Emily Craig. http:/weldreality.com
© Craig 10-2019: The introduction of new semi-automated and automated arc weld process is a rare event in the aging global weld industry.
IN JUDGING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A NEW ARC WELD PROCESS, IN CONTRAST TO THE EXISTING WELD SHOP PROCESSES, WELD PROCESS CONTROL EXPERTISE WILL HAVE AN IMPORTANT INFLUENCE IN THE NEW ARC WELD PROCESS ACCEPTANCE.
For decades, its been common in global weld shops to find weld personnel playing around with the two controls on their MIG and flux weld equipment. As for front office weld process expertise, typically there has been much reliance on weld sales reps for weld advice and a general lack of understanding of the requirements for arc weld process ownership.
In the 1000 plus plants that I visited in 13 countries to assist with their weld issues, I found few managers or engineers that were aware of the weld quality – cost benefits that could be attained from individuals that have weld process controls and best weld practice expertise.
I hope in contrast to the last 60 years of the general MIG weld weld process confusion, that in this TIP TIG portion of my site, if the reader will spend an hour or two, they will be able to cut through the process misinformation that now is already prevailing with the 12 year old TIP TIG process. I also want to present the real world TIP TIG process feature benefits and how this unique process competes with the common arc weld processes such as GTAW – MIG – FCAW and Hot Wire TIG.
Give consideration for TIP TIG when welding any alloys, high strength steels and any code quality weld applications that require UT and X-rays, and consider TIP TIG for those clad welds that are required to be defect free, and welds that require the best possible weld metallurgy, weld / part mechanical and corrosion properties.
TIP TIG will provide superior weld results when there is concerns for welds subject to stresses, cracks, distortion and also with any welds in which weld fumes or spatter are a concern.
MANY CALL TIP TIG THE “HOT WIRE PROCESS” THIS IS INCORRECT AND THE REASON IS A SIMPLE ONE. THE HOT WIRE GTAW PROCESS CANNOT DO WHAT TIP TIG IS CAPABLE OF DOING.
IN CONTRAST TO OTHER AVAILABLE ARC WELD PROCESSES, THIS SITE DEALS WITH THE REAL WORLD “UNIQUE FEATURE BENEFITS” OF THE SEMI-AUTOMATED AND AUTOMATED TIP TIG PROCESS, AND OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE IN AN INDUSTRY IN WHICH PROCESS MYTHS AND CONFUSION IS THE NORM, YOU WILL READ HERE THE WELD REALITY OF HOW TIP TIG COMPETES WITH TRADITIONAL DC/AC TIG, HOT WIRE TIG, PULSED MIG AND THE GAS SHIELDED FLUX CORED PROCESS.
Regular DC TIG.
FOR DECADES, THE DC TIG PROCESS HAS BEEN POORLY SUITED AS A MANUAL SEMI-AUTOMATIC OR AN AUTOMATED ARC WELD PROCESS:
Since the 1940’s, the traditional DC TIG process has always in terms of weld quality provided the best possible manual arc weld fusion capability, and with inert argon gas, the capability to provide the lowest arc weld porosity.
However regular DC TIG manual weld applications that required filler metal, have always had “weld deposition rate limitations” which restricted the weld travel rate potential influencing part heat and limiting the amount of weld current that could be used. The TIG process is also arc length sensitive and typically requires the highest welder skills to feed the wire and sometimes use an amp foot control.
WHEN FOR 70 PLUS YEARS IT WAS ALL THE WELD INDUSTRY HAD, SO WHY CONSIDER THE NEGATIVE ATTRIBUTES OF THE PROCESS.
© Craig 10-2019: The DC GTAW process has always provided poor arc plasma to weld wire and weld distribution, this influenced the low weld deposition rates, limited the weld current, influenced the high part heat and the requirement for high welder skills.
TO IMPROVE THE IMPORTANT GTAW PROCESS, THERE HAD TO BE MAJOR CHANGES AND IT TOOK MORE THAN SIX DECADES TO ACHIEVE THAT CHANGE .
Poor utilization of a high temperature TIG plasma.
A traditional DC TIG arc plasma uses approx. 50% of the arc plasma energy in the task of melting the large diameter TIG wires. The balance of the DC TIG plasma is utilized in keeping the small, rapid freeze weld fluid.
The reason large DC TIG weld wires are used is because welders could not feed smaller wires fast enough to attain a deposition rate advantage. The divided plasma energy distribution over the weld surface and weld wire, limits the weld deposition capability and therefore limits the GTA weld current potential per-application, and these process characteristics are the prime reasons the DC TIG process has for decades been highly restricted in its weld application potential.
2019. Please note, its taken me 50 years of arc weld process evaluations, and the last decade of studying the TIP TIG process, and then spending hundreds of hours writing what you are about to read. You will see I frequently use “Craig 10-2019” throughout this TIP TIG section. This simply points out when placed in the paragraphs, that these are my “original and personnel points of view on the important TIP TIG process” . Some of the points of view on the process may differ from those provided by the inventor or what the reader may have been told. I do not get remunerated for providing you with my thoughts on any process, so please do not use whats written at this site “without my permission”, if you do, your company could expect a call from a lawyer. However if for a few dollars you want the most comprehensive self teaching / training program data on either TIP TIG – MIG or flux Cored, please take a moment in my training programs.
REGULAR DC TIG VERSUS TIP TIG FEATURE BENEFITS:
A summary of why TIP TIG is a unique arc weld process:
Craig 10-2019: Regular TIG left. The patented “Plasch” changes in the TIP TIG weld transfer allow TIP TIG to provide a unique “wire to weld placement” (view below) which enables many weld benefits and allows for “more weld energy” than has been possible with the traditional DC/AC GTA welds, or with any manual arc welds. With traditional DC GTA welds, the required weld wire to plasma placement, (upper left) is necessary to melt the typical required large DC TIG weld wire diameter, (1/16 to 1/8 norm). This takes “extensive energy from both the DC TIG arc plasma and also from weld”.
Craig 10-2019. In contrast to traditional DC TIG, note with TIP TIG (left) how the unique TIP TIG wire feed position to the plasma, and the resulting plasma / weld attributes that with this process allow the use continuous fed smaller wire diameters providing higher weld deposition rates to melt in the upper portion of the outer plasma periphery. The unique TIP TIG wire to plasma placement enables most of the TIP TIG plasma energy to be distributed over the weld pool. Another contrast to DC TIG, is the TIP TIG process is depositing already molten weld drops into a now higher energy, more fluid weld pool.
Craig 10-2019. Take a moment to again compare the above DC TIG weld wire feed to the arc plasma position with the DC TIP TIG weld left. The unique TIP TIG small wire to plasma placement at the upper outer plasma periphery is enabling all of the high arc temp. plasma energy over the weld pool surface. This energy distribution action allows the TIP TIG arc electron flow to be enhanced and this can result in a wider, more dense, increased velocity plasma than that attainable with regular GTAW. Also as a result a slightly longer open arc length is enabled and the traditional GTAW arc length sensitivity is reduced.
Craig 10-2019. As mentioned one of the prime benefits from the TIP TIG arc & unique weld energy attributes is this eliminates the typical Arc Length Sensitivity that has always been associated with both the regular DC/AC TIG manual welds and also the automated Hot and Cold Wire TIG processes. Another major benefit is from the TIP TIG plasma distribution over the weld which enables increased and Prolonged Weld Fluidity which then enables More TIP TIG Wire to be Fed into the weld pool.which then allows more weld current to be used further adding to the TIP TIG weld energy. The extensive changes to the traditional DC TIG plasma energy distribution and the TIG weld dynamics to be discussed further, dramatically adds to both the TIP TIG weld and part quality potential, and also greatly enhances the TIP TIG weld application capability.
Craig 10-2019. As you will note at this site numerous weld benefits will be generated with this unique process, and another major weld shop benefit, is that TIP TIG is easy to use both as a manual, Semi-automated Arc Weld Process, or with most weld Automation, including robotics, without the additional requirements for costly automated arc length sensing devices. as typical with GTAW – Hot Wire and Cold Wire GTAW.
Craig 10-2019: The Plasch patented TIP TIG weld wire vibration, in combination with additional energy in the wire delivered from a Hot Wire power source is a unique process combination that enables, the rapid small weld drop transfer, the slight weld agitation, the increased GTA weld deposition rates, the faster GTA weld speeds, the reductions in part heat, and welds with the highest weld energy.
The continuous fed TIP TIG weld wire is fed through a set of patented wire feed drive rolls that go back and forth with a rapid velocity. The mechanical wire drive roll action on the wire agitates the wire creating a continuous wire vibration that would be similar to a plucked guitar string. The TIP TIG process also utilizes a preheated HOT wire in which the current is delivered from a separate small power source.
Craig 10-2019: The TIP TIG wire vibration enables the formed fluid small weld droplets on the wire tip to rapidly detach and reform. The wire vibration and resulting agitated weld drops create a slight weld pool agitation that adds micro seconds to the fluid weld solidification time which allows more wire to be delivered to the pool and therefore allows more weld current to be used for the weld.
Craig 10-2019: Enabling more current not only adds to the weld energy it also adds additional energy and more velocity to the TIP TIG plasma which further influences the rapid weld drop formation and velocity of the weld drops into the weld pool.
Craig 10-2019. While the Hot Wire current is beneficial with its preheat affect on the continuous fed weld wire;
 Without the TIP TIG patented wire vibration, the higher deposition weld wires could not be placed at the upper portion of the plasma periphery.
 Without the TIP TIG wire vibration the weld drops could grow larger & not detach in time, and that continuous fed wire could run into the weld and part.
 Without the weld agitation from the wire vibration the weld area may solidify too rapidly which could disrupt the electron transfer.
Craig 10-2019. THE MOST IMPORTANT ATTRIBUTE OF AN ARC WELD IS THE PROCESS CAPABILITY FOR WELD FUSION AND THE LOWEST POROSITY POTENTIAL.
The highest plasma and weld energy are two key attributes of the TIP TIG process. In contrast to all arc weld processes, the TIP TIG process delivers the “highest possible arc temperatures”, enabling high weld fluidity and slower weld pool solidification. These unique attributes enable with the TIP TIG process, arc welds that should always provide superior side wall weld fusion, and with the inert argon gas used, welds with the lowest possible weld porosity.
REASONS WHY NO WELD CODE BODY OR WELD SHOP SHOULD IDENTIFY TIP TIG AS A “HOT WIRE WELD PROCESS”.
The TIP TIG wire vibration and increased weld deposition and energy attributes enable TIP TIG welds with “reduced arc length sensitivity” enabling manual welds without concern for this issue, and this is why the common Hot Wire DC TIG when used if used as a manual process is considered arc length sensitive. This is a prime reason that weld code bodies need to take note that while TIP TIG uses a separate Hot Wire Power source, TIP TIG is not the same as the Hot Wire TIG process and it needs to be defined simply as what Plasch the inventor called it, the TIP TIG process.
The TIP TIG Plasch patented mechanical wire vibration with the Hot Wire current allows the TIP TIG process to typically use either an 0.035 (1 mm most utilized) or an 0.045 (1.2 mm) MIG wire. All position TIP TIG welds such as vert up or over head deposition rates can be close to those attained with Pulsed MIG welds on pipe or plate applications, however note that in contrast to Pulsed MIG, the TIP TIG welds that can be used for both the root and fill passes should not require weld rework . As for flat and horizontal welds, in contrast to GTAW, the TIP TIG process typically on average enables approx. 20o to 400% more weld, and with parts > 6 mm, up to 600% more weld than could be attained with a DC TIG and a Variable Polarity TIG weld. MIG and flux cored will on flat and horizontal welds always enable more deposition than TIP TIG but will never attain the weld quality of TIP TIG.
My TIP TIG untouched 309 stainless 1/4 fillet weld made on carbon steel,. This will likely look a little different from the 1/4 fillet welds produced in most weld shops.
REGULAR DC GTAW VERSUS TIP TIG FEATURE BENEFITS:
Craig 10-2019: REDUCED WELD HEAT: TIP TIG weld deposition, weld polarity and weld speed influence on the welds and the parts.
The TIP TIG higher DC GTAW weld deposition rates than attained with regular TIG influence both the weld speeds attained and therefore the welded part heat produced.
As mentioned DC TIP TIG on most applications typically enables a typical 200 to 400%, increase in the amount of DC TIG weld that can be applied each hour, a point in which you would think would get “many weld shop mangers exited”. With the increased TIP TIG weld deposition rates, the DC TIP TIG welder is producing with manual or many automated applications, weld speeds never before attained with the regular DC TIG process.
LOW ARC WELD HEAT INPUT NEVER BEFORE POSSIBLE:
As regular DC TIG weld personnel are aware, traditional DC TIG is an Electrode Negative Polarity process in which the arc energy is directed into the conductive base metal. In contrast MIG and gas shielded flux cored are electrode positive in which most of the arc energy is directed at the weld wire tip. The expected rapid weld heat conductivity benefits from an EN process into the Positive parts being welded is rarely be attained with DCEN TIG. The reason is the typical very slow weld travel rates attained, from the very low DC TIG weld deposition rates, help retain the welded part heat.
2019: FOR ALMOST A DECADE, WITH THE USE OF TIP TIG, THE WELD JOULES INPUT HAS DRAMATICALLY BEEN REDUCED ON STEELS AND ALLOY CODE WELD APPLICATIONS AND ALSO WITH VARIABLE POLARITY TIP TIG WELDS FOR ALUMINUM .
WITH TIP TIG THE WELD SHOP HAS THE CAPABILITY TO READILY REDUCE WELD PART HEAT BY 50 TO 70%, WITH THIS IN MIND SURELY THE APPROPRIATE NORTH AMERICAN CODES & ESPECIALLY ASTM – ASME – AWS WELDED PREHEAT – INTER-PASS OR POST HEAT GUIDE LINES THAT HAVE BEEN IN PLACE FOR DECADES NEED TO BE REVISED TO MEET THE TEN YEAR OLD TIP TIG PROCESS WELD CAPABILITY.
FOR THE FIRST TIME IN DECADES, DRAMATIC REDUCTIONS IN WELD HEAT: In contrast to DC TIG, the DC TIG and also , variable polarity AC/DC TIP TIG, enables on any metals from alloys to steels or even aluminum welds that will have the “lowest possible weld joules”. This dramatic change in reduced weld heat enables extraordinary, never before attained, mechanical, corrosion and metallurgical properties with the lowest distortion potential for all welded parts including clad welds.
A SIMPLE TEST OF THE LOW WELD PART HEAT PRODUCED. Note again to the governing code bodies and also to those that produce metals. As an example of the low weld heat into the parts, the gas trailing shields which is normally recommended to weld Titanium with DC TIG, as you will see below would no longer a requirement for many TIP TIG Titanium welds. Or for example the typical aluminum after arc weld strength properties would in contrast to TIG and MIG, be far superior with variable polarity AC/DC TIP TIG. Organizations like ASTM and ASME that provide recommendations reference metals and weld pre-heat, weld inter-pass and weld post heat treatments, should be aware that their welds and part heat recommendations if TIP TIG is used will simply be out dated. and in many instances the heat requirements will be dramatically reduced or eliminated.
Note” You will see evidence of the extraordinary low part heat input in the video below where TIP TIG is welding a highly heat sensitive Titanium application without using a gas trailing shield. You will also see extensive low welded part heat evidence in the silver and gold weld colors and lack of visible weld HAZ in many of the photos and videos in this section.
Monel Alloy 400 wire weld on carbon steel. Untouched TIP TIG weld, don’t try to reproduce a weld that looks like this in your weld shop.
ANY WELD BUSINESS WILL BENEFIT WHEN A PROCESS IS PROVIDED IN WHICH WELDING COMPLEX ALLOYS IS SIMPLIFIED.
Weld shops benefit when the welding requirements for complex alloys are simplified. Weld shops should really think about their application weld capability and increased business opportunities when they have the easy to use TIP TIG weld process to weld any alloys that in the past may have been considered complex, Alloys such as Hastelloy, Titanium, Stelite, Inconel and Duplex when welded with TIP TIG will with ease produce the highest weld quality with the lowest possible welded part heat. These two TIP TIG weld attributes will for any weld shop, using one process, one wire, one gas and typically no more than two weld settings will enable never before attained weld & part mechanical, corrosion and metallurgical properties with the least possible part distortion, the least possible weld stresses, the lowest oxidation potential, the lowest weld porosity and weld fume levels that typically wont require exhaust equipment.
REGULAR DC TIG VERSUS TIP TIG FEATURE BENEFIT:
Reduced Welder Skills. Reduced Weld Costs. Improved Quality and Extended Weld Application.
In contrast to DC TIG, Pulsed MIG and gas shielded flux cored, the DC & Variable Polarity TIP TIG process dramatically reduces all position welder skills and has almost unlimited weld application potential.
 Remember all position welder skills impact labor shortages.
 Remember all position welder skills effect weld labor costs.
 Remember all position welder skills effect weld quality especially when attempting uniform, consistent, optimum weld quality.
 In contrast to a DC TIG manual weld, a TIP TIG welder does not have to feed a weld wire.
 In contrast to a AC/ DC TIG, a TIP TIG welder does not require a foot amp control.
 In contrast to a DC TIG weld, the TIP TIG continuous fed wire wire is constantly fed to the optimum plasma sweet spot a combination that assists in uniform, consistent wire melt.
 In contrast to a AC/DC TIG, TIP TIG welds can be made with fully controlled weld starts / stops data.
 With TIP TIG manual welds, the constant wire feed that enables constant weld deposition drives the weld size continuity
 With TIP TIG the welder will not have the weld starts and stops that are typical with most AC/ DC TIG welds, (another feature that enhances weld quality).
 With TIP TIG, the weld shop has one equipment package that requires one weld wire, one power source, one gas for a pipe root to fill, or for any all position welds, on any metals, and on welds from any thickness.
 Many of you will be aware that DC TIG average weld deposition rates are < 1 lb/hr which is why regular TIG was simply not practical for weld applications that required a large amount of weld metal. In these situations, the weld shop would then typically turn to the higher deposition MIG, Pulsed MIG process that could result in welds with lack of fusion especially on parts > 3/16, > 5 mm, or welds with unacceptable porosity content, welds that may produce too much heat to the part, welds that have spatter, or their may be weld fume issues. Or the welds may be made with flux cored, and then weld slag, poor weld fusion, excess porosity, spatter, worm tracks, too much weld heat and weld fume issues may occur.
Note: If welds are made on parts in which code weld quality is not required or on parts with mill scale, coatings and contaminates in the weld areas, then MIG and flux cored would be a more logical process choice:
IN THE HISTORY OF ARC WELDING, THERE HAS NEVER BEEN AN ARC WELD PROCESS WITH THE WELD APPLICATION CAPABILITY AND WELD QUALITY POTENTIAL OF TIP TIG?
Above video and some of the other videos above provided by Franco Ferrarri. Franco reviews inspects or manages complex weld applications around the globe. Franco knows which process should be implemented when his customers want code quality welds.
Note with the above TIP TIG stainless fillet that the welder holds the TIP TIG torch just like a MIG gun (no weaves required up to a 7 mm fillet). Take a moment with the stainless weld quality, examine the weld color that you will not see without TIP TIG, Examine weld fluidity continuity, the lack of a visable weld HAZ, the respectable weld speed, the weld ease and the wonder of no weld spatter or visible weld fumes.
On common fillet welds such as this, no aggressive weld weaves necessary as would have been required with the much lower weld deposition rate DC GTAW process. Again note the weld application versatility of TIP TIG in the two videos as the process goes from moderate deposition fillet weld to the low deposition walking the ceramic cup pipe root in the other video.
2019: WELD PROCESS INFORMATION AND GUIDELINES SHOULD BE KEPT UP TO DATE WITH NEW WELD PROCESS TECHNOLOGY. UNFORTUNATELY SOME OF GOVERNING GLOBAL WELD CODE ORGANIZATIONS THAT WRITE THE WELD / STEEL CODES / SPECIFICATIONS ARE INFLUENCED BY COMMITTEE MEMBERS WHO WORK FOR WELD EQUIPMENT AND CONSUMABLE MANUFACTURES, AND WITH THEIR BUILT IN PRODUCT BIAS HAVE FOR A DECADE IGNORED A MAJOR ARC WELD PROCESS CHANGE THAT’S HIGHLY RELEVANT TO MOST CODE QUALITY WELDS.
A MESSAGE TO ENGINEERS WHO SHOULD KNOW BETTER. For those involved with Weld Codes and specifications, the following is a ten years old weld fact. The Hot wire process cannot attain the manual weld results achieved by TIP TIG. The DC/AC GTAW process cannot do what TIP TIG can do. The different Pulsed MIG modes including RMD – STT and also the Flux Cored weld process cannot attain either attain the weld quality or part metallurgical properties attained by TIP TIG. With this information perhaps the code and specification organization should awake from their 20th Century sleep and step into the 21st Century.
© Craig 10 2019: One of the prime attributes of the TIP TIG process that weld shops should appreciate. With one TIP TIG unit and one weld gas:
[a] the TIP TIG welder could turn the wire feed off and use the TIG part of the process to weld the edge of a razor blade,
[b] Use AC TIG or or Variable polarity TIP TIG for any aluminum weld.
[c] Use TIP TIG on any root with or without walking the ceramic nozzle.
[d] Produce a clad weld with lower weld dilution on any metal with lower weld heat than any other arc process.
[e] Produce the highest possible weld quality on any metal, any thickness, any weld position.
[f] Provide a weld process in which exhaust equipment should not be required.
[g] Provide a weld process in which distortion, weld stresses, and crack should not be a concern.
[h] Stop purchasing grinding wheels.
[h] Use TIP TIG as either a manual or automated weld process with standard automation or with robots.
Note: Global weld shops often purchase TIP TIG to solve one specific weld or application problem with the front office managements and weld supervision not aware of the unlimited weld application capability, that is if the process is taught correctly. And welders when using TIP TIG should be aware that the TIP TIG benefits are attained when the max. TIP TIG weld deposition rates are attained, and when both TIG and MIG weld skills are utilized for each application.
BELOW, A CROSS SECTION OF A CHINESE MADE TIP TIG WELD & CLAD WELD REVEALING DEFECT FREE WELD QUALITY AND METALS PROPERTIES NEVER BEFORE ATTAINED WITH ANY ARC PROCESS. YET THANKS TO THE COMMON NORTH AMERICAN LACK OF FRONT OFFICE PROCESS OWNERSHIP AND GENERAL WELD ENGINEERING APATHY, ORGANIZATIONS SUCH AS NASA AND INDUSTRIES SUCH AS THE AEROSPACE, SUB SEA, DEFENSE, NUCLEAR & ENERGY WILL GENERALLY IN 2019 LACK THE ABILITY TO DUPLICATE THIS ARC WELD WITH THEIR ARC WELD PROCESSES.
A Weld Shop Challenge. Use one of your weld shop processes that is simple to use and capable of both semi-automatic and automated arc welds, and consistently with any multi-pass welds attain the vest possible weld and part properties with zero weld defects on parts that have dramatic reductions in the pipe or plate groove dimensions.
THIRTEEN REASONS WHY WELD SHOPS IN THE AEROSPACE DEFENSE, MEDICAL AND ENERGY INDUSTRIES NEED TO WAKE UP TO TIP TIG:
Take a moment with the above video and the UNTOUCHED DC TIP TIG stainless weld. Its impossible for any global weld shop to do what the TIP TIG process is doing.  Take a look at the weld color due to the lack of oxidization from the low part heat input, also an indication of the very low porosity and distortion that will be attained.  Note how pleasant it is for a welder not to deal with weld spatter or weld cleaning, and think about the cost reductions with grinding consumables.  From a safety and work environment factor, note the lack of a requirement for weld exhaust equipment.  Think of the benefits to the employees and also to the weld mfg. area, when there is less concern for Stainless, Duplex and Inconel Chrome toxic, carcinogenic dust and fumes hazards.  If you could examine the TIP TIG weld quality and resulting small weld HAZ properties, you would find weld quality and part metallurgy results that cannot be achieved with manual DC GTAW, Pulsed MIG or Gas Shielded Flux Cored.  If you could measure the flange distortion it would be less than is possible again with any manual arc weld process.  If you were welding with crack sensitive consumables or metals, they would no longer be crack sensitive.  If this was a titanium part the welder would not need a gas trailing shield.  If you wanted to meet duplex or impact properties with any application that is now a simple task.  Note how this the welder requires less skills than GTAW and also less welder skill than an all position pulsed MIG and FCA.  Be aware that with vertical up and over head TIP TIG will be is producing similar productivity to MIG.  Be aware that in a well run weld shop all position TIP TIG welds should never require weld rework.  Be aware that with TIP TIG, you don’t need one weld process for a root and another for the remaining weld passes, and all you do need is one reel of weld wire reel and a cylinder of argon.
WHEN YOU CANT SEE THE WELD FUMES, IN 2019 WELD SHOPS NEED NOT WORRY ABOUT EXHAUST REQUIREMENTS FOR HEX. CHROME FUMES?
TIP TIG VERSUS PULSED MIG AND FLUX CORED ON CODE WELD APPLICATIONS:
- TIP TIG will always enable the highest arc weld energy & weld fusion potential:
The DC TIP TIG process provides an arc temperature that can be twice as much as a MIG and FCAW arc. Keep in mind that with the TIP TIG unique weld wire to arc plasma placement which enables with the TIP TIG improved plasma coverage of the weld pool, in combination with the higher TIP TIG weld deposition rates that enable higher TIG weld current to be used to melt a smaller wire diameter than DC TIG, the TIP TIG process therefore simply enables more weld energy and improved weld fluidity than DC TIG. In contrast to TIP TIG, MIG provides a lower arc temperature and has to melt more weld wire than TIP TIG. The Pulsed MIG weld energy is further disrupted in the Peak to Background current change. With the common E71T-1 all position Gas Shielded Flux Cored wires, inconsistent flux, poor flux mix, or flux contaminated by moisture is not uncommon. Then combine these product concerns with the thin rapid freeze slag, with the welder skill inconsistencies, the out of position deposition capability that can drive rapid weld travel rates, along with the use of a reactive gas mix, and weld shops should not be surprised when excess porosity, trapped slag, lack of fusion, and worm tracks are revealed.
Compare this E71T-1 flux cored weld metal & flux transfer with the all position uncontaminated, higher energy TIP TIG weld transfer below.
- Craig 10-2019: Weld shops typically will pay extra for code quality welds when they use processes such as Pulsed MIG or Flux Cored:
SOME COMPANIES MACHINE THEIR WELDS OR CLAD APPLICATIONS AND POROSITY IS A CONCERN: In contrast to MIG and flux cored that use reactive gas mixes, all TIP TIP welds can use inert argon. So with TIP TIG, the weld shop has a process that delivers the highest higher weld energy, a slightly agitated weld pool which is protected by an inert gas atmosphere as shown on the left, therefore you would always anticipate with TIP TIG on any welds, no slag issues, the best possible weld fusion and the lowest weld porosity.
- Craig 10-2019: MIG – FCA Weld POLARITY influence on the welded part: Most of the Reverse Electrode Positive Polarity MIG and Flux cored plasma arc heat is concentrated around the positive MIG wire tip which enables rapid melting of the continuous fed MIG wire. That concentration in the arc of the MIG and FCA plasma energy has a negative influence on the weld’s Heat Affected Zones. In contrast with electrode negative TIP TIG process, all the plasma energy is directed at the positive work “providing rapid weld heat conductivity into the positive parts welded”. And with the moderate TIP TIG weld deposition rates that enable faster weld speeds than regular TIG and compatible deposition with vertical up pulsed MIG, the TIP TIG process should always enables the lowest arc welded part heat, which as all weld shops should be aware can enable weld part properties never before attained.
Left. E71T-1 Gas Shielded Flux Cored wire Vertical Up. Right. TIP TIG Vert Up weld. Which weld do you think would pass X-Rays?
Craig 10-2019: A LOGICAL GOOD WELD PRACTICE: The building block of all MANUAL large vertical up and overhead multi-pass welds on metals over 7 mm thick should be equivalent to 6 mm stringer fillets made Without Weaves. Weld weaves skills will change with every manual welder. Weld weaves made in groove welds with MIG and flux cored are the primary cause of lack of weld fusion and weld weaves also thin out weld metal decreasing weld solidification adding to internal porosity / slag. The majority of weld personnel that come to this site may consider the above left a good Vertical Up E71T-1 flux weld on the large carbon steel application.
However someone who is interested in weld process optimization and weld controls would take a closer look at that flux cored weld. Yes the weld reveals the welder had a steady hand and we know that most weld shops believe that skills drive weld quality. However take a close look. note the sluggish weld surface irregularity, the scalloped weld edges, the weld convexity, all are indications of insufficient weld fluidity from insufficient weld energy. Welds such as this are often just given a surface inspection, however if internal weld NDT was applied to these heavy carbon steel parts, the first thing you would find is extensive Lack of Weld Fusion, and as I found after 35 years of examining small diameter gas shielded flux cores wires and welds, it would almost be impossible with these rapid freeze welds not to find Excessive Trapped Slag and Porosity.
Craig 10-2019: Yes if I had made the above above flux cored welds I would have used higher amp settings and given special consideration to the weld-ability of the flux core wire selected. However what many weld shops don’t realize with gas shielded flux cored welds, is at the FCA wire manufactures, most of the popular gas shielded flux cored welds were made with a CV MIG unit. If Multi-process or Invertor MIG power sources are used with these wires in the weld shop, in contrast to the regular CV MIG unit which have a flatter slope out put, the more modern electronic weld power sources typically provide what would be considered steeper slope output, and therefore for a given flux cored wire feed rate, the Invertors and Multi-process equipment will typically put out 10 to 20% less weld current. Please be aware that the above info is not attainable from your weld sales rep or equipment mfg. If you want this type of real world weld process / application info, you may wish to consider my flux cored, MIG, and TIP TIG self teaching / training programs below:.
Every weld shop should remember, many of the Gas Shielded flux cored weld defects result from the process and are NOT caused by the welder.
FLUX CORED WELD QUESTION: What was the root cause of the above E71T-1 defects? A weld process control expert would instantly be able to say what the root cause of the above E71T-1 fillet weld issue is. (Em’s flux cored weld process controls – best weld practice self teach / training program shows weld shops how to maximize the flux cored weld quality while minimizing flux cored weld defects such as this. By the way the root cause had nothing to do with moisture.
So the bottom line with with all position gas shielded flux cored wires and using skilled welders. For the weld shop , there will be no guarantee that the flux mix composition in the wire is poor, inconsistent or contains moisture, and even when the flux composition is fine, its difficult with multi-pass vertical up and over head welds for the welder not to end up with trapped slag especially along the weld edges and this can influence lack of fusion especially on steels > 6 mm thick.
12 YEARS AGO IT WOULD HAVE BEEN UNTHINKABLE TO CONSIDER GTAW ON THE ABOVE HEAVY STEEL APPLICATION, HOWEVER THINGS CHANGE WITH TIP TIG, NOW ITS BECOMING ILLOGICAL NOT TO USE TIP TIG.
Another logical reason for weld shops to consider change:
WHY ON CODE QUALITY WELDS WOULD ANY ORGANIZATION WANT TO PURCHASE THE VARIETY OF WELD EQUIPMENT AND CONSUMABLES TO DEVELOP SMAW – FCAW – TIG – MIG PROCEDURES, WHEN ALL THEY NEED IS THE EASIER TO USE TIP TIG PROCESS WITH ONE GAS AND NO MORE THAN THREE WELD SETTINGS FOR ALL THEIR CODE WELDS.
TEN YEARS HAVE PASSED SINCE I INTRODUCED THE TIP TIG PROCESS TO NORTH AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA, HOWEVER THE REALITY IN THIS “SLOW TO CHANGE INDUSTRY” IN WHICH WELD PROCESS OWNERSHIP THAT’S NECESSARY TO BE THE DRIVING FORCE FOR COST EFFECTIVE WELD CHANGES IS OFTEN LACKING.
IN 2019, MOST WELD SHOPS WILL CONTINUE ON CODE QUALITY APPLICATIONS, WHEN USING MIG – FLUX CORED AND EVEN TRADITIONAL DC TIG, TO DAILY CREATE INFERIOR CODE WELD QUALITY THAT CAN LEAD TO COSTLY WELD REWORK OR REJECTS.
Regular DC TIG, Pulsed MIG or flux cored could not attain the weld results, but now you know what process the weld shop selected.
QUESTIONS THAT COULD BE ASKED OF ANY WELD MANAGER, ENGINEER OR SUPERVISOR THAT DAILY PRODUCES A SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNT OF DC TIG, PULSED MIG OR FLUX CORED FOR CODE QUALITY WELDS ON CARBON STEELS, HIGH STRENGTH STEELS, ALLOY STEELS OR ALLOYS;
[a] Why select DC TIG, Pulsed MIG or Flux cored, when in reality these processes will always “Produce Inferior Weld Quality” than TIP TIG?
[b] Why select DC TIG, Pulsed MIG or Flux cored, when in reality these processes require “Higher All Position Welder Skills” than TIP TIG?
[c] Why select DC TIG, Pulsed MIG or Flux cored, when the reality is TIP TIG will enable the Lowest Welded Part Heat, enabling the lowest weld distortion, the lowest weld stresses, the lowest sensitivity to cracks and always the best possible weld & part metallurgical properties?
[d] Why select DC TIG, Pulsed MIG, SMAW, or Flux cored process combinations for root and fill pass applications, when TIP TIG is the Only Process Required.
[e] Why consider pulsed MIG or flux cored on any application in which there are Concerns For Porosity or fusion when you could have used TIP TIG with its inert gas gas and high weld energy benefits
[f] Why select DC TIG, when the TIP TIG process is easier to use and will reduce your organizations TIG hourly Labor Costs by approximately 70% and provide superior weld quality?
© Craig Oct. 2019: WHEN A WELD SHOP USES PULSED MIG, REMEMBER WELD DEFECTS SUCH AS LACK OF FUSION AND POROSITY WILL OFTEN BE GENERATED BY THE PROCESS, AND NOT BY THE WELDER. With the Reverse Polarity Pulsed MIG weld process, you have the majority of the plasma heat located in the upper portion of the MIG plasma close to the wire tip and this creates the high energy localized in a MIG weld’s HAZ. Also note most of the Pulsed MIG weld defects like lack of fusion, weld porosity and oxide inclusions are influenced by the high weld deposition rates that result in fast travel rates, and the energy is also influenced by the Peak to “Back ground” weld current fluctuations which do little for weld fusion. The result with a Pulsed MIG weld, the weld energy produced will often be insufficient energy for the weld mass produced and weld travel rates utilized. Weld start – stops will also be a problem with this process and and the porosity produced with Pulsed MIG will be influenced by the reactive CO2 or oxygen utilized in the Pulsed MIG gas mixes.
© Craig Oct. 2019: WHEN A WELD SHOP USES FLUX CORED, THERE USUALLY WILL BE MANY WELD DEFECTS GENERATED FROM THE PROCESS AND NOT BY THE WELDER: This is another RP process, (high HAZ heat). The rapid freeze EXXT-1 this slag adds to the flux cored weld defects in that sometimes the weld freezes to quickly and the weld has insufficient slag protection. The high all position deposition capability with the all position flux cored wires, again promote fast weld speeds with welds that lack insufficient weld energy for the weld mass produced. The slag often gets trapped resulting in slag inclusions. The wire flux composition – content is often inconsistent. The flux is also often contaminated with moisture during wire production or in wire storage and use. producing unexpected porosity and worm tracks. Pulsed MIG on All Position Code Quality Welds.
Lack of, or marginal Weld Fusion with MIG Spray – Pulsed MIG and also Flux Cored EX1-T1 wires is common on steel parts > 5 mm thick.
© Craig Oct 2019: MOST WELD PERSONNEL ARE NOT AWARE THAT BOTH THE MIG AND FLUX CORED WELD PROCESSES HAVE WELD METAL TRANSFER AND ARC PLASMA CHARACTERISTICS IN WHICH FOR DECADES THERE HAS BEEN A POOR RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE “WELD MASS (DEPOSITION RATE) PRODUCED AND THE AMOUNT OF WELD ENERGY GENERATED”.
PLEASE NOTE THE INFORMATION ATTAINED AT THIS WEB SITE IS UNIQUE TO THIS WEB SITE, ITS NOT INFORMATION YOU WILL HEAR FROM WELD SALES REPS. & WELD EQUIP. MANUFACTURERS:
For thirty plus years, I have been writing about lack of weld fusion the never ending Achilles Heel of all position Pulsed MIG welds on steels and alloy steels > 1/4 – ( > 6 mm). And no matter what electronics are added to the Pulsed MIG power source, the reality has been with this process that on many welds > 5 mm thick there is often “inadequate weld energy delivered to the weld mass (deposition) provided and for the weld speeds used”.
With Pulsed MIG, weld shops would be wise pay attention to the weld fusion attained on steel applications > 5 mm, and especially when those steels are such as stainless have alloys that influence a sluggish weld solidification. I wrote many pages on the subject in my “Management Engineer Guide to MIG” book and provided the weld process solutions that can help in my self teaching – training resources.
On all position pipe or plate welds, Pulsed MIG enables slightly higher weld weld deposition rates than TIP TIG, however TIP TIG welds should not require weld rework an provide many other weld benefits. Deposition rates can have a negative influence on vertical up and over head Pulsed MIG and Flux Cored welds on metals > 5 mm. These two moderate weld energy good weld deposition rate weld processes will often require fast movement of the MIG gun which influences both the required welder skills and the weld fusion attained. For these reason the pulsed MIG and gas shielded flux cored process will often generate lack of weld fusion defects on out of position welds that requires [a] lower amp / volt settings.  All welds on metals > 5 mm thick.  Welds on sluggish alloys such as Stainless, Inconel, Hastelloy and Duplex.
No matter how sophisticated a weld shop’s Pulsed MIG power source is today or will be tomorrow, remember with the pulsed process, to create the weld drops, the weld shop will using an arc process that provides approx. 50% of the weld energy of a TIP TIG weld, and also that pulsed MIG welds spends 50% of it’s arc time time at a low back ground current typically between 80 – 120 amps.
Note: Please be aware that no other global web site or educational facility is providing this type of weld process information which is also available in my Management Engineers Guide to MIG book, and in my weld process control – best weld practice self teaching training resources (also don’t forget to visit the pulsed MIG sections of this site).
WHY TIP TIG HAS LITTLE IN COMMON WITH HOT WIRE TIG PROCESS THAT ALSO FEEDS A WELD WIRE INTO A TIG ARC?
© Craig 10- 2019: As I read the many comments on TIP TIG from around the globe, I see numerous, often unqualified weld process opinions on what weld personnel think the TIP TIG process is, and I am also sure that few of the weld shop individuals will be aware of the unique arc weld attributes of TIP TIG, especially in contrast to the traditional arc weld processes utilized. I wonder also how many weld decision makers will be aware of the TIP TIG weld quality potential, the unique weld and part metallurgical benefits, the greatly extended manual and automated weld application potential, the reduced weld cost benefits from welds that should not need weld rework and from the safety attributes from a weld process that will provide the least possible weld fumes.
© Craig 10- 2019: COLD WIRE TIG: I see many web comments from individuals that confuse TIP TIG with some semi-automatic, constant fed Hot or Cold Wire TIG process that they viewed in the past in which a small diameter MIG wire was fed to the tip of a TIG torch. What these personnel may not have been aware was the “small diameter wires”was typically an 0.023 or 0.030 wire, and these process “typically provides less weld deposition than that can be attained by a traditional manual TIG welder. The CW his process has the highest arc length sensitivity and is mostly used in automated fixed arc length applications. The bottom line is Cold Wire TIG is simply poorly suited as a manual process.
© Craig 10- 2019: HOT WIRE TIG: The Hot Wire (HW) process is shown on the left. This process is a mostly suited as an AUTOMATED process that works well on controlled arc length applications or on applications that utilize costly automated arc length adjustment equipment. The DC TIG HW process utilizes a separate small power source that typically applies approx. 60 to 120 amps to preheat the continuous fed weld wire before it goes into the TIG arc. Preheating the Hot Wire wire tip slightly reduces the time and energy required to melt the wire tip.
The HW process cannot be used with the same wire feed to plasma position as TIP TIG utilizes. The HW process typically feeds the weld wire into the rear or front of the TIG plasma, both actions derive energy from the weld and speed up the weld solidification, where is this an issue?  With the arc length sensitivity.  With companies that want defect free welds. For example a sub sea valve builder may want zero porosity in their multi-pass inconel or stainless clad welds so after machining the clad surface no weld defects are revealed that would require costly weld rework. Defect free welds however are more readily attained with TIP TIG, as more of the plasma energy is on the weld surface and the weld pool is slightly agitated
While some manufacturers of weld equipment may rename a HW TIG process as their new “manual DC TIG process”, their HW process typically will deliver few manual GTA weld benefits, and the manual HW weld deposition rates attained again usually with an 0.030 wire, would only be slightly higher than is possible from manual TIG welders with their bigger weld wires. Also with manual GW welds, the HW manual process would still be arc length sensitive which would be further aggravated with the use of aggressive manual TIG torch manipulations as is common with many TIG groove and fillet welds.
Its important to note that weld deposition rates attained with any TIG weld will influence the amount of weld current that can be utilized per-weld. The lower the deposition, the lower the current applied. The lower the current the less intense and the smaller the TIG arc plasma and the greater the arc length sensitivity. The HW process works best with automated welds when high amps are utilized in which the plasma will be larger and more dense. The bottom line is both the HW and CW processes provide very few weld benefits when applied as a semi-automated manual process.
© Craig 10- 2019: ITS IMPORTANT THAT THIS INDUSTRY DOES NOT SPEND THE NEXT 50 YEARS CONFUSED ABOUT A PROCESS CALLED TIP TIG: After spending the last 50 years trying to cut through the two control, MIG weld process confusion that is still common today throughout the global weld industry, it frustrates me when weld personnel identify TIP TIG as the “HOT WIRE” process.
Please remember, that the Hot Wire Process cannot do what TIP TIG does manually, However the TIP TIG process can do any Manual or Automated welds with superior weld results than what the Hot Wire process can do.
THE BEST POSSIBLE WELD QUALITY COMES FROM A PROCESS THAT PROVIDES THE HIGHEST EN POLARITY WELD ENERGY IN AN INERT PLASMA WITH MODERATE WELD DEPOSITION RATES, ALSO A PROCESS THAT IS EASY TO USE AND REQUIRES NO MORE THAN THREE WELD SETTINGS.
FINALLY, WELD SHOPS NOW HAVE A PROCESS THAT ENABLES THE HIGHEST WELD ENERGY AND WELD FLUIDITY, WITH THE PURIST WELD METAL AND THE LOWEST WELDED PART HEAT. Keep in mind that Pulsed or Spray MIG weld transfer modes use Reverse Polarity processes with Electrode Positive. This is a polarity that concentrates the MIG weld plasma heat in the upper portion of the MIG plasma, around the continuous fed MIG weld wire tip and this concentrates the energy in the plasma creating large weld heat affected zones. For almost 75 years, the traditional DC Electrode Negative TIG process which directs the majority of the TIG arc plasma energy towards the conductive, heat sink positive parts welded has rarely been able to benefit from this DCEN weld polarity. The reason on most TIG welds for the high TIG weld heat generated is simple, traditional DC TIG welds on most parts > 2 mm, typically generates very low weld deposition rates and very slow weld speeds that help retain the part heat.
TIP TIG INVENTED BY PLASCH AUSTRIA. INTRODUCED TO NORTH AMERICA & AUSTRALIA BY EMILY CRAIG & TOM O’MALLEY.
© Craig Oct 2019: WITH THE INVENTION OF TIP TIG, THE BIGGEST QUESTION DURING THE LAST DECADE THAT WELD SHOPS WHO ARE PART OF THE 21 st CENTURY SHOULD HAVE BEEN HAVING, IS WHY ARE WE STILL CONSIDERING REGULAR DC TIG, PULSED MIG OR FLUX CORED FOR OUR CODE QUALITY WELDS?
Also please be aware that its the patented wire vibration with TIP TIG that provides the necessary weld drop detachment that makes TIP TIG unique and changes the traditional DC TIG arc dynamics to enable higher weld deposition rates into the an area of the TIP TIG weld plasma in which the wire feed has minimal disruption of the DC TIG plasma energy and helps maintain the arc length stability.
“TIP TIG allows for higher weld energy and alleviates arc length sensitivity concerns with both the manual semi-automated and fully automated TIP TIG process”
TIP TIG IS SUITED TO BOTH MANUAL & AUTOMATED WELDS WITH MINIMAL CONCERN FOR THE COMMON ARC LENGTH VARIATIONS. TIP TIG as mentioned is often referred to as a Hot Wire Process which has to be INCORRECT. The reason is simple. The decades old Hot Wire process cannot do what TIP TIG can do manually and if someone wants evidence they should try and use the Hot Wire process as a manual semi-automatic welding process attaining the weld deposition rates that are attained by manual TIP TIG welds:
However the TIP TIG process benefits from the use of Hot Wire Current to again preheat the weld wire, assisting with the melt rate of the drop formed on the wire tip. As most weld personnel are aware, the low deposition regular, manual DC TIG process has always been poorly suited to weld automation due arc length sensitivity. When it comes to manual DC TIG welds, arc length sensitivity is dealt with by the welders who use their skills to compensate by manually “feeding or retrieving their large wire in or out of the weld pool”. Arc length sensitivity is still a problem with DC GTAW, Hot Wire and Cold Wire TIG, however its not an issue with TIP TIG.
So with the TIP TIG video, again note the unique wire feed angle that places the rapid continuous fed, small diameter, vibrating TIP TIG wire at the upper cooler portion of outer plasma periphery. Its this unique wire to plasma placement that enables most of the TIP TIG plasma arc energy to be directed on the weld and part surface. The increased TIP TIG weld surface energy is further enhanced by the slight weld agitation from the weld drops. With TIP TIG more weld wire enables more weld current that benefits both the arc plasma and weld. Without the wire vibration, the weld drops would grow in size until the weld wire runs into the weld pool disrupting both the the arc and weld, and this would also lead to a possible restriction to the wire feed so that the welder would have to stop welding.
To change this 70 year old DCEN TIG process into the easier to use, much higher weld deposition, manual semi-automatic or fully automated TIP TIG process that enables superior weld and part metallurgical properties, innovative equipment and process changes had to be made by the inventor Plasch, Austria.
© Craig 2019: As shown above with the above traditional DC TIG weld, both the weld wire size and the position in the 70 year old DC TIG plasma are an important weld requirement. The traditional DC TIG process requires the use of a large diameter wire, 1/16 to 1/8 is typical, (a manual DC TIG welder could not manually feed a smaller wire fast enough). The regular DC TIG weld requires a manual wire feed placement that;
adds to high arc length sensitivity,
adds to the tungsten contamination potential,
creates poor plasma energy distribution over the weld wire and weld surface,
dramatically limits the weld deposition rate and the weld travel rate potential.
Be aware that if you want to test or purchase TIP TIG, look to the web for your TIP TIG equip. supplier, as you are not likely to purchase an innovative weld process such as this from your local weld supply company.
Hello my name is Emily Craig I am supposed to be retired and for a few years have not been affiliated with TIP TIG USA which is the company that my business partner Tom O’Malley and I founded around 2009:
WELD EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS HAVE A HISTORY OF INTRODUCING A WELD PROCESS AND NOT PROVIDING THE REAL WORLD INFORMATION ON HOW TO OPTIMIZE THE PROCESS EQUIPMENT, THE PROCESS CONSUMABLES, THE PROCESS DATA AND THE PROCESS BEST WELD PRACTICES.
IF YOU WANT EVIDENCE OF THE ABOVE STATEMENT, JUST TAKE A LOOK AT ANY OF THE INDUSTRIAL CV MIG EQUIPMENT BUILT BETWEEN 1960 AND 2010. LOOK FOR THE OPTIMUM WIRE FEED AND VOLT SETTINGS ON THE POWER SOURCE AND FEEDERS. THE REALITY IS ON MOST MIG EQUIPMENT YOU TYPICALLY WILL NOT SEE ANY REFERENCE TO THE REQUIRED MIG SETTINGS, BUT YOU WILL FIND WELDERS PLAYING AROUND WITH THE SIXTY YEAR OLD WELD CONTROLS AND OFTEN FIND SCRATCH OR PEN MARKS ALONG SIDE THE MIG EQUIP. CONTROLS.
Note: Please be aware my MIG Process Controls – Best Practice self teach and training program simplified the MIG process into an easy to learn “Clock Method” that delivers optimum settings and best weld practices for any CV – Pulsed MIG, manual or Robot applications.
Note; Its one thing to change the weld dynamics of an arc weld process and create a unique TIG / MIG like process like Plasch did, and its another thing to eliminate the extensive arc weld process confusion that will likely prevail around the TIP TIG process for many years to come throughout the global weld industry. Its also another thing to have the process expertise to evaluate the often subtle arc, plasma and weld transfer characteristics, along with the practical weld application benefits attained with a process such as TIP TIG and how it competes on code weld application against DC/AC GTAW, Pulsed MIG and the Flux Cored arc weld process. This is what I do.
For more than four decades in more than 1000 companies in 13 countries, weld process evaluations and comparisons have been my area of expertise. I also specialized on the requirements for Arc Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practices. The reason this was my focus was for the first decade of my career, when I would ask a weld process question or read a weld process article, the more information I absorbed, the less inclined I became to believe what was being said or what I was reading. So I decided to focus on the bread and butter processes, such as MIG – FCAW – TIG – Plasma and SAW, and break down the requirements necessary to both simplify and optimize the weld process requirements for all manual, automated and robot welds.
Most of you will be aware of how the general lack of front office weld process ownership, welders playing around with weld controls, and the common reliance on sales reps for weld process advice are influential in many weld shops and can add to the common arc weld process confusion. So rather than you waste the next 20 years trying to figure out the real facts about TIP TIG and how it compares with Pulsed MIG – Gas Shielded Flux Cord and also the automated Hot Wire TIG processes. I thought you might be interested in my thoughts on the common processes utilized, their influence on code quality welds and the TIP TIG weld feature benefits.
SURELY THE EXPERTISE OF THOSE THAT PROVIDE WELD PROCESS ADVICE IS RELEVANT TO A COMPANY THAT PRIDES ITSELF ON ITS WELD PROCESS EXPERTISE : In this business when someone gives weld advice, it’s beneficial to know the background of the person providing that advice. I have written three books on Manual – Robot MIG – Flux Cored – Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practices. I wrote the MIG – TIG – Flux Cored and Laser sections in the USA Machinery Handbook. I wrote the Laser – Plasma – Oxy Fuel (Thermal Sections) in American Society Metals Book. Ninth Edition. I had 35 articles published on Weld Process Controls. I was a key member that wrote the AWS MIG Gas Specifications. I have four weld patents and along the way I provided weld advice for the Mar’s Orion Spacecraft. I was the Weld Manager in a ship yard and the Robot Weld Manager for ABB North America. I was a GE Black Belt Weld Engineer, and along the way I assisted approx. 1000 companies in 13 countries with their manual, automated and robot weld issues. The weld information I provide is always original, factual and without weld equipment, weld process and weld consumable bias.
You will find the TIP TIG data and weld application potential available at this site is from both a weld process and application evaluation, original, unique, practical, cost effective and comprehensive and everything I state could be proven in a few minutes in any weld shop. Please note also, that the reason this web site for two decades has not accepted weld advertisements, is the site data will continue remain untarnished from the common, exaggerated marketing & sales claims and process confusion that proliferates from too many that make and sell weld equipment and consumables.
Around 2009, during a visit to England to assist a weld client with their sub-sea Hot Wire TIG valve weld issues, I was discussing the Hot Wire limitations when I heard about an exiting new TIG process. I eventually located the unique TIP TIG process at a rural facility in Scotland, and thanks to a young man called Darren Matherson, I was invited to his facility. Watching Darren use the TIP TIG process weld 1/4 (6 mm) stainless parts, it took me no more than 10 minutes to figure out the importance of this process especially for those that do code quality welds in North America
A few months after that TIP TIG demo, and back in the USA, I mortgaged my home, quit my job, and with the assistance of a new business partner, Tom O’Malley formed a new business called TIP TIG USA. I attained the exclusive rights to sell this important new arc weld process in North and South America and Australia. I instantly started to do TIP TIG seminars and workshops across the USA, Canada and Australia, and the sales quickly commenced. After a few years and big “C” health issues, I sold my portion of the business to Tom who unfortunately and too my great sorrow, passed away decades before his time.
IN A 2009 ADVERTISEMENT THAT I PRODUCED FOR MY COMPANY TIP TIG USA, I CALLED “TIP TIG THE EVOLUTION OF TIG”, BUT AS I QUICKLY FOUND OUT AS I EXAMINED THE TIP TIG WELD APPLICATION POTENTIAL OVER THE NEXT FEW YEARS, THAT THE REALITY AS YOU WILL READ IN THIS SECTION, IS THAT THE TIP TIG PROCESS WAS MUCH MORE THAN THE EVOLUTION OF TIG, THIS IS A PROCESS THAT ALSO ON MANY CODE APPLICATIONS SHOULD REPLACE PULSED MIG & FCA WHICH ARE FAR INFERIOR WELD PROCESSES:
The weld reality of the TIP TIG process is that in the last 70 years, this is the first arc weld process change that will dramatically influence all position code quality and productivity and enable with ease the ability to attain the desired, metallurgical properties with the least distortion, least stresses and least weld fumes. In an industry that has not been used to major changes with arc weld processes, to move forward with the acceptance of a very unique new process, and then to attain optimum process utilization of that process, will first and foremost require the ability for front office weld decision makers to assume weld process ownership, (a rare global commodity). Part of Weld Process Ownership means that weld decision makers are aware of the quality and productivity and cost saving feature benefits of a weld process in contrast to the traditional arc welding processes that they daily utilize.
With TIP TIG there are no practical manual or automated weld application size or thickness limits, however if code quality welds are not required or the welded part surface has contaminates or mill scale, then the logical process choice is the MIG or flux cored process.
AS ITS BEEN FOR DECADES, WELD PROCESS QUALITY & PRODUCTIVITY OPTIMIZATION IS NOT LIKELY TO COME FROM WELD PERSONNEL WHO “PLAY AROUND” WITH EQUIPMENT CONTROLS, OR FROM FRONT OFFICE WELD DECISION MAKERS THAT RELY ON A SALESMAN FOR WELD PROCESS ADVICE:
A COSTLY PRICE HAS ALWAYS BEEN PAID FOR FRONT OFFICE LACK OF WELD PROCESS OWNERSHIP: Many companies that have so far purchased TIP TIG, do so after a few hours demo and training. Often the welders will not have received adequate TIP TIG Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practice training. Also in many of the Fortune 500 companies that purchased the TIP TIG equipment, the units will be purchased for a specific weld application with only one welder using the equipment, and sometimes the rest of the “why change the way we have always done it” weld personnel, may or may not embrace a process that they do not fully understand, and soon that costly TIP TIG unit will be gathering grinding dust while it sits unused in the corner of the weld shop. Please also remember that 70 years after the introduction of MIG equipment, many MIG and flux cored welders are from a process control perspective still poorly trained and play around with the two simple weld controls on the under utilized MIG equipment.
MANY COMPANIES WILL PURCHASE TIP TIG AND THEN LIKE MIG, WATCH THE TIP TIG WELDERS “PLAY AROUND” WITH THE TIP TIG SETTINGS: The following are two reasons why a company should not purchase a TIP TIG unit without first thinking about the 60 year old MIG process which like TIP TIG also uses Wire Feed Settings.
Question for experienced MIG welders. “Welding parts that require mostly 3/16 (5 mm) carbon steel fillet welds, a good MIG weld setting would the start point of Spray Transfer with an 0.045 (1.2 mm) wire. What is the amps – wire feed and voltage start point for Spray Transfer using an argon – 20% CO2 mix?
Question for experienced front office weld decision makers. “Each hour, the above MIG welder is welding with a 20 minutes arc on time, how much weld metal is being deposited each hour.
It should take no more than a minute to answer each above question, however as many of you are likely aware, many experienced weld decision makers and welders will have difficulty with these two fundamental questions, which would be answered in seconds by weld personnel who had received my MIG process control training programs. Too many weld shops have for decades played around with their MIG and Flux Cored weld controls, please don’t repeat the situation with the TIP TIG process.
The logical reason any manager or engineer would not select anything but TIP TIG to build LNG vessels and facilities, is that when it comes to arc welds, they are lacking in process info. or its difficult for them to step outside the 20th Century.
Those that work on alloy steels applications should consider the dramatic weld cost quality benefits attained for LNG or any projects that require code quality, Duplex – Stainless, Inconel, or High Strength Carbon Steel welds. A reminder of a few of the TIP TIG weld benefits.
- Dramatic reduction in all position welder skills required.
- One process for manual or automated welds, from the root to finish.
- Reductions enabled in weld Vee prep edges that enables extensive reductions in labor and weld consumable costs.
- Easy to attain the best possible mechanical and metallurgical properties.
- Weld rework as a result of lack of fusion or porosity eliminated or dramatically minimized.
- No weld distortion concerns.
- No spatter or weld clean up required.
- No weld cracks or weld start stop concerns.
- Reduced preheat, inter-pass or post heat requirements.
- Dramatic reduction in weld liability risks.
- No weld fume concerns.
The welder has a thought. So How do you we measure the Hexavalent Chrome content when its difficult to find the fumes.
Of course every weld shop that welds Stainless , Inconel, Duplex and other alloys needs to be very concerned about their welder protection against weld fume hazards. Note with this alloy, the application size and wall thicknesses. From root to cap, one process, one wire, one gas, two weld settings, easy to use and no weld rework. Perhaps I should come back in another 10 years and again remind your organization that this unique weld process exists.
All it takes to reap the cost and quality savings with the 21st Century TIP TIG process, is for a manager or engineer to step up to the plate, and then take the process ownership required for this ten year old weld process.
IT’S ONE THING FOR WELDERS TO PLAY AROUND WITH THE TIP TIG PROCESS, HOWEVER HOW CAN FRONT OFFICE PERSONNEL QUOTE A WELD JOB WITH TIP TIG, IF THESE PERSONNEL ARE NOT FULLY AWARE OF THE TIP TIG WELD PROCESS & APPLICATION CAPABILITY?
TIP TIG is a unique manual and automated arc process in that it requires specific wire feed rates that will be compatible with the wire diameter and the weld current selected. TIP TIG also requires very unique torch settings best weld practices for weld optimization. Please remember that process acceptance and maximum utilization of the TIP TIG equipment comes from weld personnel trained in TIP TIG process controls and best weld practices. For those of you that are still welding with 20th Century weld processes, are you aware that with TIP TIG, you now have one process from root to fill, expect minimal to no weld rework,and on those groove welds, instead of using a 60 degree included and you could easily use a 45 to 50 degree angle that will creates extraordinary weld savings.
My TIP TIG – MIG and Flux Cored self teaching / training programs simplify and provide the optimum weld settings and best weld practices for any weld application. Font office weld decision makers on their journey to process ownership may wish to consider one my Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Self Teaching / Training Programs. Note you do not need any weld background to learn or present this training program, I have simplified the subject and it presents itself.
WHEN A WELD PROCESS HAS THE POTENTIAL TO CHANGE A COMPANIES PROFITS, AND ALSO EXTEND THE WELD SHOP’S APPLICATION CAPABILITY, IT’S LOGICAL THAT MANAGERS AND ENGINEERS RECOGNIZE THEIR RESPONSIBILITY AND TO ENSURE THAT THE WELDERS WHO UTILIZE THE PROCESS, AND ALSO THOSE IN THE FRONT OFFICE THAT MAKE THE WELD DECISIONS, ARE THOROUGHLY TRAINED IN THE ABILITY TO ATTAIN THE FULL WELD QUALITY/ PRODUCTIVITY POTENTIAL OF THE NEW PROCESS.
THE REALITY IS THE ABOVE RARELY HAPPENED WITH THE MIG AND FLUX CORED WELD PROCESS, AND WELD SHOPS NEED TO BE SURE IT DOES NOT HAPPEN WITH THE TIP TIG PROCESS.
WITH ARC WELD PROCESSES, YOU CAN GET ADVICE FROM A SALES REP WHO HAS NEVER RUN A WELD SHOP, OR SPEND SOME TIME AT http://weldreality.com
Please Note: As I have spent hundreds of unpaid hours writing and rewriting this TIP TIG section, and many thousands of unpaid hours writing the MIG, flux cored and advanced AC – DC TIG arc weld data sections at this web site, I would appreciate that if you wish to use any of this original, copyright protected data, that you at least credit this site or request my permission at firstname.lastname@example.org. After 70 years, it was well past time for the DC TIG process to evolve, and the reality is that approx. 10 years after its development, all we need now is for the majority of weld shops that provide code quality welds, is for managers to take process ownership, and for the weld shops to evolve in their weld quality and application capability.
WHILE THE MAJORITY OF GLOBAL COMPANIES IN THE LAST DECADE HAVE BEEN MISSING THE BOAT WITH CODE QUALITY PIPE AND VESSEL WELDS, NORTH AMERICAN UNION PIPE WELDERS FIGURED OUT THE IMPORTANCE OF RAPIDLY EMBRACING AND LEARNING THE TIP TIG PROCESS.
IF ONLY MANAGERS WOULD CONSIDER THE BENEFITS OF A WELD PROCESS THAT ENABLES REDUCED ALL POSITION WELDER SKILLS.
WHEN ALL POSITION WELDER SKILLS ARE REDUCED;
- THIS ENABLES MORE PERSONNEL TO PARTICIPATE WITH ALL POSITION WELD PROJECTS.
- WELD PROCESS LEARNING TIME REQUIRED IS REDUCED.
- WELDER QUALIFICATION PASS RATES ARE MUCH HIGHER
- AND VERY IMPORTANT WELDER QUALITY CONTINUITY IS IMPROVED AND LESS WELDER DEFECTS ARE GENERATED.
Welder skills play an important role in a new arc weld process acceptance and pleas remember that the traditional manual DC TIG process for example has for decades required the highest manual arc welder skills. Weld shop decision makers need to be aware that with someone who has never welded, that if correctly trained with the TIP TIG process, it would take less than two weeks for that person to pass any code welders qualification test. For experienced TIG welders, it would take one or two days if taught correctly.
IN CONTRAST TO THE DC TIG – MIG – FLUX CORED WELD PROCESSES, TIP TIG ON PIPE OR PLATE REDUCES VERTICAL UP AND OVERHEAD WELDER SKILLS. With a TIP TIG open root, simply walk the cup across the groove. With TIP TIG the welder does not have to think when they should push the filler wire into the small weld pool. The welder lets the TIP TIG process continuously feed the weld wire and concentrates where they want the weld pool to flown. No foot control is required. Weld start – stop data is automated, and always note that the TIP TIG process is capable of doing something no manual DC TIG welder can do on an all position pipe weld. For example when using an 0.035 (1 mm) wire, the TIP TIG process will typically be feeding the small wire diameter between 150 and 250 inch/min. The TIP TIG welder will also appreciate minimal weld fumes, less ergonomic issues from a torch that weighs less than a MIG gun, and no weld spatter plus no weld cleaning, while always attaining the highest possible arc weld quality with the lowest welded part heat input.
Note: While regular TIG requires the highest welder skills as the TIG welder has to feed a wire and sometimes use a foot control, in contrast the MIG or flux cored welders who do not have to feed a wire, however they do have to manipulate their weld gun at a rapid rate to keep up with the high deposition. This rapid rate taxes the skills of the welders and is also a reason for the frequent lack of weld fusion. TIP TIG enables a much more comfortable controlled rate for achieving consistent side wall weld fusion.
Put the music on. Weld the pipe from root to cap. Assume the position and lean on the pipe and relax. One or two hands on the torch. its your choice. No spatter, no visible weld fumes, no weld rework and 3 – 4 times faster than TIG. Life is good.
MOST COMPANY MANAGERS WHO MAKE AEROSPACE, DEFENSE, POWER, OIL & MEDICAL EQUIPMENT HAVE FOR A DECADE BEEN LOOKING FOR DC GTAW WELDER SKILLS THAT ARE NO LONGER REQUIRED:
In the last decade, company manager at corporations like Siemens – GE – Philips – Westinghouse have been looking for something not required. I noticed in May 2019, a “Welders Wanted” add from Philips Healthcare in New York. Philips like GE makes MRI equipment, and the GTAW process is important in their weld shops. The Philip’s welder’s job description was simply a reflection or indication how managers and engineers in high tech industries are often simply out of touch with weld reality.
Part of the Philip’s job description was that the TIG welders must be able to use two hands and two legs, (a requirement to operate a foot control and ability to manually feed a TIG wire). As indicated in the above video, with TIP TIG for more than a decade those welder skills were made redundant. Also the Philips managers or any managers should be pleased to know that TIP TIG manual or automated welds will always enable superior weld quality than DC TIG or Pulsed MIG. In contrast to their DC TIG welds, with TIP TIG, no feeding a weld wire, no foot control, no constant grinding of the tungsten, no more numerous weld starts & stops from the weld wire lengths. and no longer requiring years to become a skilled TIG welder. And something that every manager should appreciate, for every hour their TIG welders are welding, their TIP TIG welders would typically require approx. 15 minutes.
I wonder in the medical mfg. industry how many engineers, or managers would look at the photo on the left and figure out something extraordinary was going on with the ten year old TIP TIG process welding a large stainless vessel. Something every medical mfg, facility should desire. NO WELD FUMES. NO SPATTER. NO WELD DISTORTION CONCERNS. BETTER WELD QUALITY THAN EVER ATTAINED WITH THEIR DC TIG OR PULSED MIG WELDS, AND ITS COST EFFECTIVE ENOUGH TO WELD A LARGE VESSEL. O well, its only been ten years years since TIP TIG was introduced so back to weld reality.
Note: In most of the global medical mfg, facilities, welding methods are usually deeply entrenched and lack of front office weld process ownership is the norm. Also its a sad reality that the daily manual and robot weld optimization is also not the norm.
FOR SEVEN DECADES, WHEN INTERNAL ARC WELD NDT EXAMINATION WAS REQUIRED, MOST WELD SHOPS WOULD EXPECT AND BUDGET FOR WELD DEFECTS. WITH THE TIP TIG HIGHEST WELD QUALITY CAPABILITY WITH LOWEST PART HEAT, THE WELD SHOP HAS THE POTENTIAL FOR EITHER NO WELD REWORK OR THE LOWEST WELD REWORK COSTS THEY HAVE EVER ATTAINED.
For decades, the majority of code quality weld applications have been welded with three common arc weld processes, TIG – MIG and Gas Shielded Flux Cored. With these arc weld processes, weld shops would often anticipate and budget for weld quality issues, weld rework and rejects. Or perhaps there would be concerns for weld related distortion and weld stresses concerns, or perhaps mechanical, metallurgical or corrosion concerns. It takes a 10 minute demo to reveal that TIP TIG is the first arc process that can consistently deliver higher weld quality than any other arc weld process and also provide the lowest possible welded part heat on most applications. Evidence of the TIP TIG weld quality and the lowest part heat is provided in the following TIP TIG weld applications.
WHEN AN ARC WELD PROCESS MAKES TITANIUM WELDS LOOK SIMPLE, WHAT WOULD THAT PROCESS DO FOR YOUR COMPANY WITH LESS COMPLEX APPLICATIONS LIKE STAINLESS, INCONEL, HASTELLOY, DUPLEX AND ARMORED STEELS.
I want to start this TIP TIG section with the following remarkable statement. “In 2019, if any of the global weld shops in the Aerospace, Defense, Oil or Power industry are still using manual DC TIG, Pulsed MIG, Flux Cored or the automated Hot & Cold Wire TIG processes for their daily code quality welds, then those weld shops are stuck in the 20th Century, and none of the weld shops would have the weld capability to produce the Titanium weld quality shown in the following video.
This TIP TIG titanium weld video reveals what no global weld shop could achieve if they had used regular TIG or Pulsed MIG.
I SET THE ABOVE TIP TIG TITANIUM WELD IN 2009. THE WELD WAS MADE WITHOUT A GAS TRAILING SHIELD & PRODUCED A WELD QUALITY THAT WOULD MEET ANY TITANIUM WELD CODE REQUIREMENT. IF THE WELD HAD BEEN MADE BY REGULAR TIG OR PULSED MIG, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN A WELD WITH MANY COLORS.
When welding Titanium parts thicker than 1/8 (>3 mm) with TIP TIG, in reality the weld application should be as simple as welding carbon steels. In the above video, in 2009, while I was setting the TIP TIG weld parameters for my business partner and great friend Tom to weld some Grade 2. Titanium scrap parts, the engineering manager from the large Philadelphia Titanium Fabricator that supplied the titanium test parts, asked me why I was not set up to use an argon gas trailing shield to protect his titanium parts from the normal weld / part oxidation issues with titanium welds. I smiled at the engineer, I knew something that this very experienced engineer did not know then, and unfortunately most global engineers and managers ten years later, still don’t know.
THIS WAS THE FIRST TIME TIP TIG WAS USED ON TITANIUM. Though this was the first time Titanium would be welded with TIP TIG in North America, I was well aware when I was welding other heat sensitive alloys of the very low weld heat that was always attained through the very small weld HAZ and silver and gold colors that I was attaining on both steels and stainless applications. The lack of oxidation on both thin and thick parts was an indication to me that we would not likely need a gas trailing shield which was typically necessary to minimize the titanium weld oxidation concerns. Please go back to the titanium weld above and take note the untouched desired Silver color of the Titanium weld that if welded with DC TIG or Pulsed MIG, would normally retain high weld heat input. By the way as we were just setting our TIP TIG weld demo shop at this time, I had nothing that could correctly clean the titanium parts, therefore the titanium parts welded were contaminated with cutting and forming materials, this was the reason for the weld fumes. Weld fumes are typically not evident on any clean TIP TIG weld applications.
DID YOU NOTE THE TIP WELD SPEED ON THE TITANIUM WELD? If regular DC GTAW had been used for the above titanium weld. The regular TIG manual weld speed for this single pass, 3/16 – 1/4, (6 mm) horizontal lap weld would likely be approx. 3 to 5 inch/minute, with weld starts and stops and a wire length change required. A gas trailing shield would have to be used, and there would likely be concern for weld oxidation formation on the rear side of the welded titanium plates. The time required to weld the above length of 18 inches with TIP TIG at the weld speeds of 24 inch/min would have be less than a minute. The time required by With regular TIG, would be around 6 to 9 minutes.
THE LARGE SCALE, TITANIUM WELD APPLICATION BELOW, WAS BOTH VERY COSTLY AND MADE UNNECESSARY COMPLEX FOR THE US ARMY. IT WOULD HAVE BEEN SIMPLE WELDING APPLICATION IF THE MILITARY AND MFG. WELD MANAGEMENT AND ENGINEERS RESPONSIBLE HAD SELECTED TIP TIG WHICH WAS AVAILABLE AT THE TIME.
To reduce weight, the army Howitzers were made out of Titanium.
IN 2019, IT’S A SAD ENGINEERING REALITY THAT MOST COMPANIES THAT WELD, ARE STILL WELDING ALLOY STEELS & ALLOY CODE QUALITY WELD APPLICATIONS USING OUTDATED 20th CENTURY MANUAL OR AUTOMATED ARC WELD METHODS SUCH AS GTAW, HOT WIRE TIG AND PULSED MIG:
Typically all position, mechanized, Hot Wire TIG, Titanium pipe welds, (left Navy Aircraft Carrier welds), or the manual titanium, traditional TIG welds made on parts > 3 mm, such as on the above Army Titanium Howitzer, were using a GTAW process that for 70 years provided very low weld deposition rates, (often less than one pound/hr). Manual or mechanized, the typical low deposition pipe GTAW “fill pass” weld speeds would often be in the 2 to 5 inch/min range. The multi-pass low TIG pipe welds speeds in the pipe grooves of course would generate high weld / part heat. To minimize the effects of that weld heat buildup, and weld oxidation on titanium or with any alloy welds, and to also control the effects of the weld heat on the weld’s HAZ, there typically would be time required for inter-pass temperature controls (usually not necessary with TIP TIG) and usually always weld quality concerns. Lets also not forget that many mechanized welds often will require manual TIG weld repairs. With the titanium welds the manual TIG weld personnel would have to deal with cumbersome gas trailing shields that for a decade have been unnecessary with TIP TIG.
Note: RECONSIDER THE WELD HEAT RULES: To every global weld shop that wants to produce code quality welds, the TIP TIG weld quality / weld heat benefits that apply to the mentioned titanium welds, would of course also apply to any steels, alloy steels, alloy steels and to many aluminum applications. With TIP TIG weld preheat is often eliminated or reduced, inter-pass-temp eliminated and reduced and post heat reduced or eliminated.
2019: DC TIP TIG VERSUS TRADITIONAL DC TIG WELD JOULES: If using regular DC TIG for the above titanium single pass weld on this 1/4 thick part, the TIG weld joules attained would likely be in the range of 35,000 to 40,000 J/inch. In contrast, the weld heat generated with TIP TIG on the titanium weld was approx. 5550 J/inch, this much lower TIP TIG weld heat was attained from the much higher weld travel speeds attainable with TIP TIG.
2019: DC POLARITY TIP TIG, VERSUS RP POLARITY PULSED MIG WELD JOULES: What about the weld joules differences between TIP TIG and Pulsed MIG? In contrast to many pulsed MIG welds, if the the weld shop used TIP TIG it could anticipate approx. a 50 to 70% weld heat reduction.
Note: The weld heat conductivity benefits of DC Electrode Negative TIP TIG with its higher weld speed potential versus the Reverse Polarity Pulsed MIG or Spray weld modes are poorly understood by most weld industry personnel that should aggressively be looking for ways to reduce weld heat on heat treated applications. Note: For decades, the weld reality has been with many AC/DC TIG welds, is that you would find that the slow moving TIG welds and the much faster Reverse Polarity MIG welds would often generate similar weld joules in the parts welded.
THE BEST POSSIBLE WELD QUALITY COMES FROM A PROCESS THAT PROVIDES THE HIGHEST EN POLARITY WELD ENERGY IN AN INERT PLASMA WITH MODERATE WELD DEPOSITION RATES, ALSO A PROCESS THAT IS EASY TO USE AND REQUIRES NO MORE THAN THREE WELD SETTINGS.
FINALLY AFTER 75 YEARS OF TRADITIONAL DC TIG WELDS, WE CAN NOW GET THE WELD BENEFITS ATTAINED FROM ELECTRODE NEGATIVE. Keep in mind that while the Pulsed or Spray MIG weld transfer modes will enable faster weld speeds than TIP TIG, these Reverse Polarity processes are using Electrode Positive. This polarity concentrates the MIG weld plasma heat in the upper portion of the MIG plasma, around the continuous fed weld wire tip. While weld shops are aware of the arc weld polarity required per-process used, they need also to be aware that for almost 75 years the traditional DC Electrode Negative TIG process which directs the majority of the TIG arc plasma energy towards the positive part welded has rarely been able to benefit from the DCEN weld polarity in which the TIG welded parts become a large heat sink enabling rapid weld heat conduction for the DC TIG weld heat generated. The reason on most TIG welds for the high TIG weld heat generated is simple, traditional DC TIG on most parts > 2 mm typically generates very low weld deposition rates and very slow arc weld speeds.
On might ask in 2019, why is it that most of the global high tech. company weld departments are using 20th Century weld processes, weld procedures and specifications for their 21st Century welds. I wonder if it has something to do with the common lack of front office weld process ownership that I have been complaining about to no avail for the last 30 plus years?
THIS COULD BE A GLOBAL WELD SHOP ANTHEM.
Lets face it, who has not heard the following two phrases in their weld shop. “Why change the way we have always done it”. Or that old weld shop favorite. “Can you give me sometime to play around with the weld controls?” This weld shop attitude is not in reality a weld shop problem, it simply reflects the common lack of front office weld process ownership.
2019: NOTE FOR THOSE WELD SHOPS STILL USING WELD & MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS AND CODE INFO. GENERATED IN THE 1980’s and 1990’s:
The typical weld joules heat input attained from the traditional Spray – Pulsed MIG and TIG processes has for many decades influenced the required weld preheat, the weld inter pass, and post weld heat recommendations. Also weld filler metals specifications and the weld / part properties attained are based not only on the weld wire chemistry but on the filler wires weld quality potential and typical arc weld heat input generated.With the above outdated weld methods, weld shops end up with the typical arc weld mechanical or corrosion properties that have changed little in decades. Then along comes TIP TIG, a process that not only provides the highest possible arc weld quality, but also the LOWEST possible welded part heat.
ITS A POOR WELD DECISION THAT IS NOT AWARE OF 21 st CENTURY WELD RESOLUTIONS FOR THEIR WELD ISSUES.
2019: As you read this, think about how many global engineers are daily dealing with weld quality or heat related concerns with their weld applications. Think of the weld and part opportunities especially when mechanical or corrosion properties are desired or there is weld distortion or cracking concerns. Think about welding armor steels and high strength alloy or carbon steels, and how there would be less concern with the weld HAZ properties. Think about how you could benefit if preheat and post-heat was reduced or eliminated, and how about if the inter-pass temp. was no longer a requirement. Weld shops will rewrite their code quality welding methods when the wake up to the opportunists that are attained with the ten year old TIP TIG process.
EVEN CARBON STEEL WELDS MADE WITH TIP TIG, SHOW REMARKABLE WELD QUALITY, CONTINUITY AND LACK OF OXIDATION:
TIP TIG ELIMINATES OR GREATLY REDUCES WELD OXIDE REACTIONS THAT INFLUENCE WELD POROSITY. When dealing with weld heat and oxide sensitive alloys, lets say the weld shop is considering using Pulsed MIG, apart from the concentrated high pulsed MIG weld heat from the reverse polarity, Pulsed MIG also requires a REACTIVE gas in the argon mix, such as CO2 or Oxy. The reactive gases influence, oxidation and porosity formation on any weld application. In contrast to Pulsed MIG, the TIP TIG process provides a much higher energy welds and only requires straight argon for gas shielding. Note: TIP should never require helium mixes for any welds.
Most manual TIP TIG welds will look like automated welds as with this untouched manual TIP TIG weld.
THE PAST SEVEN DECADES THE WELD INDUSTRY HAD A DIFFICULT TIME FINDING HIGHLY SKILLED TIG WELDERS.
The reality is the following what an advertisement for a company looking to hire welders would look like in 2019, if the TIP TIG process was being utilized.
WORKERS WANTED TO WELD ALL POSITION, CODE QUALITY, TITANIUM, STAINLESS AND DUPLEX VESSELS AND PLATE USING TIP TIG. MUST PASS COMPANY DRUG TEST, HAVE A GOOD WORK ATTITUDE AND WORK ETHIC. NO PREVIOUS WELDING EXPERIENCE NECESSARY, MUST BE WILLING TO LEARN THE TIP TIG PROCESS.
USING MY TIP TIG TRAINING PROGRAM, WITH SOMEONE WHO HAS NEVER WELDED, TO GET THROUGH ANY ALL POSITION PIPE WELDER QUALIFICATION TEST WITH TIP TIG, THE TRAINING WOULD TAKE APPROX. TWO WEEKS”. FOR A TIG WELDER IT SHOULD TAKE A DAY OR TWO
Yes TIP TIG is easy to use, and once the wire size is selected, this process usually never requires more than three weld settings for all applications. Those three settings are in my TIP TIG Self Teach / Training program. Please also note that when all position welder skills are reduced, and constant wire feed delivery is provided, the weld quality potential should be improved. With TIP TIG, as with a MIG weld, the welder can have one or two hands on the torch. Just point the torch, control the tungsten tip to work height, and move at a steady rate. With TIP TIG no amp foot control is required and with TIP TIG, the weld start / stop data is always fully automatic. From a pipe root to fill, or welding 0.080 to any thickness you require one weld process for the job. With TIP TIG you also have a semi-automatic or fully automated arc weld process that does not have the arc length sensitivity concerns of regular TIG or Hot Wire TIG. With dramatic reductions in weld / part heat, TIP TIG eliminates concerns for weld / part hot cracks, and in contrast to any other arc weld processes will enable superior weld fusion with the lowest weld porosity potential. Why not try the following weld using your TIG process or using pulsed MIG and see if you can attain the same weld results.
A SIMPLE WELD CHALLENGE FOR ANY SHOP THAT WELDS STAINLESS.
WHY NOT TRY TO PRODUCE THE TIP TIG WELD AND PART QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY ATTAINED ON THIS COMMON GAUGE, HEAT SENSITIVE STAINLESS PART.
If you work in the Aerospace, Power or Defense industries, welding thin or thick stainless, inconel, titanium, duplex, inconel and hasteloy welded parts are the norm. Why not see if your welders could duplicate the above, simple gauge stainless fillet weld that’s made with TIP TIG. Carefully examine the above TIP TIG 16 gauge stainless fillet weld. In contrast to what TIG welders would do for with these welds, note the TIP TIG weld speed which will be 5 to 8 times faster over this weld length of 18 inch. Note also the weld quality continuity and uniformity that cannot be attained with TIG or pulsed MIG. Then Go back and look at the untouched silver weld color that indicates the lack of oxidation, that enables the lowest weld porosity. With these welds, no cleaning, no spatter, no weld fume concerns. And of course the smallest possible weld HAZ which means the lowest weld distortion, the lowest weld stresses, and lowest possibility of weld cracking. These are welds that simply cannot be duplicated with any DC TIG or Pulsed MIG weld.
OPTIMUM WELD QUALITY & REDUCING WELD COSTS, SHOULD BE OF INTEREST TO ANY GLOBAL WELD DECISION MAKER.
2019: I am aware that the technical weld process process details at this site may not get everyone as exited as I get when discussing TIP TIG versus the AC/ DC TIG, Pulsed MIG, Flux Cored and the automated Hot Wire TIG, however most weld shops do have a great interest in two subjects WELD QUALITY AND COSTS. With this in mind I will start of in the first following paragraphs discussing some of the unique TIP TIG weld COST reasons that any company that is using DC TIG – MIG – Pulsed MIG or Flux Cored for code quality welds on steels, alloy steels, alloys and also specific AC TIG & MIG Aluminum applications, simply cannot afford to ignore.Please don’t forget that weld costs are of course influenced by weld deposition rates, weld rejects, weld rework, weld cleaning, by the welder’s skills, and by additional material costs or material handling.
Weld shops take note: The traditional arc weld processes such as AC/DC TIG, Pulsed MIG, Flux Cored or the SMAW process, require higher all position welder skills than required with TIP TIG. As we are all aware, when hiring TIG welders, the slow weld speed cost consequences, the never ending weld start and stops , the many trips to the grinder to reshape the tungsten, and the welder skill requirements that change from one welder to another, all have a major influence on both the TIG weld quality and the hourly labor costs generated. Watch 5 TIG welders produce the same welded parts, and it will be their different manual welder skills and weld practices that will influence that will result in a lack of TIG weld continuity and the weld quality attained,
Most companies that have weld shops will be aware that in 2019, all position skilled weld personnel are in short supply. With the semi-automated TIP TIG process you have a process that in contrast to DC GTAW – Pulsed MIG and flux cored requires the lowest all position welder skills and for those weld shops that need to grow, remember for every three DC TIG welders required, typically one TIP TIG welder will do the same production with superior weld quality.
THE FREQUENT TUNGSTEN CHANGES WITH TRADITIONAL DC TIG WELDS DO NOT OCCUR WITH TIP TIG : As mentioned, DC TIG welders have to place their weld wire in front of the weld in a very small, fast freeze weld pool and often that wire or weld pool will touch and contaminate the tungsten, lowering the tungsten melt temperature and changing its required profile. The welder will then stop welding and replace their tungsten and create another weld start / stop which are common weld defect locations. When large amounts of AC/DC TIG weld are required, those tungsten changes will be very frequent. In contrast, the TIP TIG wire is fed to the side of the TIP TIG arc plasma and therefore its more difficult for the TIP TIG weld to contaminate a TIP TIG tungsten. Once this process is learnt correctly and especially the unique the TIP TIG Best weld practices the welder will likely have no more than one or two tungsten changes per shift.
SO LETS LOOK AT THINGS THAT INFLUENCE WELD DEPARTMENT BUDGETS WITH A CHANGE TO TIP TIG:
It would take me about an hour to prove the following statement. “In a weld shop that employs mostly DC TIG welders, with a change to the TIP TIG process, that weld shop should anticipate at least a 65 to 75% annual weld labor cost cost reduction in their weld department budget. And for those weld shops that utilize MIG or flux cored on code quality weld applications, most of the weld shops will budget for weld rejects or weld rework. With TIP the weld shop can anticipate no weld rework. The TIP TIG weld deposition and weld travel details that greatly influence weld costs are well documented below, however I want to get across both the the extensive weld costs savings potential and weld quality improvement impact with a change from regular DC TIG to TIP TIG and this applies to any company that provides Code Quality steels, alloy steels, alloys and also many aluminum weld applications. The following info. provides how I attained an average of 70% weld cost reduction for a TIG to TIP TIG change.
DC TIG TO DC TIP WELD COST REDUCTION: As an example, lets take a Fortune 500, Aerospace corporation that has many global plants that employ manual DC TIG welders for code quality weld applications. One of their plants employs 10 DC TIG welders, five on each shift. The plant also employs two weld shop supervisors to manage the two shifts. The Aerospace TIG welders earn $30 /hr, and mostly weld steels and alloy steel code applications. This companies typical welder labor costs $60,000.00 / yr. The welders benefits are $8,000 / yr. Also as TIG is such a slow process, overtime is the norm. The average overtime per-TIG welder was 10 hours a week at time and a half, 10 x $45 hr = $450 x 50 weeks = ($22,500 / year). The annual TOTAL weld labor costs for the aerospace company is $90,500.00 per/welder x 10 welders. Also add two weld supervisors at $80,000 /yr, with their combined annual salary of $160,000.yr. The total weld labor cots for this Aerospace weld shop is $1,065,000. The TIG weld equipment investment for the 10 welding units, approx. $78,000.
COMPARE THE ABOVE WITH TIP TIG WELD LABOR COSTS: Now for those still hanging in there, first thanks for your patience. The above aerospace company changes to TIP TIG. Instead of the 10 DC TIG welders, all this company would now require to achieve the same weld production with superior weld quality , would be three TIP TIG welders and one supervisor working one ONE shift. Three TIP TIG welders wage plus benefits, 3 x $68,000 / yr = $204,000 / yr, plus one supervisor $80,000 / yr, producing a yearly TIP TIG WELD LABOR costs of $292,000. By the way with TIP TIG you would also reduce the annual argon TIG gas cost in the range of 50 to 70% , and also take approx. 15 – 30% of the weld wire costs. The TIP TIG equipment costs depending on the power sources available in the shop would be in the range between $50 to $80K. As you you can see with the added weld consumable savings, its easy to anticipate at least an annual TIG labor cost savings of 70% would be anticipated.
The above annual DC TIP TIG weld shop wages total is $292.000. The annual DC TIG weld shop wage $1,065.000.
A GTAW Weld Cost Question: Em, as weld deposition rates are a large factor in weld shop costs, can you provide more detailed info. on the typical average weld deposition rate capability with manual DCEN TIG welding?
Regular DC TIG Weld Cost Answer:
Welding a 3/16 horizontal fillet, the DC TIG manual welder on average would feed a common 3/32 steel or stainless TIG wire into the weld pool at approx. 8 inch minute, (20 cm/min). This wire feed rate delivers just less than 1 lb/hr with 60 minutes arc on time. Lets say the average arc on time per/hr for a TIG welder may be around 20 minutes delivering approx. 0.3 lb/hr.
If a TIG welder decided to try and feed a smaller 0.035 (1 mm) wire, with an 0.035 steel or stainless wire, the welder would require that the DC TIG welder continuously feed the 0.035 wire at around 70 inches per-min, (not going to happen with traditional TIG).
TIP TIG Weld Cost Answer: On the same weld, the TIP TIG welder would set an 0.035 wire feed rate of around 150 inch/min, approx 2.2 lb/hr, As TIP TIG increases the arc on time to lets say 30 minutes per-hr the TIP TIG welder is depositing 1.1 lb/hr, so you can see with this conservative TIP TIG setting the TIP TIG welder is putting in 200% more weld and depending on the weld application, the TIP TIG process will readily provide a 300 plus percent increase in weld than is possible with the DC TIG welder.
I HOPE YOU ARE NOW ALL WELL AWARE THAT TIP TIG IS UNTOUCHABLE FOR ALLOY WELDS, BUT WHAT ABOUT THE COST SAVINGS FOR A SIMPLE CARBON STEEL PIPES WELD APPLICATION?.
As reported by a TIP TIG user. Our customer ordered plain carbon steel pipe assemblies from the weld shop used in heating system. This was a first time that they had used TIP TIG for any welding application. The biggest pipe was 8 inch diam with a 1/4 wall.
With regular DC TIG it took around 90 minutes to complete the pipe welds from root to cap and this was done with 3-4 passes depending from the welding position. With TIP TIG the same pipe welds with made two weld passes and in 30 minutes. As for the weld quality, 100 % x-ray was used on the welds. With regular TIG this company would often find minor defects and with X-RAY evaluation pipe weld rework was common. In contrast with the TIP TIG welds there was absolutely nothing shown on the X-rays. The X-ray were taken with digital equipment so they were able to zoom in and check everything very precisely. So the weld shop attained far better quality, extensive increased production, and this was within the first two weeks of purchasing the TIP TIG equipment.
Note: Please keep in mind, that with all position code quality weld applications as in pipe and vessel plants will also employ Pulsed MIG welders. You may be surprised to know that the weld deposition rates for code quality vertical up and over head pulsed MIG welds are quite similar to the deposition rates attained by TIP TIG, however the pulsed MIG weld quality will be inferior with special concerns for the weld fusion, the weld heat, porosity and weld fume concerns. Of course for horizontal fillet welds the pulsed MIG process will enable dramatic deposition rate increase, but again with the quality, heat and fume concerns.
REAL WORLD DC TIG VERSUS DC TIP TIG WELD DEPOSITION RATE INCREASE CAPABILITY.
These five all position steel and alloy steel welds represent the majority of all welds.
Note the conversion of 3/32 (2.4 mm) regular TIG wire to an 0.035 (1mm) wire which is common with TIP TIG.
(Brkt is conversion
In contrast to regular TIG. Typical
 Pipe Root
10 to 14 inch/min
(24 – 33 inch/min)
50 to 65
 Pipe Fill
12 – 14 inch/min
(28 – 33 inch/min)
90 to 230
200 to 300 % is norm,
 1/8 Fillet
13 – 15 inch/min
(31 – 36 inch/min)
125 – 140
275 to 325%
 3/16 Fillet
13 – 15 inch/min
(31 – 36 inch/min)
150 – 250
300 to 600%
 1/4 Fillet. This weld size should be also used for multi-pass welds
15 – 18 inch/min
(36 – 43 inch/min)
200 – 350
400 to 800%
Note the above is deposition rates only, the increased arc on times from not having to replace the weld wire and less time required for constantly grinding tungsten which is common function with regular TIG is not included.
WHEN I STARTED TIP TIG USA WITH MY BUSINESS PARTNER TOM, I FOUND IT MORE THAN IRONIC THAT OUR FIRST LARGE CUSTOMER CAME FROM ONE OF THE LARGEST OIL COMPANIES IN CHINA.
As the U.S. Navy is well aware, as America sleeps, China as it does with any important technology, will quickly copy it, embrace it, and aggressively implement it. So maybe I should not have been surprised that when Tom and I opened our U.S. TIP TIG facility around 2009, which ironically was located in the “Philadelphia Navy Yard”, that after attending one of my TIP TIG seminars in the Navy yard, our first large customer was the Chinese National Oil Offshore Company (CNOOC), an offshore exploration & development oil and gas company. CNOOC sent a large group of their engineers first to my workshop, then to our weld shop to view and test the TIP TIG process.
TIP TIG and one of the most difficult weld challenges is Sub Sea Pipe Welds
Part of the prototype, 2009, CNOOC, Subsea , pipe ID, Inconel clad weld application below. Problem with this multi-pass, three layer clad application, is the welds are made at the end of the pipes and there is nowhere for weld heat to go, also no inter-pass temp. was allowed and as you can imagine weld heat build up was extensive and controlling weld fluidity for weld dilution was a major issue with both Hot Wire TIG and Pulsed MIG. TIP TIG provided the solution.
The weld challenge: No Inter-pass temp and, weld chemistry must be controlled and no weld rework allowed. Short weld times were critical. This application was a simple task with TIP TIG, and even the Chinese who had tried all other available global advanced equipment were impressed.
The Chinese Inconel ID pipe clad welds achieved by TIP TIG in 2009.
Note: The untouched. multi-pass, multi-layer clad weld solidification uniformity, and lack of heat build up, (note lack of HAZ). TIP TIG was the only process that could enable this clad quality.
For their sub sea pipe OD and clad ID welds, CNOOC traveled the globe and tried the world’s best pulsed MIG process from Fronius and advanced TIG equipment from Liburdi, however as the months passed, they found no weld process was capable of meeting either their weld or clad quality and production requirements. A prime concern was the short clad and weld times demanded, no inter-pass temp. allowed and no weld rework on the pipe weld joints allowed.
The Chinese engineers stayed in our TIP TIG weld shop for a week, they worked 12 hour days, and whatever the TIP TIG manual and automated weld and clad tests they provided, the process passed with flying colors. Once the pipe clad ID welds on the barge were complete, the pipes had to be edge prepped and OD manually welded. The all position, manual TIP TIG pipe welds had to meet the most stringent weld code requirements and weld rework was not acceptable.
Each TIP TIG welder you see below on the sub sea pipe welds, required less welder skills than a regular TIG welder. Each of the TIP TIG welders was producing approx. 300% more weld each hour than any DCEN TIG manual welder could produce. Also lets not forget the higher weld quality than possible with TIG, and the lowest possible weld heat and lowest possible weld fumes that was IMPORTANT IN THE POORLY VENTILATED, TIGHT CONFINED SPACE IN THE SHIP.
2009: TWO CHINESE TIP TIG WELDERS FINISH THE SUB SEA PIPE WELDS. THIS SHOULD BE A PIPE SHOP NORM FOR THOSE THAT WELD CODE QUALITY WELDS.
Sept 2018. AUSSIES FOUND A SIMPLE SOLUTION TO ATTAINING THE BEST POSSIBLE ARC WELDS QUALITY ON SUBMARINES:
While it would appear that many of the world’s prime defense contractors are stuck in an 1980 weld time warp, the Australian Government owned ship builder, ASC Pty. Ltd, was concerned about the lack of skilled GTAW welders in Australia, however they found that the easy to use TIP TIG process readily attained astounding weld quality and cost results when tested on it’s Submarine Hull Explosive Weld Tests.
Note: I brought TIP TIG to Australia in 2009 and together with business partner and good friend, Tom O’Malley, we set up the Australian TIP TIG distributors and trained the Ausy. personnel in the use of this unique weld process. Never did get a thank you card from ASC, but no worries mate.
In the past, traditional TIG was not suited to thick or large applications, please note we are no longer in that past.
It does not matter what the size of the weld application is, with the easy to use semi-automated or automated TIP TIG process, (if taught correctly) weld personnel will attain moderate weld deposition rates, and always the lowest weld rework potential, the lowest distortion the best possible mechanical properties, and least possible weld fumes.
TIP TIG being tested on overhead, single pass welds on 3/8 Duplex plate.
WHILE THE THE REGULAR DC TIG PROCESS PROVIDED SUPERIOR ARC WELD QUALITY THAN ANY MIG WELD TRANSFER MODE, THE TIG PROCESS HAS TYPICALLY FOR IN SEVEN DECADES SUFFERED FROM RESTRICTED WELD APPLICATION USE: DC TIG low weld deposition rates have for decades restricted the TIG weld application capability. No one wanted to use traditional TIG on large weldments or thick weld applications such as shown below which is part of a duplex vessel and that vessel is now COMPLETELY welded with TIP TIG. The bottom line in 2019 is when all position welds are required, the weld shop will usually turn to Pulsed MIG and flux cored and when NDT is provided slag, porosity fusion, weld fume and weld heat are common weld concerns.
Note the application thickness and the size, however its all welded with TIP TIG. I wonder how many of you will wonder why the TIP TIG welder is using a fresh air supply helmet yet there are weld fumes.
Since the DC TIG introduction in the 1940s, a prime issue with with TIG welds that required filler metal when welding good size applications, was the very low weld deposition rates, (often less than a pound an hour) and the resulting very slow weld speeds and the too too frequent weld start – stops. If the manual TIG welder tried to utilize smaller weld wire diameters such as 0.035 or 0.045, (1 – 1.2 mm), the welder would find they lack the ability to continuously feed the small diameter wires in a controlled manner at weld deposition rates greater than that attained with the easier to control, much slower fed, larger diameter wires.
HIGHLY SENSITIVE ARC LENGTH & LOW DEPOSITION RATES DON’T MAKE A GOOD SEMI OR AUTOMATED PROCESS: With DCEN TIG, the use of low – medium weld current which is influenced by the low DC TIG deposition rates, plus the use of large wires. and wire placement in the arc plasma can result in rapid freeze welds that can interrupt the electron flow, creating “arc length sensitive”, conditions. Arc length sensitivity and low weld deposition rates have for decades made the DCEN TIG process unsuited as either a semi-automatic or fully automated arc weld process. When used for weld automation the traditional DCEN process typically requires costly automated arc length equipment and the welds are still made with very low deposition rates.
Get that Bug-O or any weld carriage out. Connect TIP TIG. No other weld equipment required. Weld both the root and fill passes. Always superior weld quality than Pulsed MIG and Flux Cored. No weld cleaning or weld fume concerns.
In contrast to regular DC TIG which is arc length sensitive, the TIP TIG process is easy to automate and does not require arc length regulation equipment .
HIGH STRENGTH STEELS AND ALL ALLOY STEELS ARE ALL INFLUENCED BY HEAT TREATMENT AND WELD HEAT. TIP TIG IS THE ONLY ARC WELD PROCESS THAT CAN MINIMIZE THE WELDED PART HEAT WHILE PROVIDING THE HIGHEST WELD ENERGY A COMBINATION WHICH ENABLES THE BEST POSSIBLE WELD AND PART METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES.
WHY THE PULSED MIG PROCESS CAN NEVER COMPETE WITH TIP TIG WELD QUALITY AND THE TIP TIG WELDED PART METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES.
Pulsed MIG, high Deposition (fast travel rates) and the required Low Background Current can lead to lack of weld fusion concerns with steels and and with sluggish alloys such as stainless, duplex and inconel, the potential for lack of weld fusion increases.
PULSED MIG ENABLES INCREASED WELD DEPOSITION RATES THAT ALLOW FASTER WELD SPEEDS, WITH HOWEVER, REVERSE ELECTRODE POSITIVE: In contrast to the higher arc temperature DCEN TIP TIG process in which the electrons flow from the Negative Tungsten to Positive work, both MIG and Gas Shielded Flux Cored welds use Reverse Polarity Electrode Positive (RPEP), a polarity in which the electron flow is from the positive work to the tip of the continuous fed MIG weld wire.
The Electrode Positive Polarity concentrates the majority of the arc plasma energy around the positive MIG or flux cored wire tip. This plasma energy concentration enables rapid melting of the continuous fed MIG weld wire, producing typical MIG weld depositions rates that can be as high as 15 times than that attained with traditional DCEN TIG. Even with the greater MIG and flux cored weld deposition rates that enable far greater weld speeds than regular DCEN TIG welds, that highly concentrated MIG / FCA plasma energy retention in the arc plasma results in welds that typically will produce Large Weld Heat Affected Zones and concerns for Distortion, Stresses and Oxidation.
WHILE LOW DEPOSITION PROCESSES LIKE DC TIG CAN CREATE WELD HEAT ISSUES DUE TO SLOW WELD SPEEDS, HIGHER DEPOSITION RATES FROM MIG SHORT CIRCUIT, PULSED & SPRAY ENABLE FASTER WELD SPEED BUT ALSO CAUSE WELD HEAT AND QUALITY ISSUES.
Weld speeds influence the time required for weld fusion to occur. MIG and flux cored weld deposition rates enable much faster weld speeds than processes such as DC TIG and SMAW. In many instances those weld speeds especially with Pulsed MIG (background current influence) can produce welds that may have lack of fusion. The lack of fusion issue also applies to MIG Spray Transfer that will provide higher plasma energy than Pulsed MIG, As all MIG modes and flux cored require reactive gas mixes such as CO2 or Oxygen, these processes are also more prone to porosity, surface oxidation and weld fume concerns.
In contrast to regular DC TIG, TIP TIG enables one to five hundred percent increase in weld deposition rates which are still less less than MIG and flux cored. However the deposition rates attained with the “higher arc temperature” TIP TIG process creates a unique optimum Weld Energy to Weld Deposition Rate Balance, that enables the best possible arc weld fusion and all position weld control.
Note: As its been for at least twenty years, The TIP TIG, MIG and Flux Cored weld information attained at this web site is not be available from Lincoln, Miller, Hobart, ESAB or any other global source of weld process data:
With regular TIG or Pulsed MIG, you could not duplicate this manual TIP TIG single pass, untouched stainless weld.
WHAT MANAGER WOULD NOT WANT TO SEE THEIR WELD COSTS, WELD FAILURES, WELD REWORK, WELD RISKS & LIABILITY REDUCED? You don’t have to be an aaccountant to understand the weld cost savings potential from TIP TIG. Its easy to see that once the traditional TIP TIG process is selected that the numerous global companies using DC TIG and Pulsed MIG for “code quality” steels and alloy steel welds, will with the elimination of weld rejects and rework generate extensive annual weld cost savings. An important point also for many companies is the ability with TIP TIG to dramatically reduce or eliminate Weld Failure Risk and Liability Concerns, which should be of special interest for Aerospace, Energy and Defense companies.
Remember TIP TIG with increased weld quality potential and reduced welder skills. management should anticipate more manual and automated weld quality uniformity and consistency in their daily welds produced. Lets also not forget that another benefit with the TIP TIG process is that companies will not have the future worry of finding and hiring skilled DC TIG welders, (always difficult and now redundant).
TIP TIG PIPE ROOT. WALK THE TIP TIG NOZZLE ON THE GROOVE SIDES AND LET THE PROCESS DO THE REST.
SO, HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO TRAIN SOMEONE TO USE THE TIP TIG PROCESS? Most pipe welders would consider a fixed pipe open root, as the most difficult part of the pipe weld. So with TIP TIG, you would show the person who wants to do what any TIG welders would do on a pipe root and that is walk and weave the ceramic Cup across the pipe groove surface. But in contrast to regular TIG. No feeding a weld wire and no foot control required. With TIP TIG, reduced weld starts /stops and the welder will provide a manual pipe root weld continuity never before attained.
SHORT TRAINING TIMES IS SOMETHING THAT WELD MANAGERS DEALING WITH CODE WELDS SHOULD GET EXITED ABOUT: If the pipe welder using TIP TIG is used to DC TIG welding, all position, open root pipe welds, it would takes one to two days to learn the required TIP TIG best practices and settings as provided in my TIP TIG program. However something that should bring joy to those managers who have unnecessarily been keep complaining over the last decade how difficult it is to “find skilled TIG welders”. It would take someone again using my TIP TIG training program about eight to ten days to train a person Who Has Never Welded to become a TIP TIG weld expert, and to be able to pass any code, (including ASME) all position, Pipe Welder Qualification Tests.
I am well aware that at most of the Fortune 500, high tech. Defense, Aerospace, Power, Oil and Medical corporations, that you will usually find minimum understanding in the engineering office on the weld quality – cost benefits attained with weld process controls and on best weld practice expertise. This lack of process control awareness is mostly responsible for the general global lack of front office weld process ownership and the daily weld quality, rework, rejects and unacceptable weld production costs. By the way any manager or engineer that believes in the importance of engineering evolution, should take a look at the dates of the weld procedures and specifications that they daily use, and wonder why as we get close to 2020 that their company is still likely using Weld Procedures & Specifications that were generated in the 20th century.
JUST ABOUT EVERY WELD TRAINING DEPARTMENT AND COMMUNITY COLLEGE WELD PROGRAM THAT I EVALUATED IN THE LAST FEW DECADES WAS STUCK IN A 1970s TIME WARP. IF COMPANIES WANT DRAMATIC WELD QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS AND COST REDUCTIONS, THEY SHOULD AT LEAST WONDER WHY THE EXISTING WELDER TRAINING PROGRAMS RESULT IN WELDERS OR WELD DECISION MAKERS “PLAYING WITH WELD CONTROLS” AND WHY FEW WELDERS OR FRONT OFFICE WELD DECISION MAKERS LACK THE ABILITY TO MAXIMIZE MIG AND FLUX CORED WELD WELD QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY FROM WELD PROCESSES THAT HAVE CHANGED LITTLE SINCE THE 1960s.
Note: My easy to learn TIP TIG – Manual and Robot MIG and Flux Cored, Self Teaching / Process Controls – Best Weld Practice Training programs require approx. 15 hours. These are a great tools to train yourself or those employees that for decades think its normal to “play around” with their weld controls. Please be aware that its no good purchasing a new process such as TIP TIG and then have weld personnel that are not aware of how to get the best possible weld results on the numerous weld applications that TIP TIG should be used on.
It does not matter how experienced weld personnel are, all weld personnel will benefit from training programs that enable process optimization. To get immediate and dramatic weld quality – cost benefits from the TIP process, and to avoid weld personnel playing around with the TIP TIG weld controls, consider spending a couple of hundred dollars and get the world’s best TIP TIG + ADVANCED TIG – OR MY MANUAL & ROBOT MIG and FLUX CORED self teach / training programs.
Around 2009, after I set the TIP TIG pipe weld parameters for the Westinghouse pipe welder, these guys are normally aggressive with their TIG amps settings however this Westinghouse pipe welder was not aware that while he was using TIP TIG he was putting in > 200 % more weld. Of course the weld reality is ten years later I would think that most of the engineering and project managers at Westinghouse are still not aware of the weld application potential, the weld quality and productivity benefits attained from using TIP TIG.
2019: TRADITIONAL TIG AND OBSOLETE WELDER SKILLS: As TIG welders cannot consistently feed small diameter weld wires fast enough, the welders typically use large wire diameter wires, 1/16 to 1/8, (1.6 to 3.2 mm) are common. Part of a TIG welders “skills” and learning curve is to be aware of the TIG weld pool fluidity, and manually feed the large weld wire so it makes an intermittent, rapid contact with the small rapid freeze fluid area at the front edge of the TIG weld, and then be aware of when to withdraw the wire from the pool so the plasma retains the required weld fluidity.
The DC TIG manual wire feed requirements, maintaining the correct arc length from the tungsten to the weld, avoiding contamination of the tungsten with either the weld and wire, understanding the weld pool fluidity, with the sometimes the use of a foot amp control, have for seven decades been important prerequisites of the manual TIG welder’s skills, and those skill in reality for more a decade have no longer been required with the TIP TIG process.
TRADITIONAL TIG COMBINES POOR ARC PLASMA ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FOR A TIG WELD WITH VERY LOW WELD DEPOSITION POTENTIAL: Take at the left picture at how a good portion of the traditional DCEN TIG arc plasma energy is required to assist in melting a small amount of the large DC TIG wire tip, while almost an equal portion of the TIG arc plasma is required to maintain a small fluid weld area. Its notable with the DC TIG welds, that as the TIG wire is dipped in the weld pool, it absorbs energy away from both the fluid part of the weld pool and also from the arc plasma. When you combine the “dual plasma DC TIG energy distribution requirements” with the DC Electrode Negative polarity in which the electrons are drawn to to the positive work, we end up with a DC TIG process that provides rapid freeze welds, arc length sensitivity concerns and very low weld deposition rates.
Unfortunately over the last decade, many of the managers and engineers in the Power, Medical, Defense, Aerospace, Oil and Gas industries that are responsible for weld decisions, seem to be stuck with 20th Century weld processes, and unfortunately most are not aware of the reduced weld risk, and extensive weld quality & cost benefits that could be derived for their organizations from the use of either the manual or automated DC TIP TIG process.
2019 Fancy Gloves & Jacket. New TIG Torch & Helmet. New TIG Inverter power source, yet still using the outdated, 20th century GTAW process.
2018: WHEN A WELD SHOP UTILIZES THE ABOVE 70 YEAR OLD, DC GTAW (TIG) PROCESS INSTEAD OF TIP TIG, EACH HOUR THEY ARE PRODUCING INFERIOR WELD QUALITY. EACH HOUR THEY ARE TYPICALLY PRODUCING 200 TO 400% LESS WELD. EACH HOUR THEY ARE USING A PROCESS THAT REQUIRES MUCH HIGHER WELDER SKILLS. EACH HOUR THEY CREATE UNNECESSARY WELD HEAT AFFECTING WELD/ PART PROPERTIES AND DISTORTION.
IN 2019, THE MAJORITY OF COMPANIES IN NORTH AMERICA THAT MAKE HEAT EXCHANGES ARE STUCK IN THE 20th CENTURY USING MANUAL OR AUTOMATED TIG. The poor quality “manual TIG welds below were proudly displayed in a US, 2109 weld magazine. These are heat exchange tubes and when you get sad manual weld quality like this, its one reason the companies that make these products will turn to costly, automated TIG weld equipment. With welds like this, the back plates are typically grooved, so the welds will typically require two or more weld passes per-tube. Note. On Heat Exchange welds. if the manual or automated TIG welds required two to three passes, in contrast TIP TIG depositing much more weld metal would typically require one weld pass.
REGULAR MANUAL GTAW HEAT EXCHANGE WELDS.
Heat exchange tube approx. circumference 9 inches. Note the weld inconsistency as the welder has gone around the tube.
Lets say for example with the above heat exchange welds that with the regular TIG weld stops / starts, it took approx. 5 – 7 minutes for the TIG first pass, and 9 – 11 min for the second larger TIG pass. We end up with an average time of 15 minutes for this one weld joint completion with two weld passes. In contrast, manual TIP TIG would not only produce much higher quality welds that would look like they were made with automation, TIP TIG would take approx. 1 minutes to complete a weld such as below.
TIP TIG HEAT EXCHANGE WELDS.
SO WITH TIP TIG the welder is again producing weld quality that looks like its produced with automated weld equipment. TIP TIG requires far less manual welding skills than TIG. TIP TIG reduces weld cleaning and weld fumes. TIP TIG dramatically lowers the weld heat input. TIP TIG will reduce the number of weld start stops, (common weld defect locations). TIP TIG reduces the amount of weld passes required. And after more than a decade since TIP TIG was introduced, thanks to ineffective weld management, most global weld shops are still using tradition TIG or wasting money on unnecessary costly, automated Hot Wire TIG equipment.
TIP TIG on difficult small diameter heat exchange welds.
It has to be a benefit on these difficult to weld, small diameter tube welds, to;
[a] Use an arc weld process that enables one or two hands.
[b] A process that does not require a foot control.
[c] A process that enables optimum control of the weld starts and stops.
[d] A process that continuously delivers the weld wire into the arc sweet spot from the weld start too the weld end.
[e] A process that requires less skills than TIG or pulsed MIG.
[f] A process that always provides higher weld quality than TIG.
[g] A process that always produces lower weld heat than any TIG or pulsed MIG weld.
[h] A process that will always enable superior weld mechanicals and corrosion properties than any GTAW, Pulsed MIG or Hot Wire TIG weld.
IN THE 1960s, I STARTED MIG, TIG & FLUX CORED WELDING ON TRACTORS AT MASSEY FERGUSON IN THE UK. IF I COULD TAKE YOU BACK TO THAT TIME, AND WAS ABLE TO USE THE WELD EQUIPMENT AND CONSUMABLES AVAILABLE, IN A FEW MINUTES, I WOULD SHOW YOU HOW LITTLE THINGS HAVE CHANGED AND PRODUCE OPTIMUM MIG, FCAW AND TIG WELD QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY THAT IN REALITY IS NO DIFFERENT THAN WHAT WILL BE PRODUCED IN 2020 ON STEELS & ALLOY APPLICATIONS. THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT WELD CHANGES THAT HAVE HAPPENED OVER 60 YEARS, ARE PULSED MIG FOR THIN ALUMINUM AND TIP TIG FOR CODE QUALITY WELDS.
A MISSING LINK OVER THE 60 YEARS. Thanks to the general lack of global weld process controls and best weld practice expertise, for six plus decades, too many in the weld industry have relied on weld sales advice. From my perspective, (Note I trained over 2000 weld salesmen in the US and Canada) weld sales advice is rarely the logical engineering route to weld process optimization and process ownership. My weld reality has been, that most weld shops are likely to get more realistic weld process control – best weld practice advice from a used car salesman.
IF YOU WANT THE BEST POSSIBLE WELD QUALITY WITH THE LOWEST WELD REPAIR COSTS, AND YOU WOULD LIKE AN ALL POSITION PROCESS THAT REQUIRES THE LEAST WELDING SKILLS, YOU MAY WANT TO RELY LESS ON A SALESMAN FOR WELD ADVICE, AND TAKE A LOOK AT TIP TIG & ALSO TAKE A LOOK AT MY WELD PROCESS CONTROL – BEST WELD PRACTICE SELF TEACHING / TRAINING RESOURCES.
ABOUT THE SAME BS AS FOUND IN A USED CAR LOT.
2019: PLEASE NOTE: AS LINCOLN MILLER, ESAB, HOBART DID NOT INVENT THE TIP TIG PROCESS, A PROCESS THAT BY THE WAY ATTAINS IT’S PRIMARY TIG WELD BENEFITS NOT FROM ELECTRONICS BUT FROM A PATENTED MECHANICAL WIRE ACTION, THERE WILL NOT LIKELY BE A WELD DISTRIBUTOR SALESMAN KNOCKING ON MOST COMPANIES DOORS TO INTRODUCE THIS PROCESS. HOWEVER, THE WELD REALITY IS, IF MANAGERS, ENGINEERS AND SUPERVISORS HAVE TO RELY ON A SALESMAN FOR THEIR COMPANIES WELD APPLICATIONS & PROGRESS, ALL I CAN SAY IS, FOR GODS SAKE, IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN ATTAINING THE BEST POSSIBLES WELD QUALITY AND THE LOWEST WELD COSTS, “STEP UP TO THE PLATE AND TAKE OWNERSHIP.”
2018: FOR A DECADE, ITS MADE NO ENGINEERING SENSE FOR MANAGERS & ENGINEERS TO REQUEST UNNECESSARY WELDER SKILLS: As the aerospace welder on the right indicates with his complex TIG alloy application, how many other global companies in 2019 are welding heat sensitive alloys and code quality components & using the obsolete, DC TIG weld process that produce pathetic weld production, high weld heat and requires high welder skills?
Of all available manual “arc” weld processes, for the last seven decades, the traditional DC TIG process has required the highest welder skills, and those skills and weld practices vary greatly from one TIG welder to another. The different skills and techniques that welders use in feeding their TIG weld wire, plus the common contamination and wear of the tungsten, and also the too frequent weld starts and stops which come with wire length changes, dramatically impact both the DC TIG weld quality and consistency.
Note: I should not have to remind those that arc weld parts in the Aerospace, Defense, Power, Medical and Energy industries, of the importance of using an arc weld process such as TIP TIG which enable minimal welder skills for all position welds, and produces the most uniform, consistent, highest possible, manual or automated weld quality with the benefits attained from lowest possible weld heat.
With with TIP TIG manual welds, the welds are being made with a “Semi-Automatic” TIG process that is readily Automated without the requirement for costly, automatic arc length adjustment equipment. The TIP TIG manual welder does not need skills to feed a weld wire. With TIP TIG, the weld wire is continuously fed into a TIG plasma sweet spot, something not possible from any manual TIG welder. The TIP TIG wire melt rate is both uniform and continuous, again something not possible from a manual TIG welder. With TIP TIG no foot controls required and no stopping of the weld for a new wire length. With TIP TIG the weld wire is not fed close to the tungsten, its fed instead into the edge of the arc plasma periphery, avoiding the chances of tungsten contamination, and tungsten melting into the weld is also dramatically reduced. Once a welder becomes familiar with TIP TIG, its likely in a shift that they may only have to grind their tungsten once.
FROM PIPE ROOTS TO PIPE FILL, LARGE OR SMALL PARTS, MANUAL OR AUTOMATED, YOU WILL FIND TIP TIG IS AN EASY TO USE PROCESS AND REQUIRES NO MORE THAN “THREE WELD SETTINGS” TO JUST ABOUT WELD ANY ALL POSITION STEELS AND ALLOY STEEL APPLICATIONS FROM 16 GAGE TO ANY THICKNESS. TIP TIG PROVIDES ANY COMPANY FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE ARC WELD PROCESSES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED TO FINALLY PRODUCE FIRST TIME, DEFECT FREE WELDS. NO ERGONOMIC OR WELD FUME ISSUES. NO METALLURGICAL OR DISTORTION ISSUES. REDUCED PREHEAT – INTER-PASS TEMP OR POST HEAT CONCERNS. NO WELD CLEANING & DON’T FORGET THE MINIMAL WELDER SKILLS REQUIRED.
THE PRIMARY ARC WELDING PROCESSES SUCH AS MIG – TIG – FLUX CORED & SMAW, HAVE CHANGED LITTLE IN SIX DECADES, AND THESE WELD PROCESSES ACCOUNT FOR MORE THAN 98% OF THE GLOBAL WELDS PRODUCED DAILY. A logical question would be why would any manger or engineer responsible for welds, ignore a new arc weld process that can provides extensive weld quality and cost benefits, an easy to use weld process that anyone who has never welded can learn in less than 10 days.
2018: THE “WHY CHANGE THE WAY WE HAVE ALWAYS DONE IT” WELD SHOPS CAN CONTINUE TO PURCHASE MAGIC WELD GAS MIXES OR WELD EQUIPMENT TOO OFTEN LOADED WITH COSTLY, USELESS ELECTRONIC BELLS AND WHISTLES, OR THEY CAN SIMPLY LEARN ABOUT PROCESSES AND PROCESS CONTROLS, AND GET A GRIP ON THE REQUIREMENTS FOR WELD PROCESS OWNERSHIP WHICH WILL ENABLE POSITIVE COST EFFECTIVE WELD CHANGES FOR THEIR COMPANIES:
With it’s latest Inverter TIG equipment, Miller proudly announced with the advanced electronics that it can speed a companies DC TIG welds by 17%. What does that mean? Well your DC TIG welder is making a weld on 3/16 or 1/4 stainless at a typical travel rate of 3 inch/min, that new Millers Inverter TIG power source now enables with the 17% increase in weld speed a new weld speed of 3.5 inch/min, yawn. In contrast, when TIP TIG equipment is added to that Miller power source, it usually enables 200 to 400 % in weld deposition rates that enable 300 to 700% increase in TIG weld speeds. Remember weld speeds influence weld & clad heat, and weld heat influences weld – part metallurgical properties, distortion, stresses and oxidation.
Its common in high tech industries, to find that the managers & engineers responsible for welds, will often not be aware of the required weld process control expertise and therefore struggle to attain weld process ownership.
Aerospace Industry, often using 30 year old weld specifications and weld procedures from the 20th Century.
2018: WHEN HIGH TECH. INDUSTRIES, THE ARMED FORCES & RESEARCH FACILITIES SUCH AS LOS ALAMO LABS AND COLORADO SCHOOLS OF MINES IGNORE OR ARE NOT AWARE OF AN IMPORTANT ARC WELD PROCESS THAT’S BEEN AVAILABLE FOR A DECADE, WHAT DOES THAT SAY ABOUT THOSE RESEARCHERS THAT ARE MAKING THE WELD DECISIONS?
Hundreds of millions of dollars would have be saved on any LNG construction, offshore or sub-sea projects, if the engineers responsible made the right weld decisions and stopped using traditional DC GTAW and Pulsed MIG, and instead used TIP TIG on most of their code quality welds.
Thousands or millions of weld labor hours wasted on building projects like this.
FOR THOSE LOOKING FOR NEW BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES OR FOR RAPID WELD COST QUALITY / PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENTS? Weld shop managers, engineers and supervisors might want to wake up to the weld quality & productivity benefits attained by TIP TIG, these are not the nickel and dime, hard to measure weld benefits that are usually proclaimed with the latest electronic Inverter DC TIG or Pulsed MIG equipment when welding steels and alloy welds. The highest all position weld quality and lowest weld heat means minimal concerns with even the most complex alloys. The beneficial weld process attributes from the easy to use TIP TIG process, enable game changing weld quality / production benefits that can dramatically impact any weld shop’s manual and automated weld application capability, think about the cost benefits from zero weld rework.
THE PULSED MIG ACHILLES HEEL: When it comes to delivering optimum manual arc weld quality, many steel and alloy steel welds are made with the manual Pulsed MIG process, with it’s weld fusion, porosity, spatter, arc stability and weld heat concerns. For more than three decades, many companies simply have not understand why Pulsed MIG can be a poor process choice when welding code quality steels and alloy steel parts > 4 mm, and especially welding alloy steels such as stainless and duplex, which have sluggish, slower weld solidification characteristics.
2019: The most critical defect any weld can have is lack of weld fusion and with many pulsed MIG welds you will find manual weld fusion concerns especially on fillet and groove welds on parts 3/16 plus. I have written three books on the weld fusion concerns with pulsed MIG, and for twenty years my weldreality.com web site has been presenting the pulsed MIG steel weld issues along with evidence of the poor pulsed MIG weld results.
PULSED MIG AND LACK OF WELD FUSION: There are two primary factors why Pulsed MIG will at times result in weld fusion issues.
 Pulsed MIG has to use a “low back ground current” to form and sustain the weld droplet and transfer. In contrast to MIG Spray transfer, the pulsed MIG back ground current takes weld energy away from the pulsed weld. To attain a higher energy pulsed MIG weld, the welder would have to turn the wire feed up and increase the weld deposition rates, (increase weld travel rates). From a cost perspective, high deposition rates are a good feature of a weld process. From a weld fusion perspective, increasing weld speeds does not enhance weld fusion capability.
 In contrast to SMAW (stick) and DC TIG , Pulsed MIG enables all position welds at much higher weld deposition rates. A welder could weld a 6 mm wall stainless pipe (fill passes) with pulsed MIG, and readily attain a weld deposition rate of 6 to 10 lb/hr. with typical manual weld travel rates on the vertical up welds usually between 10 and 15 inch/min. The same vertical up, pipe fill pass welds made with DC TIG or the SMAW process would typically be delivering approx. one pound/hr, with weld travel rates of 1 to 3 inch/min.
WELD DEPOSITION & TRAVEL RATES AND WELD FUSION: Note on the importance of weld travel rates and weld fusion: Its the low weld deposition and resulting LOW WELD TRAVEL RATES that enable the time required for all position weld fusion to occur with both the TIG and SMAW process. The all position weld fusion that occurs with these two low deposition weld processes is usually equal or superior weld fusion than that possible with the higher weld deposition, much faster weld travel rate, Pulsed MIG process. However from my perspective the weld speeds attainable with TIG and SMAW are too slow while the pulsed MIG travel rates are too fast. Manual or automated welds, there is only one process that provides the ideal weld speeds, with the highest weld energy, and that process is TIP TIG.
One easy to use process. No spatter, no fumes, no weld defects from pipe or plate root to fill. It would take 7 to 8 TIG welders to achieve in one hour, what we trained these two TIP TIG welders to attain for the Chinese National Oil Company welding sub-sea pipe.
The following are logical reasons why TIP TIG will provide superior weld fusion and lower weld porosity than any other arc weld process.
 TIP TIG ENABLES HIGHER WELD ENERGY THAN BOTH DC TIG AND PULSED MIG.
 TIP TIG IS THE ONLY ARC PROCESS THAT AGITATES THE WELD POOL SLOWING THE WELD SOLIDIFICATION WHICH NOT ONLY BENEFITS WELD FUSION AND REDUCES WELD POROSITY, IT ALSO ELIMINATES SLUGGISH ALLOY CONCERNS.
 TIP TIG PROVIDES WELD SPEEDS SUITED TO ATTAIN WELD FUSION, SLOWER THAN PULSED MIG & FASTER THAN TIG.
 TIP TIG REQUIRES LESS ALL POSITION WELDER SKILLS THAN TIG AND PULSED MIG.
 TIP TIG ONLY REQUIRES ONE PROCESS FOR ROOT AND FILL ON ANY THICKNESS.
 TIP TIG PROVIDES SOMETHING THAT TIG CANNOT PROVIDE, IT PROVIDES CONSTANT, UNIFORM MELTING OF THE WELD WIRE DELIVERED TO THE SWEET ARC SPOT.
Few global weld decision makers will be aware of the TIP TIG weld capability and weld benefits as both a manual, semi-automated process, or fully automated arc weld process. Few will be aware that TIP TIG is an easy to use process especially with all position welds. Few will be aware that it typically takes three to four DCEN TIG welders to do the work that one TIP TIG welder can do each hour. Few will be aware that TIP TIG will always provide superior weld quality than DCEN TIG, Plasma, Hot Wire TIG, Hybrid MIG and the Pulsed MIG process. Few will be aware that the DCEN TIP TIG process always enables not only the highest arc weld / part quality capability but also the lowest possible weld and part heat enabling the lowest weld distortion and never before attained metallurgical properties.
2018: The bottom line in the why change the way we have always done it, and give me some time to play with the weld controls, or lets get weld advice from a salesman, weld industry, is that there is an excellent opportunity for front office weld decision makers to enable dramatic weld quality improvements and cost reductions, for their organizations. However to attain those weld quality / cost benefits, front office personnel would have to do something many are often reluctant to do, step up to the plate, take process ownership, learn and embrace a 21st century weld process called TIP TIG (my TIP TIG program has all the training and procedure data you need for any application).
Consider providing yourself or employees with one or more of my TIP TIG – Advanced TIG – MIG – Flux cored or Robot MIG Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practice, Self Teaching / Training Programs. By the way, why the above submarine? If like me you have an interest in the never ending, dramatic, inexcusable weld cost consequences for the Navy and its prime contractors when they build subs or any sea going vessels, scroll down. For those that want more info. you can call me at 828 337 2695 Eastern time. For those like me that don’t have a life and love this stuff keep on trucking.
TIP TIG, unique weld attributes and unique weld and part benefits.
Lets further evaluate the TIP TIG manual and automated weld / part application benefits between the following three widely used arc weld processes, and also discuss the weld shop reluctance to change which is common throughout the global weld industry.
 Traditional Manual DCEN TIG.
 Automated DCEN Hot Wire TIG.
 Reverse Polarity Pulsed MIG.
2019. WHY CHANGE THE 70 YEAR OLD WAY WE HAVE ALWAYS DONE IT? Since the 1940’s, DCEN TIG has been attaining the highest manual arc weld quality, however for more than a decade, TIP TIG has been a superior semi-automatic and automated arc process, providing many weld and application benefits.
Great weld quality with numerous weld shop issues & restrictions.
2019: Its been approx. 10 years since DCEN TIG evolved into a process called DCEN TIP TIG, however a primary issue in the global weld industry has been the slow acceptance of the TIP TIG process, and the weld reality has been that many companies that use traditional DCEN TIG are missing out on an opportunity for their companies to extend their weld application capability and make dramatic weld quality improvements with extensive weld cost savings. Its important to also note that out of all the common arc weld processes daily utilized, the DCEN TIG process has required the “highest manual welder skills” that when combined with the lowest weld deposition rates typically produces the “highest arc weld labor costs”.
One hindrance against weld shop progress and TIG evolution, is often weld shop attitude. Those that know me will be aware from my arc weld process controls – best weld practice books, 40 plus weld articles, and process control training materials and workshops, would be aware that for more than three decades, I have been more than a little frustrated with;
(a) the global, lack of management and engineer weld process ownership,
(b) the why change the way we have always done it attitude,
(c) the play around with the weld controls weld shop acceptance,
(d) the reliance on a weld salesman for weld advice,
(e) the lack of weld process controls and best weld practice expertise.
With the above in mind, I would like to start this blog on the now approx. decade old TIP TIG process, by asking a question.
“How long do you believe it should take experienced global weld decision makers to recognize the superior weld quality capability, the improved part mechanical or metallurgy properties and dramatic weld cost reduction benefits derived from a an arc weld process such as TIP TIG”?
 TIP TIG enables the lowest possible all position welder skills,
 TIP TIG always provides superior weld quality than manual TIG, and also Automated Hot Wire TIG and the Pulsed MIG process.
 TIP TIG while providing the highest possible arc weld quality, also provides the lowest possible weld heat. This unique combination enables extraordinary weld quality & part metallurgical benefits never before attained in the welding industry.
 TIP TIG with providing the lowest possible arc weld heat enables the lowest possible weld stresses and distortion.
 TIP TIG with the lowest possible weld heat and inert gas enables the lowest possible weld fumes.
 TIP TIG dramatically lowers hourly labor costs from increased TIG weld productivity typically in the range of 200 to 400%.
 TIP TIG is the first semi-automated and fully automated arc weld process that has the potential on most all position, steels. alloy steels and alloy welds, to eliminate the need for weld rework.
 TIP TIG requires less all position welder skills than any of the traditional arc weld processes.
As someone who has been requested by frustrated managers to solve their weld problems and improve their weld quality and productivity in over a 1000 weld shops in 13 countries, I am well aware that the majority of the companies employ front office personnel that lacked the Weld Process Control – Best Weld Practice expertise that’s necessary for front office weld process ownership.
In many companies, the front office personnel responsible for the weld shop will often rely on the weld shop personnel that when not playing around with their weld controls, will be asked to evaluate new weld equipment or consumables that’s typically recommended by a sales rep. The weld personnel will rarely have weld process control expertise, and that sales rep will usually have had no previous experience in running a weld shop.
As the TIP TIG process was not invented by the major global weld equip. manufactures, it’s unlikely a weld sales rep will turn up at your facility and discuss, or even be aware of the weld benefits of the TIP TIG process. Also, it’s not likely that any company that has to seek arc weld process advice from a weld salesman, will be anxious to seek out new weld technology that’s not introduced by the conventional weld distributors. However as the useless politicians in Washington keep informing us, “it’s time for change”. And let’s face it! there should be no room in the highly competitive, global weld industry for arc weld process confusion, weld process ignorance or weld process apathy, especially in any business in which the arc welds play an important role in their organization.
The DCEN TIP TIG process, is a unique arc weld process that provides a continuous fed, preheated and agitated weld wire into a DCEN (electrode negative) arc. Variable polarity TIP TIG can also provide remarkable TIG weld benefits.
With the TIP TIG there is a relationship between the TIP TIG wire diameter, the continuous fed wire feed rates, the wire to tungsten placement, the tungsten size, profile and current utilized. To attain weld optimization with TIP TIG, there are specific techniques and best weld practices that should be applied. All of these requirements are provided and simplified in my TIP TIG process control and best weld practice self teaching / training program provided below.
WHILE SOME IN AMERICA ARE ASLEEP AT THE WHEEL:
It’s ironic that the first customer for TIP TIG at our USA facility, was the “Chinese National Oil Company”.
TIP TIG and Welder Skills: AS the TIP TIG weld wire does not have to be fed manually, and a foot amp control is not necessary, in contrast to regular TIG, the TIP TIG process dramatically reduces welder skills. However to attain the full TIP TIG weld process and weld application potential, and to also break the common weld shop “play around” with the weld controls approach to many arc welds, it would be beneficial if in 2019 that management take a role in process ownership and ensure that both the TIP TIG process controls and best weld practices are learnt. Remember to learn the “all position” TIP TIG pipe welder skills would take a TIG welder between 1 to 2 days. And to train someone with someone who has never welded with any process, it would take them with the TIP TIG process, if taught correctly, 3 to 5 days to pass any code pipe welder qualification test.
TIP TIG and Weld Practices: No matter what the skill level of the welder is, the weld personnel should learn the unique TIP TIG weld practices, techniques, and the few required optimum weld settings. These are available in my TIP TIG Self Teaching – Training program. This program requires approx. 10 to 12 hours.
As I write this in 2019, I hope this blog will help take some of the weld process and application confusion out of the TIP TIG process. I also hope that the TIP TIG info and application data at this site speeds up the acceptance of this unique, important weld process and enable weld decision makers to be aware of where DCEN TIP TIG process belongs throughout the global weld industry.
I recognize that while the lack of Manual and Robot MIG weld process control expertise and best weld practices maybe an acceptable way of life with the majority of front office weld decision makers in the global Auto & Truck industry, an industry that is used to daily accepting 30 – 60% daily robot MIG weld rework and extensive daily robot down time. However this lack of expertise should not be considered acceptable in weld shops that produce code quality welds. Weld shops that have an interest in enhancing their company’s weld capability and reputation. Weld shops that have an interest in reducing their weld costs and increasing profits.
You don’t need to be a rocket scientist to figure out that the global lack of arc weld process controls & best weld practice expertise, along with the too common reliance by weld shops for weld advice from sales reps, would influence the weld shop and the front office culture and possibly have a negative impact on the acceptance of a new arc weld process such as the TIP TIG.
Sales Influence on weld shops: Lets face it, when weld sales reps are required to guide key weld shop decision makers on arc weld equipment or consumables, products that in reality have changed little in decades, this is usually an indication that the company lacks the ability for Weld Process Ownership. When this expertise is lacking, someone will pay a steep price.
MIG – FCAW – Advanced TIG – TIP TIG or ROBOT MIG, every weld shop will benefit from focus on Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practice Expertise.
AN INDUSTRY THAT RELIES ON INEXPERIENCED SALES ADVICE TO RESOLVE THEIR WELD PROCESS ISSUES, PAYS A PRICE:
Costly MIG power source Bells and Whistles: It’s not difficult to comprehend that much of the traditional Pulsed MIG weld equipment purchased over the last three decades, will have been purchased as a result of weld sales influence, and as a result of dubious product marketing weld claims from weld equip. mfgs. The MIG equipment purchased would often be loaded with costly, useless electronic bells and whistles, circuit boards that rarely influenced the weld quality or productivity, circuit boards that however typically enabled the weld equipment and distributor’s to increase their MIG power source profits.
Salesmanship also has influenced the purchase of weld consumables. For example, instead of the four MIG gas mixes required for all global MIG welds, we have more than 40 MIG gas mixes to choose from. (By the way I was a key writer of the AWS MIG gas specifications). And instead of using MIG wires many companies will often purchase unnecessary and more costly, Flux Cored or Metal Cored wires.
What makes TIP TIG Unique? In contrast to many of the weld power sources produced in the last two decades, the DCEN TIP TIG process does not derive its increased TIG weld quality productivity and weld application capability from a weld power source loaded with electronic bells and whistles. TIP TIG DC weld current is derived from a conventional, suitable, 300 to 500 amp DC TIG power source. That TIG power source is combined with a patented TIP TIG Wire Feed delivery system, plus a small Hot Wire TIG power source and a unique torch is provided.
The TIP TIG Mechanical Wire Action drives TIP TIG benefits: Through a patented mechanical action, the TIP TIG wire feed drive roll mount goes back and forth at high speed. This action on the wire creates a restricted tension and release on the continuous fed weld wire. The mechanical action on the TIP TIG continuous fed wire creates an agitation effect on the weld wire, which when viewed is similar to a vibrating guitar string. The pre-heated agitated TIP TIG weld wire is fed through the unique TIP TIG torch that delivers the wire to a specific point near the tungsten.
TIP TIG WIRE AGITATION AND WELD BENEFITS:
TIP TIG Wire Agitation enables benefits. As the TIP TIG weld wire makes contact with the outer periphery of the TIG arc plasma, the wire tip melts and a droplet is formed. The TIP TIG wire agitation helps detach and speed up the transfer of the molten weld drops into the fluid weld pool. Without the wire agitation the droplet at the wire tip could grow larger, and the continuous, rapid fed wire could be driven into the weld causing a disruption. No Manual TIG welder could provide a continuous fed weld wire consistently at the TIG arc plasma sweet spot. The TIP TIG optimum wire placement at the sweet spot in the arc outer plasma periphery, is using an area in the plasma in which minimal plasma energy is utilized for the wire melt, and therefore in contrast to regular DCEN TIG, more of the TIP TIG arc plasma energy can be maintained over the fluid surface of the weld.
TIP TIG Plasma Heat Distribution is different than TIG. Again note with regular DCEN TIG, the plasma distribution and the intermittent plasma task between melting the large diameter TIG wire and heating the weld and part surface. The TIP TIG wire agitation and the wire preheat are the defining difference between TIP TIG and the traditional, manual, DCEN TIG process. The TIP TIG wire agitation is also the prime difference between TIP TIG and the Automated Hot Wire TIG process.
Note: TIP TIG is highly suited as both a Manual and Automated weld process. In contrast, regular DCEN TIG is rarely suited to weld automation, and the Hot Wire TIG process is rarely suited as a manual arc weld process.
With TIP TIG, a complex alloy becomes a simple weld application.
TIP TIG should be the logical manual and automated arc weld process of choice for the high tech industries. From welding investment castings in fighter planes or welding super alloys, armor plate, duplex, titanium, hastelloy or high strength steels on submarines and tanks. With many alloy welds welds, the high tech industries industries often look towards complex, automated weld processes such as the Electron Beam, Laser, Plasma or the Friction Stir process, to produce high quality welds with minimal influence on the weld Heat Affected Zones, which in many instances, (weld joint design permitting), may also be delivered by the much lower cost, manual or automated TIP TIG process.
Think of the manual or automated weld application possibilities.
Please remember that TIP TIG is both a manual and easily automated weld process. If the TIP TIG manual or automated process is suitable to the joint design, (the alloy is usually not relevant), remember that in contrast to the sophisticated automated weld processes, if TIP TIG is suited to the weld joint design and thickness, that the TIP TIG weld equipment that will typically costs 5 to 10% of a laser or EB unit, will produce the weld quality desired with minimal weld heat influence on the part weld’s HAZ.
Note: The easy to use TIP TIG process would not require the special process expertise that comes with a Laser, EB or Friction process. TIP TIG would also have less weld dimension tolerance concerns and less weld fixture requirements than is typically required with the mentioned automated weld processes.
Why would anyone not consider TIP TIG for welding those LNG facilities and vessels?
A moment on Pulsed MIG. I have spent over 35 years evaluating the Pulsed MIG process and written hundreds of pages on why so many weld issues occur with this process. After 35 years of pulsed MIG evaluation, the same weld quality issues are occurring especially with steels, alloys and alloy steels >5 m. My web site weldreality.com and my weld process control training programs go into extensive details why the use of this process requires weld shop caution on many applications. However the reality is for three plus decades, pulsed MIG has been presented by the weld equipment manufactures and distributor sales reps as the greatest thing since sliced bread, of course many weld shops will buy into another crutch for their steel and alloy steel welds.
Without question pulsed MIG provides excellent weld benefits for aluminum welds that benefit from the moderate weld energy attained. In contrast steels and sluggish alloys benefit from “consistent high weld energy”, so the weld shop has the option of pulsed MIG which spends 50% of its time at a low back ground current usually less than 120 amps and the traditional MIG spray mode in which the high energy is relatively constant.
Pulsed MIG weld Fusion and Porosity: One thing that influences both Pulsed MIG and Spray weld fusion is the weld deposition rates typically attained with these two weld transfer modes are often too high, and will require fast weld travel rates. The rapid weld speeds and the pulsed MIG weld energy produced on many steel and alloy welds especially on parts > 5, may produce marginal weld fusion or lack of weld fusion.
In contrast to pulsed MIG welds, TIP TIG provides a much “higher arc temperature” and “lower deposition” rates that require slower weld speeds than pulsed MIG. Remember slower weld speeds are helpful in attaining good weld fusion especially with all position welds and welds on sluggish alloys. Also with TIP TIG you have the weld metal agitation which when combined with the higher TIP TIG arc and weld temperatures should enable TIP TIG to always produce superior weld fusion than any pulsed MIG weld. As TIP TIG does not use the reactive gas mixes required by pulsed MIG, TIP TIG with its inert argon and high temp welds, should always enable the lowest weld porosity potential.
If a company is considering manual pulsed MIG for welding submarine high strength steels, the duplex and stainless metals on LNG vessels, or for that matter welding any code quality welds on parts thicker than 5 mm, be warned. Do weld section macros first on scrap of the same metal type and thickness. Apart from the middle of the weld joint where you will often find marginal weld fusion, also make sure you examine the first inch of weld, and any weld tie-ins. There is a good chance you will reveal lack of weld fusion or porosity. That weld defects are not likely to occur with TIP TIG welds made in any weld positions.
BOY YOU HAVE TO LOVE THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY.
As someone who for a short time was involved with weld joint design and weld process decisions on the Moon & Mars Orion Spacecraft, I am well aware that many of the weld joints required in Aerospace, Defense and Power industry are unique, and yes many will justify the use of EB, Laser or Friction Stir. However lets face it, a good engineer in the high tech industry would be aware of the practical and cost effective weld technology available. And when possible, that engineer should be making practical, cost effective weld process decisions. YAWN.
TIP TIG and dramatic weld Heat Reductions: Few of the engineers that deal with high strength steels and alloys will be aware that in contrast to regular TIG and pulsed MIG, that TIP TIG has the capability not only to meet any weld quality requirements but also provides the ability to reduce traditional TIG and Pulsed MIG weld joules input by approx. 60 to 75%. Proof in TIP TIG video below.
What could the remarkable TIP TIG weld joules reductions do for the parts that your company daily welds?
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low heat and the reduction of stresses that reduce weld crack and weld HAZ potential.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG lowest weld heat and ability to eliminate weld distortion concerns.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low weld heat that enables the smallest weld HAZ and easily attains the best possible mechanical and corrosion properties.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low weld heat and producing arc welds with the lowest possible oxidation potential, reducing weld porosity concerns.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low weld heat capability, and the weld shops present use of ASTM and other specification guidelines for preheat – inter-pass and post heat treatments with high strength. alloy steels and alloys. The common heat treat recommendations typically used in the global weld industry in 2019 belong to arc weld processes such as MIG – TIG and Flux Cored that on average will put 50% more weld joules into the welded parts than the DCEN TIP TIG process.
Weld Preheat, Inter-pass or Post Heat may be reduced or eliminated.
With DCEN TIP TIG, your typical preheat, inter-pass and post heat weld heat recommendations may either be eliminated or dramatically reduced. As you will see in the video below, the weld heat from DCEN TIP TIG is so low, that welding heat sensitive Titanium can be done without a gas trailing shield.
2019. The following SpaceX 300 series, stainless vessel will be the world’s largest, 21st Century spaceship. It’s a pity that TIP TIG which has been around more than a decade, would likely not have been given the consideration it deserves for some of the required welds.
It’s also a sad engineering fact that 20 Century arc weld processes, weld specifications and weld procedures are still being used for 21st Century space travel.
In a few years, Mr. Musk would like to send humans on a round trip to Mars in his companies giant, 300 series stainless spaceship. It’s understandable that Mr. Musk at his Tesla CA. facility, possibly did not understand the human, arc weld process controls & best weld practice expertise that was and still is required by his MIG and Resistance robot workers, however its been sad reality that when welding the parts for his SpaceX vessels, that the SpaceX engineers will like their peers at many of the other aerospace companies, likely will not be aware of the TIP TIG weld application potential. If you worked in a weld shop, you may have heard this.