors usually had never been provided with robot weld process controls – best weld practice training.


In my world, weld process ownership starts with the responsible weld  managers, engineers and supervisors, their expertise should enable them to be able recognize that from the never ending manual or robot weld issues, and from the too often lack of effective actions that are derived from their engineers, supervisors  and technicians, that their organization lacks either manual or  weld  process control expertise, and that they have the responsibility to provide it.

I will need some time to “play around” with those MIG or  flux cored weld controls. To a professional mfg. management, this  should be an indication of  what? 

How can robot  MIG weld cells attain their weld quality or productivity potential from  “play around” with weld controls robot technicians, or  from  managers, engineers and supervisors that lack the unique robot or manual weld process control expertise necessary for weld process ownership.  

2019: For more than  20 years, this web site has been the only global site that  provides weld decision makers with the requirements for Weld Process Ownership. If you are looking for Self Teaching or Training  Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practice resources to consistently attain optimum weld quality and productivity with any Manual or Robot  MIG, TIG, Flux Cored or TIP TIG  weld application, click below.

I condensed it and  simplified it so its easy to memorize it. And you can get it here.
My manual & ROBOT MIG – Flux Cored – Advanced AC/DC TIG  and the Unique TIP TIG Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Training and Self Teaching Materials.

In the weld industry an  easy thing to always find is  BS.

Only a used car salesman would provide more bovine fecal matter.

2019: Pulse on Pulse, Triple Pulse on Pulse, Magic AI Pulse and whats sure to be coming soon to your weld shop,  BS Pulse, in the last three decades, while the cost of traditional CV MIG equipment was driven down as a result of more countries making the MIG equipment, most global weld equipment manufacturers or weld distributor reps have been aggressive in their promotion of  the much more costly, electronic, pulsed MIG Inverter  units.

When selling the Inverter pulsed MIG units for steels and alloy steel welds, the weld distributor rep may state that the justification for his companies pulsed MIG Inverter technology is the weld power source  “can reduce weld spatter”. In the video below I was attaining optimum, spatter free, MIG Short Circuit (SC) welds approx. 40 year ago. The 40 year old short circuit weld weld produced  below was made with  a  traditional low cost CV MIG unit  and optimum SC parameters. CV MIG units such as this ,typically in 2019 would cost approx. two to three  thousand dollars, about 30 to 50%  the cost of the  Inverter pulsed MIG units.

A WELD REALITY FROM SOMEONE WHO HAS BEEN EVALUATING THE MIG PROCESS & EQUIPMENT SINCE THE 1960’s. Some of you may remember before the introduction of portable phones and laptops, that I invented  the Pocket Welder around  1988. In 2019, I have been evaluating pulsed MIG equipment from around the world for more than three decades. In contrast to CV MIG units the more costly  Inverter  MIG units when purchased in 2019 for gauge to thick steels and alloy steels welds will usually offer a variety of useless, costly electronic bells and whistles options. These pulsed options usually  add to the weld shop process confusion. The pulsed mode on steels also provides less weld fusion potential on parts > 5 mm. Inverter  pulsed MIG power sources have a much shorter weld equipment life than a CV unit,  and typically require much higher weld equipment repair costs. There are numerous examples of pulsed weld and equipment in this web site and in my books and training resources. 

Spatter free CV MIG welds for short circuit gauge, or for spray transfer thick steels steels have been available with good MIG equipment since the nineteen sixties. Its unfortunate that the majority of weld shop decision makers  on the weld shop floor or in the front office have  rarely been aware of the optimum MIG short circuit or spray weld settings and the best weld practices. This is part of weld process controls expertise.

Controlled MIG Short Circuit  weld without spatter 1975.


Those with MIG weld process control expertise would be aware with any MIG transfer mode and wire diameter, the weld parameters required to attain the Short Circuit, Spray Transfer or Pulsed mode “sweet spot” .  It has to be  far more cost effective for any weld shop for its employees to know optimum MIG or flux cored  weld settings and best weld practices, than it is to waste money on MIG equip. electronic bells and whistles not needed in the weld shop. This is part of process ownership.

The above video shows the optimum Short Circuit (SC) transfer sweet spot using an 0.035 (1 mm) steel wire and a low cost, 1978  CV. MIG power source. Note as the SC wire feed, amps and volt parameters selected were optimum, the lack of weld spatter. Thin or thick metals, Short Circuit or Spray, the MIG weld reality has for decades been, that there was no need for anyone to purchase  a sophisticated electronic MIG power source when welding  steels and alloy steels, and this  still applies today in 2019. Now MIG aluminum, yest there is justification for those electronics.   

The MIG Short Circuit  sweet spot is when using a specific MIG wire diameter, the most attainable short circuits are attained in a second. For example the 0.035 (1 mm) wire feed set at approx. 210 ipm (10 o’clock) results typically around 140 amps with 17 volts and these parameters create the SC sweet spot that results in the rapid, consistent, constant crackle sound welders are familiar with, (they often get there after playing around with the weld controls). 

Manual MIG Question: If you are a weld decision maker please provide the Short Circuit,  0.045 (1.2 mm) steel wire feed rate, amps and volts that are necessary to attain the SC sweet spot condition using  an argon – 20 to 25%  CO2 mix. And with this MIG setting and  a 30 minute per-hour arc on time, how much of the MIG weld wire would the weld shop  need for a 10 hour shift?

Manual MIG Question:  This is a question you could ask the experienced MIG welders in your shop. What is the minimum current and wire feed rates to attain Spray transfer with 0.035. (1 mm) and 0.045 (1.2 mm) steel MIG wire? 

Robot MIG Question: Inconsistent  robot MIG weld arc starts are common in robot cells welding steel parts, and the cause of the weld start issues is often the formation of a glob on the wire tip and each welds completion. What MIG weld weld parameters will ensure this issue will never occur.
Note: As a result of lack of front office and engineering robot MIG weld process control expertise in the auto. & truck industry, the average robot down time (loss of production) in a shift is approx. one hour. A frequent common management solution to the robot down time and to robot weld rework, purchase more robots and  put more manual workers on the robot lines.


As you traverse the MIG, Flux Cored and TIG info at this  site, which by the way could take many months,  please remember that for approx. six to seven decades, the majority of global weld shops have been accustomed to watching their experienced skilled weld personnel “play around” with the two simple controls on their MIG equipment.  These are  the same weld shops that employ managers, engineers and supervisors that often rely on  weld advice from a weld sales person who has likely never run or even worked a weld shop.  The same weld decision makers who often believe that the solutions to their daily manual or automated MIG and flux cored weld issues will come with the purchase of another new electronic MIG power source, a new special three part MIG gas mix, or perhaps from a new (not necessary) costly metal cored wire.


If a weld shop is thinking about purchasing the latest Inverter Pulsed MIG unit for steels or alloy steel welds, or perhaps considering the purchase of an Advanced electronic AC/DC TIG weld power source, the process resources at this site not only focus on the weld process controls and the best weld practice expertise that enables weld personnel to fully control the arc weld  equipment, the info also enables weld decision makers to cut through the sales hype that continues to surround MIG – TIG  weld equipment.


2019: Yes after 70 years, DCEN TIG did evolve, perhaps you missed the evolution when it occurred  10 years ago.

SLOW WELD SHOP EVOLUTION IN 2019 INDICATES WHAT?  In most of the global weld shops that weld  code quality parts,  during the last decade, you would have found manual welders that when  welding on alloy steel parts > 1/4, (>6.4 mm), were likely using one of the following; 

[a] the outdated Gas Shielded Flux Cored process, (a process that creates slag – porosity – worm-tracks and weld fusion issues).
[b] the outdated  DCEN TIG process, (a process that requires the highest welder skills, slowest weld speeds and high weld heat).
[c] the outdated  Pulsed MIG process that when used on steels and alloy steels > 5 mm thick, can contribute to lack of weld fusion and porosity.

I would like to welcome the weld shops that use the above weld processes to to the 21st Century, and introduce them to a unique weld process that I bought to N. America and Australia in 2009 , its called TIP TIG and in a 30 minute demo I could show any weld shop the following.

In contrast to DCEN TIG,  Pulsed MIG, & Gas Shielded Flux Cored process, TIP TIG will always provide the following;
[] TIP TIG always enables the highest possible  weld quality.
[] TIP TIG always enables the best possible metallurgy results.
[] TIP TIG always provides the best possible  mechanical properties.

[] TIP TIG always will provide the best possible  corrosion properties.
[] TIP TIG always will enable the lowest weld distortion potential.
[] TIP TIG enables least cracking potential & highest impact properties.
[] TIP TIG produces the least oxidation potential, does not even require a gas trailing shield on many titanium welds.
[] TIP TIG from a welder skills perspective, is the easiest process for any all position welds. 
[] TIP TIG enables extensive reductions in VEE groove angles, providing  dramtic reductions in weld consumables and weld labor costs.
[] TIP TIG always produces the least weld fumes.
[] TIP TIG should enable no grinding.
[] TIP TIG should always enable the lowest weld rework potential.
[] TIP TIG on any metal enables the best weld fusion capability with the lowest weld porosity.
[] TIP TIG eliminates the need for multi-processes as its the best process for any pipe root and fill and its a process easily automated.

This web site and also the TIP TIG weld process controls – best weld practice Self-teaching / Training resources, provides more information on how TIP TIG is far superior than the MIG, Pulsed MIG, Gas Shielded Flux Cored and Advanced DCEN TIG process.

A well run weld shop first requires that front office weld decision makers & their welders, understand the requirements of weld process ownership. Weld Process Ownership by both the front office and weld shop would enable all the weld decision makers to walk the same path to the daily requirements that are necessary for MIG, flux cored and TIP TIG weld quality & weld productivity optimization.   

PULSED MIG & WELD PROCESS AWARENESS ISSUES IN 2018: : The pulsed MIG weld  process has been available for more than three decades, and there is no doubt that an Inverter pulsed MIG power source can provide many weld benefits for specific aluminum weld applications <1/4, (alum. requires less weld energy than steels and alloy applications). However, over the three decades in which I evaluated the pulsed MIG process on hundreds of manual and robot applications, with most of  the USA, Japanese and European pulsed MIG equipment I would find numerous electronic issues,  weld transfer stability issues and weld energy issues that would influence the weld  quality and productivity on steels and  alloy steels.

2019: In my 600 page. “Management and Engineers guide to MIG”  book that I wrote approx. two decades ago, in one section I wrote close to a 100 pages on how in contrast to regular CV MIG and Spray transfer, Pulsed MIG will on many steels and alloy steel weld applications > 5 mm, negatively impact the weld quality and productivity. The irony is that the pulsed MIG issue information that I provided then, is still relevant today. The book and my other weld process controls – best weld practice  self teach / training resources are found in the following link. 

Manual and Robot MIG – Flux Cored – Advanced AC/DC TIG  and the Unique TIP TIG Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Training and Self Teaching Materials.

MILLIONS OF WELD ISSUES  CAUSED BY THE PULSED MIG WELD EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS WHO FOR APPROX. TWO DECADES  NEVER TOOK OWNERSHIP FOR THEIR POOR PERFORMING PULSED MIG EQUIPMENT… Over the 30 plus years of  the erratic Pulsed MIG power source evolution, most of the global major MIG equipment manufacturers such as Miller, Lincoln, ESAB and Panasonic had major electronic issues with their pulsed MIG equipment. The electronic issues in the pulsed MIG equipment would  negatively affect the pulsed weld transfer stability and weld-ability. Also the Pulsed MIG mode with it’s low back ground weld current requirement, and depending on the wire feed rate, often excess peak current requirement, would influence either consistency the weld fusion, the weld deposition rate potential for the application, the weld transfer stability  and frequently the weld end crater fill capability. The pulsed MIG units from thirty years ago and still in 2019 are usually loaded with many useless electronic bells and whistles that not only influence the equipment costs, they add to the process confusion , create weld procedure longevity concerns, influence the pulsed MIG equipment life, and create costly MG weld equipment repairs. Note: The average Pulsed MIG equipment repair costs are frequently greater than the purchase cost of a new CV MIG power source.

Its never taken much technology to continuously melt a wire, after all two car batteries can  make a MIG weld, 

For decades, most of the pulsed MIG equipment purchased for steel or alloy steel welds, was not as a result of superior MIG equipment weld performance, but was as a result of the general, global front office and weld shop lack of  process controls – best weld practice expertise. This again is the prime reason for most weld shop front office’s reliance on weld sales advice.

2019: It was the electronics in the pulsed MIG Inverter power source that enabled improved communication, (rarely improved steel weld transfer characteristics)  between the power source with robots. So the often inferior MIG Inverter equipment in robot cells welding steels quickly became the standard with robot sales, especially in the automotive industry, which by the way is an industry that in general has rarely employed mangers, engineers and technicians that understood, and even today after almost 4 decades of MIG robot cells,  understand the robot MIG weld process controls – best weld practice requirements necessary to attain the best possible robot weld quality and productivity, with the least possible robot down time.  

YOUR COMPANY  BOUGHT THE ERRATIC PERFORMING PULSED  MIG EQUIPMENT, SO THE POWER SOURCE PROBLEMS  ARE NOW YOURS: It’s sad to report that over the decades that I dealt with  numerous pulsed MIG weld  equipment and weld process issues in numerous companies throughout 13 countries, that as far as I am aware, none of the major pulsed MIG  power source manufactures ever  recalled or informed their global weld customers that had purchased their pulsed MIG equipment, of the electronic induced  problems that were occurring with their pulsed equipment. For decades, the weld equipment manufacturers must have been aware of some of the pulsed MIG weld transfer issues with steel welds, as they were forever changing the power sources model names or continuously changing the the power source E PROMS and circuit boards.   

2019 PULSED MIG AND WELD REALITY: When welding > 3/16 steels and alloy steels, after a 30 year period of pulsed equipment evolution, today’s $6,000 to $15,000 pulsed MIG units can not deliver a superior weld than that delivered  from the much lower cost, CV MIG equipment that’s using Spray Transfer. It’s a sad commentary that in 2019, few of the global weld shops that utilize MIG equipment, will be aware of  the pulsed weld fusion & weld porosity issues that are influenced by the pulsed transfer.

So thanks to the poor  pulsed MIG weld equipment performance and often unstable pulsed weld transfer characteristics, for more than  three  decades I made a good living fixing manual and robot pulsed MIG steel weld issues at hundreds of companies in 13 countries. Often my weld solution was to switch the pulsed MIG mode off and establish a CV MIG Short Circuit or Spray weld instead. Many of my pulsed MIG equip. experiences are printed in both the pulsed MIG and robot sections of this site. However I would at this time especially thank the senior executives at Lincoln, Miller, ESAB,  Motoman and  Panasonic for providing their poor performing pulsed MIG equipment, as let’s face it, their pulsed equipment and pulsed weld screw ups,  provided a good living for my family.

What does the MIG equip. mfg. do as a solution to their poor performing, pulsed power source, sometimes like Miller they change the model name and then add more useless, electronic bells and whistles?

Talk about useless electronic power source bells and whistles, this is Ed in Spain in the robot cells fixing one of the many Miller Axcess pulsed MIG power source weld issues. He is  adjusting the robot MIG parameters using the ridiculous Miller hand held palm PDA control that for the Tier 1 auto. client added nothing to the weld quality – productivity capability.

By the way, as I spent more than three decades at many Fortune 500 companies, fixing hundreds of manual and robot MIG weld issues that were  usually influenced by the poor performing pulsed MIG equipment from the major  U.S, Japanese and European MIG equipment mfgs. You would at least think that Lincoln,  Miller, ESAB, Panasonic and Motoman executives could at least include me in their Xmas card list, and send me a bottle of wine to thank me for solving the weld problems that were being caused by the equipment they built. 

Pulsed MIG Question:  So while we are aware that pulsed MIG is an effective arc weld process for aluminum, could you provide two reasons why not to use pulsed MIG  on  5356 aluminum parts thicker than 1/4,  (6 mm).  This info. is  part of weld process control expertise, and the type of info obtained in my training programs. 

Surely if you are a weld decision maker, it would be beneficial to know with steels, alloy steels and especially with aluminum welds, when to switch from Pulsed MIG to regular MIG Spray, or for example why you would  use TIP TIG instead of  pulsed MIG, flux cored or DCEN TIG. They should post the following in the offices and meeting rooms at any facility that utilizes  the manual or robot MIG or flux cored weld process.

“Those in this organization that  have an opinion on the MIG, Flux Cored  weld process, and lack the weld process controls & best weld practice expertise that’s necessary to consistently enable the highest weld quality,  lowest weld defects and lowest weld costs for this organization, would be wise especially in the weld team meetings, to keep their mouths shut”.

The irony about this process control expertise is that it doesn’t matter what a person’s career background is, to get the required  weld process control – best weld practice expertise, would take about 20 to 30 hours using one of my easy to learn programs.

Manual and Robot MIG – Flux Cored – Advanced AC/DC TIG and the TIP TIG Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Training and Self Teaching Materials.

You can have the most innovative car or truck designs,  and purchase the most costly robot weld automation equipment  to weld the parts, but as most automotive management found out the hard way, if  companies don’t  ensure  that their workers and front office personnel responsible for the welds have robot MIG or resistance weld process control – best weld practice expertise, those front office employees become firemen, forever chasing weld shop fires but lacking the ability to quench them. As for the  robot weld technicians, well they simply become “play around” with the weld controls experts.

Something all managers and engineers should be concerned about, without weld process controls and best weld practices few of  the costly robots purchased will consistently attain their full weld quality and  productivity potential.

All it takes for  Tesla and  other global auto, truck manufacturers  plenty of  dollars to fill  state of the art factories with  robots that will stand silent waiting for humans  to deliver something that few of the robot managers, engineers and technicians have, “robot weld process controls – best weld practice expertise”. 

Programming a MIG welding robot is one expertise that can be learnt in a few weeks,  but something that most Tier One managers, engineers, supervisors and especially their young robot technicians neglect,  is that to attain consistent robot weld optimization requires robot CV MIG and Pulsed MIG weld process controls and best weld practice expertise. It took me 30 plus years to nail it, and my self-teaching weld process control programs will take anyone  approx. 15 – 20 hours.

MORE ON TESLA & THE AUTO INDUSTRY: In  2017 and Elon Musk the owner of TESLA,  the  guy that owns  Spacex, was unfortunately here on the planet Earth, paying a steep  price for his and his manager and engineers, lack of robot weld process controls – best robot weld  practice lack of expertise. 2
017: Something Elon would likely not have been aware of when  he thought he was hiring the cream of the crop managers from Detroit for  his California Tesla electric car mfg. facility, was that for decades, throughout the global auto-truck industry, MIG Weld, Paint plus Resistance welds “process controls – best practice expertise” has been almost none existent. 

It did not matter if it was robot or manual arc welds,  the most difficult thing to find in the front office was someone who truly owns the weld process.

From Em: If  Mr. Musk had spent  a ten minute visiting this 20 year old web site, he would have been forewarned  about the general, global auto / truck middle & upper management, lack of process control  expertise and ownership.  For those of you that are confused about weld experience versus  weld process control expertise please note.  I don’t know how many times  I heard this in manufacturing facilities. “But Ed why would our welders need process control – best practice training most have been MIG welding for 20 plus years.” Welders skills and length of welding experience  have nothing to do with the required manual or robot  weld process controls and best weld practice expertise, this is the missing link and even today in 2019 most weld engineers are not taught this subject as the professors that teach  the weld engineers  are not even aware of  the subject.


A simple common Robot MIG Weld Proces Question:  I hand the robot weld decision maker a thin, 0.035 (1 mm)  galvanealed  steel auto parts that requires lap welds. For this robot project I want the weld decision maker to select the best wire size, best wire type, the best two part gas mix, the most suited weld transfer mode, the wire feed rate,  the voltage, the approx. weld travel rate,  the best positions to weld the part. If that weld decision maker has to look at a piece of paper or  does not know the answers, they lack weld process control expertise.

Few welding robots attain their full weld quality and productivity potential, so the solution for many managers is to add manual labor to the robot lines or purchase more robots.  As just about every other global  mfg. manager and engineer  responsible for MIG and Resistance welding robots found out the hard way. You can spend millions of dollars on sophisticated robot weld  lines, expensive weld  fixtures and top of the line weld equipment in the robot cells, however if  the companies front office and shop floor weld decision makers lack robot weld process control – best weld practice expertise, a costly price is paid.


It’s the responsibility of management, engineers and  supervisors who are supposed to own their mfg. processes, to recognize that weld skills have nothing to do with weld process controls or best weld practices. And to be able to figure out the root causes of why their weld shop personnel play around with weld controls and lack the ability to consistently optimize a simple two control process such as  MIG and flux cored. Remember MIG and flux cored account for approx. 85% of the welds produced daily, two processes that have changed little in many decades. It’s also the responsibility of weld management interested in attaining code quality welds to encourage “change” especially when a unique weld technology  such as TIP TIG is introduced.

If I had a dollar for each time I heard this nonsense. 

2019: Most of the weld training programs provided in North America are based on the SMAW  (Stick) 1960 weld practices. Most of the weld edge prep dimensions and heat treatment requirements used for steel welds in 2019 are also more suited to stick welds.


IN TOO MANY COMPANIES MIG AND FLUX CORED WELD COSTS, BECOME WIRE AND GAS COSTS: It’s been a fact for decades,  that  front office “weld cost”  discussions are rare and usually when the discussion does comes up the front office will often bring up  the weld wires and weld gas costs. To control MIG and flux cored weld costs one has to be aware of the wire feed rate potential for the weld application and convert that to weld deposition rate. I simplified this info in my process control self teaching / training resources.  

WHAT THE HECK DO THEY TEACH MECHANICAL ENGINEERS AND DESIGNERS ABOUT ARC WELDING AT  GLOBAL UNIVERSITIES? Designers typically lack MIG and flux cored weld process control expertise, and even tho they may state on the part’s blue prints “use MIG” these two words may be the limit of their arc weld process  knowledge.

It’s a fact that since the common use of  steel MIG welds in mfg. facilities since the 1950’s, that due to their too common  arc weld  process ignorance, the designers of  both manual and especially robot welded parts in industries as diverse as the automotive and shipbuilding, (and most other industries), that millions of dollars are wasted daily, due to the  never ending arc weld issues that .

Of course it’s logical that designers  should be taught and understand the weld process limitations or benefits for the process that they recommend to be used  to weld the parts that they design.  It’s also logical that designers would want to be aware of how to enhance their part design to improve either the robot or manual weld-ability, the weld quality or the weld productivity.

So the weld reality is, that its more than likely that the person who designs the parts welded  in many weld shops will understand the function and capability of their design, but not likely understand the MIG, Flux Cored, TIG, (and when they wake up, eventually TIP TIG)  inherent weld process issues, the process limits, the process benefits and capability. The weld reality is that designers are  educated people, and even tho the universities that they attended, may on the subject of welds have failed them,  they should be savvy enough to be able to recognize that their lack of weld process – best weld practice expertise, can influence on their parts, the weld quality productivity and costs. And therefore they have a responsibility to gain that expertise which coincidentally is provided here.

Designers, improve the design of your welded parts with spending a few hours with one of the following programs. Manual and Robot Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Training / Self Teaching materials for MIG – Flux Cored – Advanced AC/DC TIG and the TIP TIG process,


More on the decades of  global sales influence on weld shops.

What other tech. industry relies on sales advice to control it’s important mfg. processes? 


HERE COMES THE WELD SALES REP AND LOOK HE HAS A BOX OF DONUTS. It’s not uncommon in global welds shops to find that  the local weld distributor salesman  who may have a degree in Fine Arts, History or English, is a person who has never worked in, or never managed a  weld shop. Yet this  sales rep may have more influence on the shop weld quality and productivity produced, than the supervisors, engineers and managers who are supposed to be running the weld department. With the global influence of weld salesmanship on weld shops, it’s a rare event in a weld department  to find weld equipment or weld consumable standardization, and even rarer to find that the best performing and most cost effective weld equipment and consumables had been purchased. With my corporate Training or Weld Equip. Product Manager roles at companies such as Airgas, AGA,  Praxair and Liquid Carbonic,  I trained over 2000  weld salesmen in the USA and Canada. I believe approx.  5% were suited  to the role  of visiting a weld shop and providing practical and cost effective weld advice.

SO WHAT ARE MIG OR FLUX CORED WELD PROCESS CONTROLS?  Many   managers, engineers and supervisors responsible for the welders will typically focus on their welder’s skills or years of experience, and  will often be not aware as to what the term  “Arc Weld Process Controls”  This is a subject that has nothing to do with that old worn out weld department requirement  that thinks process controls means  calibrating the MIG equipment  once a year”, or  hiring another  weld inspector who can point out weld defects, but lacks the process expertise to prevent them. Lets face it, irrespective of the industry, QA departments responsible for welds would have to be far more cost effective for their companies if they changed their approach in dealing with welds.

This weld has poor fusion, undercut, & excess porosity, fortunately  the reason  why is not my job.

This is going to cost my company thousands for the weld repairs.  I wish I knew more about the weld process requirements for weld defect prevention.

I wrote this in 1999. Are most  of the weld QA/QC personnel cost effective for the companies they serve?  The following are  typical functions for the personnel that are daily involved with weld inspection:

[] Ensure the welds are in conformance with the weld procedures:
Too often both the weld qualification and weld procedures utilized are not compatible with the actual welds which are influenced by  variables not considered in the weld qualification. The procedures or the weld processes will also often not be optimum, the weld parameter ranges provided often too limited or too broad or poorly understood,  and the required best weld practices not documented or practiced.

[] Perform weld inspections on the companies and contractors finished parts: 
What’s the sense of  focusing QC and NDT resources on the costly,  finished components. Why not ensure that the weld inspection  personnel are provided with something most don’t have. Provide them with the weld process controls – best weld practice expertise that would enable them to assist welders in in  minimizing the  formation of weld defects.

[] Hoe effective are those  weld meetings?
These weld meetings “often result in  many people sitting around a table, providing opinions on the weld subject, while the reality is most will  lack the required weld process control expertise necessary to ensure that the best possible weld quality and productivity will be produced on the project. 

[] Control the weld wire storage:
Make sure especially with those Chinese, Eastern Europe or South American made MIG – flux cored weld wires, (who knows how they control the quality in the mfg. of their consumables) are stored in heated containers.
It’s a sad reality that once the MIG or flux cored wire reels leave the heated storage containers,  that they will rarely be tagged with the date put in service,  and then the weld wires will  then often be left in a working  environment in which humidity or moisture can have a negative effects on the wires and welds produced.

[] Oversee hiring of new welders & the required welder qualification tests:
On most large weld projects, its a rare occurrence  if more than 20% of welders tested pass the welder qualification tests. Few companies provide the process means when testing welders, so that they can actually pass the required MIG or flux cored welder qualification plate or pipe tests.  As the “play around” with weld controls welders are not likely to know the optimum MIG or flux cored weld parameters or best weld practices  for the plate or pipe welder qualification tests. I would recommend that  for  any welder qualification tests, that before the weld personnel are allowed to take the  often costly tests, it would be  cost effective if the QC personnel involved first provide the welders with a one to two hour workshop that simplifies the optimum weld settings and weld practices required for the qualification and for the projects. This is what my weld process control resources do. When  I was asked to train and qualify a large group of new welders, it did not matter if it was an ABS – AWS – API or ASME welder qualification test, with my hands on and classroom one day training program,  I used to always achieve approx.  90% first time pass rates.

IT’S THIS SIMPLE: I believe that  global QA/QC weld personnel would be far more cost effective for their companies,  if they learnt the MIG – Flux Cored, Advanced  GTAW  & hopefully one day TIP TIG weld process controls and best weld practices to help in reducing weld re-work.

QA/QC personnel would benefit their companies bottom line and improve their career prospects by having the ability  to optimize the weld processes that they daily critique. A  few hours with my Manual and Robot, MIG – Flux Cored – Advanced AC/DC TIG and TIP TIG, Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practice Training / Self Teaching materials is all they need.

Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practice expertise means that the open minded weld decision maker who does not have to rely on a weld salesman for advice, will have the ability to look at any weld application, and instantly be aware of  the optimum weld equip. and consumables, and when  applicable, the best arc process and weld transfer modes. Of course they would also be aware of the optimum weld parameters, (without playing around),  and the best manual or robot Welding Practices that are required for the parts welded.

So if your company utilizes MIG – Flux Cored – TIG or the new TIP TIG process, and someone in the organization can  invest a few dollars and approx. 20 hours of their time with my Weld Process Controls – Best Practices, Self Teaching / Training Resources, they  will have the ability to rapidly enable dramatic weld quality improvements, extensive weld cost reductions and reduce weld liability concerns. These resources will also dramatically enhance their weld career potential.

Supervisors and technicians, do you want to take the next step in  your weld career? My Manual and Robot, MIG – Flux Cored – Advanced AC/DC TIG and TIP TIG, Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice Training / Self Teaching Materials will get you where you want to go.

Its a sad weld reality that  many ship yards would go out of business if complete 

Every year hundreds of ships sink often in calm weather with with no logical reasons. Its been my  opinion for more than three decades, that many of the ships that sink do so as a result of structural  failures that often are influenced  by poor quality flux cored welds, (could be improved with process expertise) and also from poor fit practices that result in oversize (wider) than design) bevel joints that create the need for more welds than planned,  resulting in enlarged weld Heat Affected Zones that weaken the ships hull. 

Gas Shielded Flux cored is the prime manual arc weld process utilized with most of the welds that fail in the shipyards and cause issues for the ships at sea. Few ship yard front office and weld department decision makers are aware of the many
inherent weld quality issues generated by flux cored, and are not aware of the weld process controls and best weld practices that will reduce the potential for those weld defects.
For decades, the majority of Merchant and Navy  built vessels have been built without MIG and flux cored weld process controls & best weld  practice training that’s necessary  for welders to fully optimize the weld process quality – productivity potential, and  for supervisors and managers to assume weld process ownership.  If shipyard engineering / management recognized the importance of weld process control expertise they would be  in a position to enable dramatic weld quality and weld productivity improvements and possibly save millions of dollars in weld rework per-ship.

BACK TO MY WELD  REALITY. For a short period I was t
he weld manager at the AKER Philadelphia Naval shipyard below, I decided to bring AKER them into the the twenty first century  and provided their 300 welders with my  flux cored weld process control training. The results were dramatic, read below.

My first issues at the Aker shipyard was  with the stubborn, “why change” unqualified,  ship yard weld manager. 

I was hired by Aker executives  so that they could actually make some profit on the tankers and container ships they were building in the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. Aker had budgeted well under a million dollars per ship for weld rework. With the container ships and tankers , typically NDE is applied to look for internal weld defects on about 10% of the ships critical welds. The day I started at Aker, the flux cored  weld rework costs were out of control, close to  9 million dollars per-ship.  The yard was run by German management and their ideas about the flux cored and MIG weld process had nothing to do with weld reality and belonged in  a stick welding museum. 

SOMETHING MISSING IN MOST  GLOBAL SHIP YARDS IS MANAGEMENT / ENGINEERING WELD PROCESS OWNERSHIP. When I interviewed for the job as the yard Weld Manager, I was informed of the weld rework issues. I informed the yard’s management that I would only accept the job, if I was given 100% management responsibility for welding, I needed to process ownership if I was going to influence the weld quality and costs in the yard. 

Keep in mind  the 300 welders were supposed to be qualified and most of  the welders had also received ineffective flux cored training in the yard’s weld school.

My program gave these welders the keys to controlling the flux cored process and they now smile more.

Below. Ed in background blue sweater, and assisted by Tom his friend, right also  in blue sweater. Training the Aker  300 shipyard welders with Ed’s 8 hr program on how to set  optimum flux cored  weld parameters to deal with the many weld variables that daily affected  their welds and also the best flux cored weld practices required for the all position, ceramic backed ship plate welds.


I trained around  20 weld personnel per-session. Keeping in mind the man hour costs associated with training 300 people I  kept the program to 8 hour sessions, 4 hours of classroom on flux cored weld  process controls – best practices,  and then I provided 4 hours hands on welding, having the welders apply what was taught in the classroom.  Within a month the training of the 300 welders was complete. Within three months, on the weld joints subject to  X-Ray, (easy to measure weld data results)  the yard reduced the approx.  weld repair costs per ship by 65%. So for those that like cost reduction numbers, that’s a weld repair cost reduction from 9 million dollars to less than  3 million dollars per-ship. And if the program was carried on, supported by progressive shipyard management,  within a year, I am sure that the weld rework  would have been reduced  to less than one million. The weld rework cost reductions by the way was measured by the yard QA Management. 

Note : Unlike costly Navy frigates that can cost 700 million to a billion dollars plus per-ship the Aker built  tankers and container ships  typically would cost approx. 120 to 175 million dollars per-ship, so as you can imagine 9 – 10  million dollars over budget for weld rework on container ships and tankers is not pocket change.  As Naval vessel shipbuilding yards building frigates and aircraft carriers are used to weld repairs that could be over a 100 million dollars, think about the weld cost reduction potential from a short process control training program that  would  reduce the flux cored or MIG weld defects in the 60 to 70% range.

One welders vertical up flux cored welds before and after 8 hours of Em’s Flux Cored Weld Process controls Training.

All it took was One days training 

Its easy to see how the weld on left would show internal excess weld slag & porosity and lack of weld fusion. Defects that daily cost the global ship building weld industry millions of dollars.

From building Oil Platforms to Merchant ships, from building Submarines, to Frigates or  Air Craft Carriers,  there is always tremendous weld cost savings potential, that is if the responsible management,  engineers and supervisors would recognize the importance of  weld process ownership, weld process controls and weld process best practices. 

So for those still with me, I hope you now have some evidence of the importance of  manual and robot MIG – Flux Cored – Advanced AC/DC TIG and TIP TIG, Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Training /  Self Teaching Materials.

Most of the Oil industry like other high tech industries is still  stuck in the welding  past.

Companies that build structures like this,  do little to reduce unnecessary weld rejects and rework and  weld liability concerns. 

Many lives lost, and over a billion dollars down the drain due to a weld failure on an oil platform, weld issues that  could have been avoided if the management and engineers responsible for the rig construction understood the concepts and benefits of weld process ownership…

MANAGERS NEED TO RECOGNIZE A COMMON WELDERS DEMISE, A LACK OF CONFIDENCE IN ADJUSTING WELD  PARAMETERS: In most shipyards, NG and Offshore oil rig construction facilities, you will often find the welders, irrespective of the weld joint, part thickness and the weld position, will be  using a single wire feed and voltage setting for either their  flux cored or MIG welds.  MIG and Gas Shielded Flux Cored account for approx. 85 – 90 % of the global welds produced daily. Yet if I I visited any global  Shipyard, NG or offshore Oil Rig construction facility, and asked the following two common weld process questions, the first thing I would expect would be the same glazed look I used to get from my wife when I talked to her about welds.

[1] MIG Process  Question: Using MIG, a conventional 350 – 450  amp CV MIG power source,  an 0.045 (1.2 mm) wire with an  argon 20% CO2 mix,  and welding a 1/4 (6.4 mm) fillet in the flat position. The weld is made  between a 3/16 (4.8 mm) carbon steel plate to a 1/2 (12 mm) steel  plate. Provide the Wire Feed, the Voltage and how much weld wire would be required  each hour if the welders’ hourly arc on time is 20 minutes.

[2] Flux Cored Process Question: Using  the same  conventional  350 – 450 amp CV  MIG power source,  but with an 0.045 (1.2 mm) E71T-1  flux cored wire,  welding the same steel parts and position in above question,  again with an  argon 20% CO2 mix, provide the wire feed, the voltage and figure out how much weld wire would be required  each hour if the welders’ hourly arc on time is 20 minutes. 

When I preach weld process ownership to weld shop managers and supervisors, what I hear at most weld shops is, “but Ed (now Em), we have highly SKILLED  MIG and flux cored welders here and some have worked for us over 20 years. My reply would be, skills have little to do with process control expertise. For example, would you prefer in your machine shop to hire a person to operate a lathe that had a few months experience but has been taught all the correct lathe settings and practices that are necessary to operate the lathe for machining any parts. Or would you want someone who has worked for a year or two with lathes but  never received any formal  machine shop lath training.

WHY WOULD A MANAGER ALLOW A DOUBLE STANDARD FROM THE MACHINE SHOP TO THE WELD SHOP?  No company would  expect it’s machine shop workers to “play around” with the controls on their equipment, so why would the same company allow weld personnel to “play around” with MIG equipment that for many decades has had two simple weld controls?

As Weld Process Controls – Best Practice expertise is easy to learn with my unique process self teaching / training  programs that simplify the subject, the individual irrespective of weld background that takes  this program would then have the expertise to look at any  metal and part thickness to be welded, and  would instantly be aware of the appropriate MIG, Pulsed MIG, TIP TIG  or flux cored wire size required, the optimum weld parameters and the best weld practices to be used. If MIG was used, the decision maker would then select the appropriate MIG weld transfer mode,  Short Circuit, Pulsed or Spray, the most logical two part  gas to mix use, (based on weld energy required).  If automation or robots were being used, the weld decision maker would also know the  weld travel rate required for the desired weld size provided,  and also be aware of  the best robot MIG weld practices to minimize robot weld issues and maximize the robot weld speeds.

Pulsed MIG Process Question: We are ready to purchase a Pulsed MIG power source, in 2018,  what would your choice be? 

Answer:  I have been testing Pulsed MIG equipment for more than 30 year, and I believe that the best value for a pulsed MIG unit in 2018 is the MIG OTC unit shown left and below.  A good weld manager, engineer or supervisor would know why this unit stands out,  (pulsed weld transfer performance and stability).  And if that person was really good weld process control expert they would  be able to walk up to this unit, or any  pulsed  MIG unit and instantly set the following four welds. 

[1] An all position open root pass for a 1/2 wall, 8 inch diameter steel pipe.
[2] A 5/16. 5356 aluminum fillet weld.
[3] A 14 gauge 316 stainless lap weld.
[4] An Inconel or stainless clad weld producing high deposition with  low weld dilution on 1/4 steel.

If your employees cannot  handle the above common MIG weld tasks  without “playing around” with the MIG weld controls, then what’s the sense in  buying the best pulsed equipment?  Surely It would make more sense to first invest in yourself and your employees by purchasing  for a few dollars one of my manual or robot MIG weld process control  programs. Have you been too my Pulsed MIG equipment & robot sections to find out what happened with  the companies that purchased pulsed MIG units and lacked process control expertise?

The OTC  is one of the rare reasonably priced  pulsed MIG units  that actually provide practical electronic features that can provide real world pulsed MIG weld benefits, especially with gage to 3/16 aluminum welds. In contrast,  many of pulsed Inverter MIG power sources purchased for steel welds, will provide useless electronic bells and whistles and their prime attribute will have  been to decrease the weld equipment durability and increase the weld equipment price.


Sophisticated weld robots often controlled by personnel that lack MIG weld process control expertise, makes little sense.

The most sophisticated weld equipment, or ISO – Poke – Yoke or Joke,  or any other weld mfg. approach won’t help a company with it’s daily manual or robot  MIG weld quality or productivity, when the companies robot technicians  lack Weld Process Controls & Best Practice Expertise. And hopefully now you know where to find it.


  • Want to know what the world’s best pulsed MIG power source is for robot or manual applications?
  •  Would you like to be aware of the best weld consumables size and types for most MIG and flux cored welds?
  • Would you like to provide better solutions than using flux cored,  TIG and  SMAW  for all position pipe welds?
  • [] Short Circuit is now less important for most gauge welds. Would you like to know the best possible pulsed  and SC settings for any manual or robot  gauge welds?
  • [] As with all MIG weld transfer  modes, the pulsed mode has it’s limits, would you like  to know with steels and aluminum welds when to switch to another weld transfer mode and provide the optimum data?
  • [] Do you want the ability to walk up to any manual or robot pulsed MIG power source and and instantly set the optimum weld data for any steels, alloy steels or aluminum applications?
  • [] Would you like the ability to provide a simple training method for any manual / robot MIG welds with any weld transfer modes?
  • [] Would you like to know where to use Pulse and where you will get yourself into trouble using pulsed, especially with aluminum and steel and alloy steel welds?
  • [] Robots create many weld issues that affect down time, quality and productivity, would you like the process – best practice data that eliminates most robot weld cell issues? 
  • [] Would you like the ability to take any MIG,  or Flux cored wire on any metal and have the process expertise necessary to instantly optimize both the weld quality and production?
  • [] Would you like the MIG and flux cored expertise to prevent and minimize weld defects, enable the lowest weld rejects and weld rework  and provide the highest weld productivity potential?

Many weld decision makers reading the info at this site, will be of the opinion that the welds daily produced in their welding shops look OK. They know that their welders work hard because the sparks are flying and the grinding never ends. As the welds look OK  and their weld NDT is not demanding. life goes on. These are the same managers that typically don’t  put much thought into their real weld quality or weld productivity potential, and its rare if they have ever figured their real weld costs.

On the subject of producing quality welds, it’s worth mentioning that approx. 98% of the global arc welds produced daily are not subject to the NDT requirements that evaluate what’s goes on under the weld’s  surface. If the internal weld quality was evaluated, there would be extensive cost consequences and many global front office  heads would roll.

All weld decision makers should of course in a highly competitive global industry be fully aware of requirements for weld cost controls, and of the solutions necessary to optimize their daily weld productivity, produce minimum weld rejects, rework and minimize weld part liability concerns.  In an industry  which welder skills are placed on a pedestal, you will find that weld process control expertise and best weld practices are subjects rarely discussed, and if considered they will be poorly understood.

For those welds that are subject to internal NDT, more weld shop focus is of course placed on attaining the desired higher code weld quality. Yet as most in this industry are aware, using qualified welders, and qualified weld procedures, weld repairs or rejects will still typically be generated, and the associated costs of those rejects or repairs will come right out of the weld shop’s profit potential.

It’s a good job that most MIG and flux cored welds on parts > 3 mm are not subject to a Macros or X-Rays, as finding consistent optimum weld fusion, would be as rare as finding an honest  politician.


With  MIG and E71T-1 Flux Cored welds, marginal or lack of fillet weld  fusion is the norm.

A point rarely considered or poorly understood in many weld shops, is that the weld fusion attained with the majority of MIG, Flux Cored, and SMA welds will often be either borderline or unacceptable.  Also, too many front office personnel  believe,  that it’s  the welder skills or lack of weld experience that are the prime root causes of most of the weld defects produced. 

Irrespective of the welders skills or how optimum the welders  parameters are, certain weld processes such as MIG, Pulsed MIG, Flux Cored or TIG will create weld defects simply as a result of the inherent process weld issues.  For example you know with flux cored you are going to get trapped slag, and with pulsed MIG on certain parts poor weld fusion.

A Manual MIG Weld Process Question: The company is using pulsed MIG on it’s stainless welds on 1/4 to 1/2 parts. These welds used to be made with CV. MIG Spray Transfer. Using the same 0.045 MIG wire diameter and similar wire feed settings as used with Spray, they found they were having weld fusion concerns. Explain why?

Irrespective of what the salesman will tell many.  No  Pulsed  MIG power source will be as simple to operate  as a regular CV MIG unit.

BS is assisted with the purchase of useless electronic Bells  and Whistles.  

Sales hype would have the weld shop believe that their new more costly Pulsed MIG equipment will be more simple to operate than a regular CV MIG power source that has two  simple weld  controls, and  cost approx. 50% less..

Managers or weld shop owners when considering the purchase of costly Pulsed MIG units for welding mostly steels & alloy steel applications, please remember when looking at the  electronic options on the front of that new  pulsed MIG power source,  that it’s likely you are going to bring this pulsed weld equipment into a weld shop in which for many years the manual welders had not figured out  how to optimize the two weld controls that have been on MIG equipment for more than 60 years.

Surely in any weld shop that’s ready to purchase new MIG weld equipment,  that it would be far more cost effective to first provide all weld decision makers with weld process control – best practice training so first and foremost the full weld equipment potential can be obtained from lower cost CV  MIG equip. Once the weld personnel understand CV and Pulsed  weld process control expertise, the welders will then also  be able to fully utilize and get the maximum potential out of the new pulsed MIG equipment.

Fully understanding  the optimization of all MIG weld  transfer modes  enables  a real weld process evaluation between  standard CV equipment and  pulsed MIG equipment.  This logic also applies when  testing traditional TIG equipment with  advanced TIG which will have many new electronic process features,  and lets not forget  TIP TIG which makes traditional TIG welds redundant for most TIG applications.  

WELD REALITY:  Thirty  plus years since the introduction of pulsed MIG  equip. when welding steels and most alloy steels, pulsed MIG equipment provides limited weld quality or productivity improvements. Of course you won’t hear this statement from most weld equipment sales reps.

2018:  Please remember Process Controls – Best Practice expertise is not an expertise that is  provided at the majority of global universities, colleges, trade schools and training departments that provide weld programs for engineers and weld personnel.


Best weld practices and weld process contols

In most weld shops found in diverse industries such as Aerospace, Auto Plants, Shipyards or Defense and  Construction Equipment manufactures, you will  find as  I have been saying for at least forty years, that the above two subjects are  rarely discussed or  are poorly understood. In these facilities you will also too often view outdated weld Specifications and mediocre weld procedures that  have  changed little in 30 plus years.

ENHANCE WELD CAREER PROSPECTS: Process controls can enhance any weld career. For those that are interested in their weld career,  process controls  is an  important expertise for personnel to provide the ability to attain the best possible weld quality and  productivity,  benefits that will enhance any weld career prospect.

Robot MIG Weld Question:  The robot technician  is told to see if they can increase the MIG Spray or Pulsed  robot weld speeds.  The technician increased the weld speeds by approx. 20% and a change in the weld size, (wire feed rate) was not necessary. However  to then fine tune the weld parameters, the technician will either have to increase or decrease the weld volts.  Explain which he will have to do and why.

THE TOO COMMON WELD SHOP CRUTCH.  Many of the items purchased for a weld shop, such as the  sales influenced three part MIG gas mixes, the unnecessary metal cored wires, unnecessary grinding discs due to the  lack of  ability to control weld spatter, or the electronic MIG or TIG weld equipment often loaded with useless bells and whistles. These are all a signs of the weld shop  crutch, a crutch required by  companies that employ  weld decision makers that lack arc weld control expertise. Robot MIG Process Question: Using an 0.035 (0.9 mm) MIG wire, and argon – 20% CO2 gas mix, the robot technician has to set robot parameters to weld common, 0.080, (2 mm) gauge carbon steel parts. The pulsed part of the MIG equipment in the robot cell does not work well, (arc instability) so regular CV MIG settings are selected for the lap welds. What MIG weld transfer mode is best suited. What wire feed setting, (or amps), and what Volts and weld travel speed would be set?

More on the Consequences of  Lack of Management Weld Process Ownership; This lack of ownership will:
[] influence management, engineer and supervision reliance on sales advice to resolve many of their weld shop issues,
[] influence the weld personnel  “playing around” with the weld controls,
[] influence the “why change” stuck in the past, common weld shop culture,
[] influence the lack of ability to consistently attain the full manual or robot weld quality & productivity potential from one or two control, well established arc weld processes,
[] influence the lack of uniform &  practical, cost effective weld equipment & consumables, this should be evident in all weld shops,
[] influence the ability to recognize superior cost effective ways to weld, this opens the door for extensive weld cost reduction potential,

So for those weld shops that dislike  change, there are consequences for Slow Weld Evolution: 
There are many companies that have decades of weld process and weld application experience, however there are few global weld departments and weld shops that will consistently be able to ;

  • Ensure the highest possible weld quality.
  • Ensure the best possible after weld part metallurgy.
  • Ensure the highest possible weld productivity.
  • Ensure the lowest possible weld cost are attained.
  • Ensure the lowest possible part distortion.
  • Ensure the lowest weld cleaning is required,
  • Ensure the least possible grinding and weld fumes are attained.

Manual Process Question:  Manual MIG was the process selected for the steel parts that were 1/8 to 3/16 (3 to 5 mm) thick. On these parts,  the start point of spray transfer can be used. The welder is using an  0.045 (1.2 mm) wire. The welder has had no process control training so they have to be told the spray transfer start wire feed and voltage.  The manager who  is also lacking in process expertise is wondering how does he work out much MIG wire would have to be ordered for the parts.



“Lets not forget when dealing with weld risk and liability issues,  in a court of law, it won’t  be our welders that are held responsible for our screwed up welds”.

More evidence about lack of Weld Ownership & Accountability:
  Over five decades, of being requested to provide  weld process quality and productivity improvements in  over a 1000  companies, in 13 countries.  On my weld shop  visits I went from  Aerospace plants to Automotive plants, from Shipyards to Defense Contractors. I saw little  evidence of front office or weld shop floor weld process control expertise 

A Three part MIG Gas Mix & Metal Cored Wire Reality: Why would any weld shop purchase three part MIG gas mixes or metal cored wires for steels and alloy steel welds, when in contrast to two part gas mixes and solid MIG wires , they provide no cost or quality benefits. 

The answers to most arc weld process questions will be  found in my Weld Process Control Self Teaching  –  Training  Materials.  

Common daily issues found in many  global weld shops;

  • dealing with lack of poor weld  quality and lack of daily , uniform weld results,
  • inconsistent  part fit,
  • poor surface preparation,
  • not attaining the manual or robot weld production potential,
  • excess weld robot down time,
  • a lack of awareness of the real manual or robot weld costs, and how to minimize MIG and flux cored weld costs,
  • unnecessary weld defects, weld rejects and weld rework,
  • unnecessary weld cleaning and grinding, and lack of awareness on how to reduce the issues,
  • the lack of uniform practical weld equipment & weld consumables throughout the weld shop,
  •  lack of front office ability to purchase the most practical, cost effective weld equipment,
  • the weld shop’s reliance on  a weld sales person for weld decisions,
    Stir in the general lack of weld shop best practices and process control expertise and then add to this pot, the liability cost consequences of failed welds, and don’t forget the encroaching, lower weld labor costs from global competitors. Then ask yourself this. Can we improve what goes on in our weld shop? 

There is an important  relationship between the weld process selected  and  the weld defects that will or will not be produced.

Rather than simply the fault of the welder, weld defects will often  be influenced from the arc weld process, consumables selected, the metals welded, the use poor weld procedures,  and  always from the welder’s lack of process – best practice expertise, 

Common weld defects such as lack of weld fusion, porosity, undercut & slag could be added to those defects above.  Its always important to note especially with MIG and flux cored  welds, that many weld defects  will result solely from the weld process, consumables and data selected. And in-itself. that’s a reason more front office people should be aware of the weld processes and consumables used in their organization.

I suspect that when it comes to weld rejects, weld defects and rework, that the majority of weld shop front office weld decision makers will when manual and robot weld issues occur, point to their welders as the prime cause of the weld issues.  The reality also will be that the weld decision makers will have neglected (most will not aware) to provide their welders with the Process Control – Best Weld Practice training that they have never had and its training that will for the weld shops have the biggest impact on weld quality – productivity. 

Let’s face it, if the weld shop management is aware of the root cause of weld issues, this would have to go a long way in helping prevent them.  When managers, engineers & supervisors are not aware of the requirements of weld process controls & best weld practices, it’s not going to be provided.

Manual MIG Process Question from Mike.

Em.  I am trying, to optimize the parameters (yes I play around with the controls) to produce optimum MIG weld lap joints  on 14 GA to 3/16 stainless.  I have been nothing but aggravated.  Please put my information on the website about the Miller Invision I purchased, its basically a useless power source and I wish I had my 11 grand back. Anyway thanks for what you do.

Answer: Mike I hear you frustration the welds could easily be  made with an 0.035 stainless wire and my Argon 2% Co2 mix, using  the start point of Spray with the arc focus on the thicker part. For the low Spray weld, approx. WF  430 – 450 ipm  with 25 – 26 Volts  and move fast with a 20 to 25 degree push angle and a 5/8 WSO.  This would   also be a good pulsed weld with 0.045 wire that is if you have a decent pulsed MIG power source. Regards Em.

So since the 1950s, there has been  four prime arc weld processes. In 2018, the majority of global weld shops, when “all position” arc welds are required on  steels and alloy steels, will typically consider four common arc weld processes.  SMAW,  Pulsed MIG, Flux Cored and TIG. These four important  processes when used for steels and alloy steel applications, have seen few equipment / process changes that have in reality advanced weld quality – productivity. This includes Pulsed MIG welds. Most of the pulsed MIG steel  and alloy steel welds made in at present could be produced just as effectively using much lower cost CV. MIG equipment,  and the short circuit and spray transfer modes and weld process expertise.

STICK – SMAW: For fifty years I have avoided the use of this arc process, and would not consider SMAW as a logical choice for most code quality weld applications.  The logical choices would be gas shielded flux cored or TIG / TIP TIG. Their is always an exception for using this process such as weld  access, weld reach, part condition  or  environment concerns.

Gas Shielded Flux Cored.  With gas shielded flux cored welds, any experienced weld decision maker would be aware that even with optimum skills and parameters utilized, there will be no guarantee with NDT, that the flux cored welds wont have serious common FCAW defects such as trapped slag, worm tracks or porosity.

Pulsed MIG:  When a high deposition process such as Pulsed MIG uses a back ground current, the pulsed weld energy in contrast to the spray mode is reduced. Using manual Pulsed MIG welds on steels and especially  sluggish > 5/16 alloys such as stainless, it would be difficult to ensure that the MIG welds have consistent acceptable weld fusion.

GTAW (TIG): Regular TIG  is the arc process with the most high weld quality expectations, and has been a prime choice for code quality and alloy welds.  TIG also produces the lowest  weld  deposition rates (slow travel that results in high heat) and requires the highest welder skills. TIG equipment has evolved with electronics, ,however the weld benefits from the Advanced TIG power sources are with aluminum weld applications

TIG  skills differ from welder to welder and this can influence the weld quality and uniformity attained.  Most TIG welds require that the manual welder dip and withdraw their TIG wire length into the TIG arc plasma and weld pool. This unique arc weld practice again varies from welder to welder and again is a manual weld practice that influences the weld quality uniformity and consistency attained. Also with many TIG applications and the very slow weld travel rates that often result, with TIG the weld shops see small defects influenced mostly by skills and practices and the shop may have concerns for high weld and part heat, something that few alloys will benefit from.

Since 2010, the most important change with  arc welding processes has been the  introduction  TIP TIG process.

In North America, around the year 2010, I went to Scotland to meet a friend called Darren Matherson, he introduced me to a relatively new process call TIP TIG. It took me only a 10 minute process evaluation to figure out this was now the world’s most important arc weld process, especially  for those that had an interest in steels and alloy steels code quality welds.

After my return from Scotland to the USA,  I needed a partner to provide the funding to bring TIP TIG  to the US. I found one, a  friend, Tom O’Malley, a Philadelphia weld distributor. Tom provided the financing and together we created TIP TIG USA and then introduced TIP TIG to both N. America and Australia.



In my 50 plus years in this industry, TIP TIG has been the only new process introduced that provides the potential to increase on steels and alloy steels weld quality potential with reduced weld  costs.

TIP TIG is easier to use and attains better weld quality than TIG. TIP TIG enables 100 to 400% decrease in TIG labor costs. TIP TIG always provides the lowest possible weld heat for the lowest weld distortion and best metallurgical properties. When you have the best arc process and use my  process control – best practice  resources  you produce welds like this for 25%  of the cost of a TIG weld.

NASA, Exon or Northrup, your TIG welders would be wasting their time trying to duplicate this TIP TIG pipe weld  quality, which was generated at 300% below the weld costs that’s daily created by the employees in your  your weld shops.

From root to fill. Untouched TIP TIG pipe weld made by Ed / Em around 2010. You know that NDT will reveal no weld defects. And if you manage a weld shop,  you might have an interest in the 300% TIG weld cost reduction, along with achieving  the  best possible metallurgical properties. 

Go straight to my TIP TIG program.

Or Click here for all programs including the most comprehensive MIG gas mix selection data ever printed.

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