DC TIP TIG always provides superior weld quality and mechanical properties and less weld heat than both the traditional DC TIG and the Pulsed MIG process. TIP TIG is also much easier to use than TIG, & TIP TIG lowers DC TIG labor costs in the range of 200 - 400%.
EMILY CRAIG. WELD REALITY.COM AND
You may want to know the reasons why TIP TIG is the worlds best arc weld process, and how TIP TIG compares with DC TIG, Hot Wire TIG, Pulsed MIG and Gas Shielded Flux Cored.
WHAT IS TIP TIG AND HOW DOES IT COMPARE WITH THE HOT OR COLD WIRE TIG PROCESS THAT ALSO FEED A WELD WIRE INTO A TIG ARC?
AUTOMATED COLD WIRE TIG: Many confuse the semi-automated manual and fully automated TIP TIG process with the automated Hot or Cold wire TIG process in which a continuously fed weld wire is directed into a TIG arc and weld. Cold Wire TIG simply uses a wire feeder to send a constant fed MIG wire usually into a DC TIG weld. The Cold Wire automated (CW) TIG process typically uses a small diameter MIG wire such as an 0.023 or 0.030 wire. The automated CW process requires a fixed arc length, and this process and with the continuous fed wire is highly Arc Length Sensitive. Part of the reason the automated CW process is poorly suited to manual welding, is the low CW weld deposition rate achieved with the small diameter wire, which by the way is typically no more than that attained by a manual TIG welder feeding a larger wire. As low CW deposition rates do not enable a substantial increase in TIG weld current, the resulting CW arc plasma energy, density and width is similar to a traditional DC TIG arc, so both these processes are ARC LENGTH SENSITIVE: Keep in mind that the low deposition manual DC TIG weld process is also very arc length sensitive, however part of the skill of TIG welders is that they can compensate with feeding the wire to the weld pool,or retrieving the wire from the TIG weld. With the CW arc length sensitivity concerns,weld deposition rate and weld amp restrictions, all the low deposition, slow weld travel rate CW process offers with a fixed or regulated arc length, is weld continuity and increased arc on time with arc length sensitivity concerns.
WHY AUTOMATED HOT WIRE TIG IS NOT TIP TIG: Hot Wire (HW) TIG is the common process that has been the choice for automated DC TIG pipe welds and is often used in cladding as shown left. Apart from the traditional TIG power source for the arc, the HW process also uses a separate power source that provides amperage which is directed to the constant fed wire. The HW amperage is usually in the range of 80 to 110 amps, and it preheats the continuous fed weld wire. That HW preheat speeds the wire melt capability and adds slightly more energy into the weld pool. In contrast to CW TIG, the HW current enables a slight increase in the TIG weld deposition rate capability. However in contrast to TIP TIG;
Both HW and CW TIG are Arc Length Sensitive, require fixed arc length or costly regulated arc length controls, so they are poorly suited as a manual semi-automated process and can still be arc length sensitive with some automated welds. TIP TIG eliminates the arc length sensitivity for both manual and automated welds.
Both HW and CW cannot match the weld deposition and weld speed capability of TIP TIG, and neither HW or CW process provide the TIP TIG patented wire agitation that speeds up the weld drop transfer which is the prime factor allowing the increased weld deposition. With TIP TIG that extra deposition with EN polarity enables the lowest possible welded part heat input. More deposition enables more current that again slows the weld solidification which adds to weld fusion capability. The wire agitation also slows weld solidification improving weld fusion and reducing weld porosity.
A QUICK SUMMARY OF WHY TIP TIG IS UNIQUE. The TIP TIG process like Hot Wire TIG also uses Hot Wire current to preheat the weld wire. If HW current was the only feature provided to TIP TIG, this process would not be capable of being a manual process. With the above TIP TIG video, note the unique wire feed angle that places the rapid fed TIP TIG wire at the outer plasma periphery. This wire placement enables most of the TIP TIG plasma energy to be directed on the weld and part surface, and that increased TIP TIG weld surface energy enables more weld wire to be delivered which then enables more weld current for the the arc plasma and weld.
The key TIP TIG feature is the TIP TIG patented wire feed unit in which the wire feed drive rolls go back and forth creating a vibration on the weld wire that is similar to a plucked guitar string. This wire vibration that travels to the tip of the wire helps the fluid weld droplets on the wire tip to rapidly detach. Without the mechanical wire vibration the TIP TIG wire could not be placed at the outer plasma periphery. And without the rapid weld drop detachment the weld drops would grow in size until the weld wire runs into the weld pool disrupting the arc and weld, and also cause a restriction to the wire feed so that the welder would have to stop welding.
As for TIP TIG versus Pulsed MIG or Spray. The TIP TIG process provides an arc temp that is often twice as much as a MIG arc, this enables a degree of TIP TIG weld fluidity that’s not possible with any MIG or flux cored weld. That higher energy weld fluidity with weld agitation enables superior weld fusion than any MIG or flux cored weld. TIP TIG also requires an inert gas mix, so with the higher weld energy, agitated weld pool and inert gas you always have to anticipate with TIP TIG the best possible weld fusion lowest weld porosity potential. With the EN TIP TIG polarity the weld heat conductivity along with moderate weld deposition rates makes TIP TIG the easiest arc weld process to use for all position welds, and of course the dramatic welded part heat reductions, no spatter, the lowest possible weld fumes and lowest weld cleaning are discussed below.
You likely wont purchase a TIP TIG unit at your local weld supply company so how TIP TIG get to N. America and Australia.
Hello my name is Emily Craig. For more than four decades, I have been an Arc Weld Process Control – Best Weld Practice Expert. I have resolved weld issues in over a 1000 companies, in 13 countries. For a decade now, TIP TIG has shown that its not only the evolution of DC TIG, but also on code weld applications, TIP TIG will also replace Pulsed MIG, Flux Cored and the Hot Wire TIG process. You will find the TIP TIG data and weld application potential available at this site is from both a weld process and application evaluation, original, unique, practical, cost effective and comprehensive. Please note also, that the reason this web site for two decades has not accepted weld advertisements, is the site data will continue remain untarnished from the common, exaggerated marketing & sales claims from those that make and sell weld equipment and consumables.
Around 2009 when TIP TIG was being introduced in Europe, in a visit to England to assist a weld client with their subsea valve weld issues, I heard about this exiting new arc weld process and thanks to a young man called Darren Matherson, I found this unique TIP TIG process at his facility in Scotland. Watching the TIP TIG process weld stainless parts, it took no more than 15 minutes for me to figure out the importance of this process, and within a few months after the TIP TIG demo, and back in the USA I mortgaged my home and formed a new business with the assistance of a new business partner, Tom O’Malley. Tom and I called the business TIP TIG USA. Plasch, the inventor in Austria provided me the rights to sell his important new arc weld process in North and South America and Australia. I instantly started to do TIP TIG seminars and workshops across the USA and Canada and the sales commenced. After a few years I sold the business to Tom.
The weld reality of the TIP TIG process invented by Plasch Austria, is that in the last 70 years, this is the first arc weld process change that will dramatically influence all position code quality and productivity. In an industry that is not used to change, to move forward with the acceptance of a new process, and then to attain optimum process utilization, first and foremost requires the ability for front office personnel to assume weld process ownership, (a rare global commodity). Part of Weld Process Ownership means that weld decision makers are aware of the quality and productivity feature benefits of a process in contrast to the traditional arc welding processes they daily utilize.
TRADITIONAL DC TIG ISSUES, AND THE EVOLUTION OF TIG, THE TIP TIG PROCESS:
TIP TIG VERSUS DC TIG FEATURE BENEFITS:
HIGH DC TIG ARC TEMPERATURE WASTED ON MELTING A LARGE WELDING WIRE: As you are all aware, traditional DC TIG has high temperature capability and that temperature is dependent on the weld current used. This process has always in terms of weld fusion provided the best possible manual arc weld fusion capability and also as a result of the inert argon gas used with TIG, the process has had the lowest weld porosity potential. However regular TIG applications that require filler metal have always had “Weld Deposition Limitations” which restrict both the weld travel rates and also the amount of weld current that can be used.
In contrast to regular TIG, with TIP TIG, the weld shop while using the easier to melt, continuous fed, smaller wire diameters,will achieve much higher weld deposition rates, (100 to 400% is the norm). The increased TIP TIG deposition enables increased weld current that leads to higher arc temperatures per-weld application. The increased amperage per-weld application that’s allowed by the TIP TIG deposition rates, results in TIP TIG arc plasma that needs to do less to melt the smaller diameter wires. The TIP TIG plasma also provides higher energy and a more dense, wider plasma than that typically attained with regular DC TIG. The higher energy TIP TIG plasma is just one of the TIP TIG process features that can add to the weld quality attained, and the improved plasma energy and profile also decreases the tungsten to weld “arc length sensitivity” making TIP TIG either a semi-automated or fully automated process.
TIP TIG VERSUS DC TIG FEATURE BENEFIT:
TIP TIG WIRE PLACEMENT IN THE SIDE OF THE ARC PLASMA ENABLES MORE PLASMA ENERGY DISTRIBUTION ON THE WELD: A traditional DC TIG arc plasma (left) uses about 50% of the arc plasma energy in melting the required large diameter TIG wires. The balance of the regular TIG plasma is required to keep the small, often rapid freeze weld fluid. In contrast, and as indicated in the above TIP TIG video, TIP TIG enables the smaller wire diameters to Melt at the Outer Plasma Periphery. Note also how the formed TIP TIG weld droplets are shaken off as a result of the TIP TIG patented, “mechanical wire feed action,” The wire feed action vibrates the weld wire like a plucked guitar string. Examine carefully the unique TIP TIG wire to plasma placement that allows the the majority of the TIP TIG arc plasma energy to be focused on the fluid weld surface. The greater current allowed and the superior plasma energy distribution over the weld enables more wire to be fed into the weld pool, allowing more current. This extensive patented change in the TIG weld dynamics again adds to the weld quality capability and reduces the typical TIG arc length sensitivity which enables the Semi-automated TIP TIG process to be readily adapted to most Automated applications including robots, without requiring expensive arc length sensing equipment.
TIP TIG VERSUS DC TIG FEATURE BENEFIT:
TIP TIG ENABLES SLOWER WELD POOL SOLIDIFICATION AND WELD POOL AGITATION: The TIP TIG weld pool is agitated by the vibrating rapid weld drop transfer into the pool. The weld pool agitation along with the increased weld energy in the TIP TIG weld pools enables slower weld solidification than regular DC TIG. These features again enable the TIP TIG process in contrast to TIG to enable increased deposition rates and superior weld fusion with the least weld porosity potential.
TIP TIG VERSUS DC TIG FEATURE BENEFIT:
TIP TIG HIGHER WELD DEPOSITION RATE CAPABILITY INFLUENCE ON BOTH WELD SPEED AND WELD HEAT. A TIP TIG weld will typically enable a 100 to 500%, increase in the amount of TIG weld applied each hour, (200 to 400% more weld per-hr is typical), With the increased TIP TIG weld deposition rates, the welder will produce with TIP TIG manual or automated applications, weld speeds never before attained with regular DC TIG, and this has extraordinary benefits on weld and part mechanical and metallurgical properties.
TIP TIG VERSUS DC TIG FEATURE BENEFIT:
HIGHER TIP TIG WELD SPEEDS COMBINED WITH ELECTRODE NEGATIVE POLARITY PROVIDES EXTRAORDINARY WELD & PART RESULTS: Traditional DC TIG is Electrode Negative, however the TIG weld heat conductivity benefits from the traditional DC TIG welded part being positive are rarely attained. This is a result of the typical very slow traditional TIG weld travel rates that help retain the welded part heat. In contrast, the Electrode Negative TIP TIG polarity and the increased TIP TIG deposition rates will enable a dramatic increase in the TIP TIG weld speeds, which create the ability on most DC TIP TIG applications to attain the Lowest Possible Arc Welded Part Heat, (lowest joules). You will see extraordinary evidence of this in the TIP TIG video below when welding a highly heat sensitive Titanium application, and also in the weld colors and lack of visible weld HAZ in the other photos and videos in this section. The ability to attain the lowest possible arc weld heat enables never before attained, mechanical and metallurgical properties, welds and parts with the least possible part distortion and weld stresses, and with the inert argon gas, and low oxidation potential from high weld speed, the weld hop will also attain the cleanest possible welds with the lowest possible weld fumes.
TIP TIG VERSUS DC TIG FEATURE BENEFIT:
TIP TIG REDUCES WELDER SKILL REQUIREMENTS AND EXTENDS WELD APPLICATION POTENTIAL : There are many benefits attained from reducing the TIG welder skills. Skills impact labor shortages. Skills effect weld costs. Skills effect weld quality. In contrast to TIG, with the TIP TIG process, the welder requires much less welder skills.
[a] The TIP TIG welder no longer has to feed a weld wire.
[b] The TIP TIG welder does not require a foot amp control.
[c] The TIP TIG contiguous fed wire wire is constantly fed into the optimum plasma sweet spot for consistent wire melt.
[d] The TIP TIG weld is made with fully controlled weld start / stop data.
[e] As the TIP TIG manual welds are semi-automatic, the constant wire feed drives weld size continuity, and you don’t have the numerous weld starts and stops that are typical with many TIG welds, (another feature that improves weld quality).
[f] From root to fill, with TIP TIG, making all positions welds is a simple task with any metals.
[g] Most of you will be aware that TIG with weld deposition rates on average < 1 lb/hr was simply not practical for weld applications that required a large amount of filler weld metal. The weld shop may then turn to Pulsed MIG (lack of fusion / porosity / heat / spatter issues) or flux cored with the slag / fusion / porosity/ spatter and heat issues). With TIP TIG one process is all that is required from a root weld to any application size or part thickness.
In contrast to regular DC TIG, with TIP TIG there are no practical weld application size or thickness limits.
AS ITS BEEN FOR DECADES, WELD PROCESS QUALITY – PRODUCTIVITY OPTIMIZATION IS NOT LIKELY TO COME FROM WELD PERSONNEL WHO “PLAY AROUND” WITH WELD EQUIPMENT CONTROLS, OR FROM FRONT OFFICE WELD DECISION MAKERS THAT RELY ON A SALESMAN FOR WELD PROCESS ADVICE:
A PRICE IS ALWAYS PAID FOR FRONT OFFICE LACK OF PROCESS OWNERSHIP: Many companies that have so far purchased TIP TIG, do so after a few hours demo and training. Often the welders will not have received adequate TIP TIG Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practice training. Also in many of the Fortune 500 companies that purchased the TIP TIG equipment, the units will be purchased for a specific weld application with only one welder using the equipment. As for the rest of the “why change the way we have always done it” weld personnel, they may or may not embrace a process that they do not fully understand, and soon that costly TIP TIG process will be gathering grinding dust while it sits unused in the corner of the weld shop. Please also remember that 70 years after the introduction of MIG, many MIG and flux cored welders are still poorly trained and play around with the two simple MIG weld controls.
PLEASE DON’T LET THE TIP TIG WELDERS “PLAY AROUND” WITH THE TIP TIG SETTINGS: The following is a reason why a company should not purchase a TIP TIG unit without first thinking about the 60 year old MIG process which also uses Wire Feed Settings. Ask your experienced MIG welders, “what is the amps – wire feed and voltage start point for Spray Transfer using an 0.045, (1.2 mm) carbon steel wire and an argon – 20% CO2 mix”? As you likely are aware the welders will have difficulty with this fundamental question, and the reason is they likely have never received MIG process control training.
TIP TIG is a unique manual arc process in that it requires specific wire feed rates that will be compatible with the wire diameter and the weld current selected. TIP TIG also requires very unique torch settings best weld practices for weld optimization. Please remember that process acceptance and maximum utilization of the TIP TIG equipment comes from weld personnel trained in TIP TIG process controls and best weld practices.
My TIP TIG – MIG and Flux Cored self teaching / training programs simplify and provide the optimum weld settings and best weld practices for any weld application. Font office weld decision makers on their journey to process ownership may wish to consider one my Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Self Teaching / Training Programs. Note you do not need any weld background to learn or present this training program, I have simplified the subject and it presents itself.
WHEN A PROCESS IS PRESENTED TO A WELD SHOP AND IT HAS THE POTENTIAL TO CHANGE A COMPANIES PROFITS AND EXTEND THE WELD SHOP APPLICATION CAPABILITY, ITS LOGICAL THAT THE KEY WELD DECISION MAKERS RECOGNIZE THEIR RESPONSIBILITY TO ENSURE THAT THE WELDERS WHO UTILIZE THE PROCESS, AND ALSO THOSE IN THE FRONT OFFICE THAT MAKE WELD DECISIONS, ARE THOROUGHLY TRAINED IN THE ABILITY TO ATTAIN THE FULL WELD QUALITY/ PRODUCTIVITY POTENTIAL OF THE PROCESS BEING UTILIZED:
THE WELD PROCESS ADVICE AT THIS SITE IS BASED ON WELD PROCESS CONTROL AND WELD APPLICATION EXPERIENCE:
From providing weld advice for the Mar’s Orion Spacecraft, to providing weld solutions on Fighter Jet Engine parts, or weld solutions for Nuclear plants, Navy Frigates or Submarines, the weld advice and data that I provide is always based on my weld application background and four decades of arc weld process controls – best weld practice expertise. This experience was attained while assisting approx. 1000 companies in 13 countries with their manual, automated and robot weld issues. Process Control expertise is something that I developed and practiced over five decades. The weld information I provide is always original, factual and without equipment and consumable bias. This and my other programs will hopefully provide your organizations with numerous, practical cost effective weld solutions.
Please Note: As I have spent hundreds of hours writing and rewriting this TIP TIG section, and many thousands of hours writing the MIG, flux cored and advanced AC – DC TIG arc weld data sections at this web site, I would appreciate that if you wish to use any of this original, copyright protected data, that you at least please request my permission at firstname.lastname@example.org.
After 70 years, it was well past time for the DC TIG process to evolve, and the reality is that approx. 12 years after its development, all we need now is for the majority of weld shops that provide code quality welds, is for managers to take process ownership, and for weld shops to evolve.
NORTH AMERICAN PIPE WELDERS RAPIDLY EMBRACE THE TIP TIG PROCESS.
IN CONTRAST TO DC TIG, DRAMATICALLY REDUCED WELDER SKILLS With TIP TIG: Minimal all position pipe welder skills are required with TIP TIG. Weave the TIP TIG nozzle, (walk the cup in the groove). With TIP TIG no wondering when to push the filler wire into the small weld pool. Simply let the TIP TIG process continuously feed the weld wire to the plasma sweet spot and don’t forget with TIP TIG, no foot control is required. And always note that the TIP TIG process is capable of doing something no manual DC TIG welder can do. For example when using an 0.035 (1 mm) wire, the TIP TIG process will often be continuously feeding that small wire diameter between 150 and 300 inch/min. The TIP TIG welder will always appreciate minimal weld fumes, less ergonomic issues, no weld spatter, no weld cleaning, while always attaining the highest possible arc weld quality with the lowest part heat.
Put the music on, welding the pipe root to fill. Assume the position and lean on the pipe and relax. One or two hands on the torch its your choice. No spatter, no visible weld fumes, no weld rework and 4 times faster than TIG. Life is good.
MEDICAL APPLICATIONS WILL OFTEN REQUIRE HIGH QUALITY TIG WELDS: In the last decade, companies like Siemens – GE – Philips – Westinghouse have been looking for something not required. I noticed in May 2019, a “Welders Wanted” add from Philips Healthcare in New York. Philips makes MRI equipment, and GTAW is an important weld process. The May 2019 Philip’s welder’s job description was simply a refection or indication how managers and engineers often in high tech industries are simply out of touch with weld reality.
Part of the Philip’s job description was that the TIG welders must be able to use two hands and two legs, (a requirement to operatea foot control and ability to manually feed a TIG wire). As indicated in the above video, with TIP TIG for more than a decade those welder skills were made redundant. Also the Philips managers should be pleased to know that TIP TIG manual or automated welds will always enable superior weld quality than TIG or Pulsed MIG. In contrast to their DC TIG welds, with TIP TIG no feeding a weld wire, no foot control, no constant grinding of the tungsten, no more numerous weld starts & stops to change to a new weld wire. and no longer requiring years to become a skilled TIG welder. And something that every manager should appreciate for every hour their TIG welder is welding, the TIP TIG weld will typically require approx. 10 minutes.
FOR SEVEN DECADES, WHEN INTERNAL ARC WELD NDT EXAMINATION WAS REQUIRED, MOST WELD SHOPS WOULD EXPECT AND BUDGET FOR WELD DEFECTS. WITH TIP TIG, TWO KEY UNIQUE WELD BENEFITS WILL ALWAYS MINIMIZE THE POTENTIAL FOR WELD DEFECTS.
For decades, the majority of code quality weld applications have been welded with three common arc weld processes, TIG – MIG and Gas Shielded Flux Cored. With these arc weld processes, weld shops would often anticipate and budget for weld quality issues, weld rework and rejects. Or perhaps there would be concerns for weld related distortion and weld stresses concerns, or perhaps mechanical, metallurgical or corrosion concerns. It takes a 10 minute demo to reveal that TIP TIG is the first arc process that can consistently deliver higher weld quality than any other arc weld process and also provide the lowest possible welded part heat on most applications. Evidence of the TIP TIG weld quality and the lowest part heat is provided in the following TIP TIG weld applications,
WHEN A WELD PROCESS CAN MAKE TITANIUM WELDS LOOK SIMPLE, WHAT WOULD THAT PROCESS DO FOR YOU.
I want to start this TIP TIG section with the following remarkable statement. “In 2019, if any of the global weld shops in the Aerospace, Defense, Oil or Power industry are still using manual DC TIG, Pulsed MIG, Flux Cored or the automated Hot & Cold Wire TIG processes for their daily code quality welds, then those weld shops are still in the 20 th Century and none of the weld shops will have the weld capability to produce the Titanium weld quality shown in the following video.
TIP TIG video welding titanium reveals what no global weld shop could achieve if they used regular TIG, Pulsed MIG or Flux Cored.
I SET THE ABOVE TIP TIG TITANIUM WELD IN 2009. THE WELD WAS MADE WITHOUT A GAS TRAILING SHIELD & PRODUCED A WELD QUALITY THAT WOULD MEET ANY TITANIUM WELD CODE REQUIREMENT. IF THE WELD HAD BEEN MADE BY REGULAR TIG OR PULSED MIG, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN A WELD WITH MANY COLORS.
When welding Titanium parts thicker than 1/8 (>3 mm) with TIP TIG, in reality the weld application should be as simple as welding carbon steels. In the above video, in 2009, while I was setting the TIP TIG weld parameters for my business partner and great friend Tom to weld some Grade 2. Titanium scrap parts, the engineering manager from the large Philadelphia Titanium Fabricator that supplied the titanium test parts, asked me why I was not set up to use an argon gas trailing shield to protect his titanium parts from the normal weld / part oxidation issues with titanium welds. I smiled at the engineer, I knew something that this very experienced engineer did not know then, and unfortunately most global engineers and managers ten years later, still don’t know.
THIS WAS THE FIRST TIME TIP TIG WAS USED ON TITANIUM. Though this was the first time Titanium would be welded with TIP TIG in North America, I was well aware when I was welding other heat sensitive alloys of the very low weld heat that was always attained through the very small weld HAZ and silver and gold colors that I was attaining on both steels and stainless applications. The lack of oxidation on both thin and thick parts was an indication to me that we would not likely need a gas trailing shield which was typically necessary to minimize the titanium weld oxidation concerns. Please go back to the titanium weld above and take note the untouched desired Silver color of the Titanium weld that if welded with DC TIG or Pulsed MIG, would normally retain high weld heat input. By the way as we were just setting our TIP TIG weld demo shop at this time, I had nothing that could correctly clean the titanium parts, therefore the titanium parts welded were contaminated with cutting and forming materials, this was the reason for the weld fumes. Weld fumes are typically not evident on any clean TIP TIG weld applications.
DID YOU NOTE THE TIP WELD SPEED ON THE TITANIUM WELD? If regular DC GTAW had been used for the above titanium weld. The regular TIG manual weld speed for this single pass, 3/16 – 1/4, (6 mm) horizontal lap weld would likely be approx. 3 to 5 inch/minute, with weld starts and stops and a wire length change required. A gas trailing shield would have to be used, and there would likely be concern for weld oxidation formation on the rear side of the welded titanium plates. The time required to weld the above length of 18 inches with TIP TIG at the weld speeds of 24 inch/min would have be less than a minute. The time required by With regular TIG, would be around 6 to 9 minutes.
THE LARGE SCALE, TITANIUM WELD APPLICATION BELOW, WAS BOTH VERY COSTLY AND MADE UNNECESSARY COMPLEX FOR THE US ARMY. IT WOULD HAVE BEEN SIMPLE WELDING APPLICATION IF THE MILITARY AND MFG. WELD MANAGEMENT AND ENGINEERS RESPONSIBLE HAD SELECTED TIP TIG WHICH WAS AVAILABLE AT THE TIME.
To reduce weight the army Howitzers were made out of Titanium.
IT’S A SAD ENGINEERING REALITY IN 2019, THAT MOST GLOBAL WELD SHOPS ARE STILL WELDING ALLOY STEELS, ALLOYS AND CODE QUALITY WELD APPLICATIONS USING OUTDATED 20th CENTURY MANUAL OR AUTOMATED ARC WELD METHODS SUCH AS GTAW, HOT WIRE TIG AND PULSED MIG:
Typically all position, mechanized, Hot Wire TIG, Titanium pipe welds, (left Navy Aircraft Carrier welds), or the manual titanium, traditional TIG welds made on parts > 3 mm, such as on the above Army Titanium Howitzer, were using a GTAW process that for 70 years provided very low weld deposition rates, (often less than one pound/hr). Manual or mechanized, the typical low deposition pipe GTAW “fill pass” weld speeds would often be in the 2 to 5 inch/min range. The multi-pass low TIG pipe welds speeds in the pipe grooves of course would generate high weld / part heat. To minimize the effects of that weld heat buildup, and weld oxidation on titanium or with any alloy welds, and to also control the effects of the weld heat on the weld’s HAZ, there typically would be time required for inter-pass temperature controls (usually not necessary with TIP TIG) and usually always weld quality concerns. Lets also not forget that many mechanized welds often will require manual TIG weld repairs. With the titanium welds the manual TIG weld personnel would have to deal with cumbersome gas trailing shields that for a decade have been unnecessary with TIP TIG.
Note: RECONSIDER THE WELD HEAT RULES: To every global weld shop that wants to produce code quality welds, the TIP TIG weld quality / weld heat benefits that apply to the mentioned titanium welds, would of course also apply to any steels, alloy steels, alloy steels and to many aluminum applications. With TIP TIG weld pre-heat is often eliminated or reduced, inter-pass-temp eliminated and reduced and post heat reduced or eliminated.
2019: DC TIP TIG VERSUS TRADITIONAL DC TIG WELD JOULES: If using regular DC TIG for the above titanium single pass weld on this 1/4 thick part, the TIG weld joules attained would likely be in the range of 35,000 to 40,000 J/inch. In contrast, the weld heat generated with TIP TIG on the titanium weld was approx. 5550 J/inch, this much lower TIP TIG weld heat was attained from the much higher weld travel speeds attainable with TIP TIG.
2019: DC POLARITY TIP TIG, VERSUS RP POLARITY PULSED MIG WELD JOULES: What about the weld joules differences between TIP TIG and Pulsed MIG? In contrast to many pulsed MIG welds, if the the weld shop used TIP TIG it could anticipate approx. a 50 to 70% weld heat reduction.
Note: The weld heat conductivity benefits of DC Electrode Negative TIP TIG with its higher weld speed potential versus the Reverse Polarity Pulsed MIG or Spray weld modes are poorly understood by most weld industry personnel that should aggressively be looking for ways to reduce weld heat on heat treated applications. Note: For decades, the weld reality has been with many AC/DC TIG welds, is that you would find that the slow moving TIG welds and the much faster Reverse Polarity MIG welds would often generate similar weld joules in the parts welded.
FINALLY AFTER 75 YEARS OF TRADITIONAL DC TIG WE CAN NOW GET THE WELD BENEFITS ATTAINED FROM ELECTRODE NEGATIVE. Keep in mind that while the Pulsed or Spray MIG weld transfer modes will enable faster weld speeds than TIP TIG, these Reverse Polarity processes are using Electrode Positive. This polarity concentrates the MIG weld plasma heat in the upper portion of the MIG plasma, around the continuous fed weld wire tip. While weld shops are aware of the arc weld polarity required per-process used, they need also to be aware that for almost 75 years the traditional DC Electrode Negative TIG process which directs the majority of the TIG arc plasma energy towards the positive part welded has rarely been able to benefit from the DCEN weld polarity in which the TIG welded parts become a large heat sink enabling rapid weld heat conduction for the DC TIG weld heat generated. The reason on most TIG welds for the high TIG weld heat generated is simple, traditional DC TIG on most parts > 2 mm typically generates very low weld deposition rates and very slow arc weld speeds.
On would have to ask why are most of high tech. companies using 20th Century weld processes, procedures and weld specifications for their 21st Century welds.
2019: NOTE FOR THOSE OF YOU STILL USING WELD & MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS AND CODE INFO. GENERATED IN THE 1980’s and 1990’s: The typical weld joules heat input attained from Spray – Pulsed MIG and TIG, has for many decades influenced the required weld preheat, the weld inter pass, and post weld heat recommendations. Also weld filler metals specifications and the weld / part properties attained are based not only on the weld wire chemistry but on the filler wires weld quality potential and typical arc weld heat input generated.
THINK ABOUT YOUR ARC WELDED PART PROPERTIES: With the outdated weld methods from the conventional arc weld processes, weld shops end up with the typical arc weld mechanical or corrosion properties that have changed little in decades. Then along comes TIP TIG, a process that not only provides the highest possible arc weld quality, but also the lowest possible welded part heat.
Think about how many global engineers daily deal with weld quality or heat related concerns with their weld applications. Think of the weld and part opportunities especially when IMPACT properties are desired. Think about the benefits if the metals were crack sensitive. Think about armor steels and high strength steels, how there would be less concern with the welded HAZ properties. Think about how you could benefit if pre-heat and post-heat was reduced or eliminated and how about if the inter-pass temp. was no longer a requirement. These are concerns that simply would not happen if they made use of a 12 year old process called TIP TIG.
EVEN CARBON STEEL WELDS MADE WITH TIP TIG SHOW REMARKABLE WELD QUALITY, CONTINUITY AND LACK OF OXIDATION:
TIP TIG ELIMINATES OR GREATLY REDUCES WELD OXIDE REACTIONS THAT INFLUENCE WELD POROSITY. When dealing with weld heat and oxide sensitive alloys, lets say the weld shop is considering using Pulsed MIG, apart from the concentrated high pulsed MIG weld heat from the reverse polarity, Pulsed MIG also requires a REACTIVE gas in the argon mix, such as CO2 or Oxy. The reactive gases influence, oxidation and porosity formation on any weld application. In contrast to Pulsed MIG, the TIP TIG process provides a much higher energy welds and only requires straight argon for gas shielding.
Note: TIP should never require helium mixes for any welds.
WHEN REDUCED ALL POSITION WELDER SKILLS ARE REQUIRED THIS “REDUCES THE PROCESS LEARNING TIME AND REDUCES WELD DEFECTS”:
Welder skills play an important role in a new arc weld process acceptance. Traditional DC TIG for example has for decades required the highest arc welder skills. Weld shop decision makers need to be aware that with someone who has never welded, that if correctly trained with the TIP TIG process, it would take less than two weeks for that person to pass any code welders qualification test. For experienced TIG welders, it would take one or two days if taught correctly.
Most manual TIP TIG welds look like automated welds as with this untouched manual TIP TIG weld.
THE PAST SEVEN DECADES. HIGHLY SKILLED TIG WELDERS WERE WANTED FOR CODE QUALITY PIPE / PLATE WELDS.
The reality is the following is what an advertisement for welders should look like in 2019 if the TIP TIG process was being utilized.
WORKERS WANTED TO WELD ALL POSITION, CODE QUALITY, TITANIUM, STAINLESS AND DUPLEX VESSELS AND PLATE USING TIP TIG. MUST PASS COMPANY DRUG TEST, HAVE A GOOD WORK ATTITUDE AND WORK ETHIC. NO PREVIOUS WELDING EXPERIENCE NECESSARY, MUST BE WILLING TO LEARN THE TIP TIG PROCESS.
USING MY TIP TIG TRAINING PROGRAM, training FOR SOMEONE WHO HAS NEVER WELDED, TO GET THROUGH ANY ALL POSITION PIPE WELDER QUALIFICATION TEST WITH TIP TIG, TRAINING WOULD TAKE APPROX. TWO – THREE WEEKS”. FOR A TIG WELDER IT TAKES A DAY OR TWO
Yes TIP TIG is easy to use, and once the wire size is selected, this process usually never requires more than three weld settings for all applications. Those three settings are in my TIP TIG Self Teach / Training program. Please also note that when all position welder skills are reduced, and constant wire feed delivery is provided, the weld quality potential should be improved. With TIP TIG, as with a MIG weld, the welder can have one or two hands on the torch. Just point the torch, control the tungsten tip to work height, and move at a steady rate. With TIP TIG no amp foot control is required and with TIP TIG, the weld start / stop data is always fully automatic. From a pipe root to fill, or welding 0.080 to any thickness you require one weld process for the job. With TIP TIG you also have a semi-automatic or fully automated arc weld process that does not have the arc length sensitivity concerns of regular TIG or Hot Wire TIG. With dramatic reductions in weld / part heat, TIP TIG eliminates concerns for weld / part hot cracks, and in contrast to any other arc weld processes will enable superior weld fusion with the lowest weld porosity potential. Why not try the following weld using your TIG process or using pulsed MIG and see if you can attain the same weld results.
A WELDING CHALLENGE. WHY NOT TRY TO PRODUCE THE TIP TIG WELD AND PART QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY ATTAINED ON THIS COMMON THIN, HEAT SENSITIVE STAINLESS PART.
If you work in the Aerospace, Power or Defense industries, welding thin or thick stainless, inconel, titanium, duplex, inconel and hasteloy welded parts are the norm. Why not see if your welders could duplicate the above, simple gauge stainless fillet weld that’s made with TIP TIG. Carefully examine the above TIP TIG 16 gauge stainless fillet weld. In contrast to what TIG welders would do for with these welds, note the TIP TIG weld speed which will be 5 to 8 times faster over this weld length of 18 inch. Note also the weld quality continuity and uniformity that cannot be attained with TIG or pulsed MIG. Then Go back and look at the untouched silver weld color that indicates the lack of oxidation, that enables the lowest weld porosity. With these welds, no cleaning, no spatter, no weld fume concerns. And of course the smallest possible weld HAZ which means the lowest weld distortion, the lowest weld stresses, and lowest possibility of weld cracking. These are welds that simply cannot be duplicated with any DC TIG or Pulsed MIG weld.
OPTIMIZING WELD QUALITY & REDUCING WELD COSTS, SHOULD BE OF INTEREST TO ANY WELD DECISION MAKER.
2019: I am aware that the technical weld process process details at this site may not get everyone as exited as I get when discussing TIP TIG versus the AC/ DC TIG, Pulsed MIG, Flux Cored and the automated Hot Wire TIG, however most weld shops do have a great interest in two subjects WELD QUALITY AND COSTS. With this in mind I will start of in the first following paragraphs discussing some of the unique TIP TIG weld COST reasons that any company that is using DC TIG – MIG – Pulsed MIG or Flux Cored for code quality welds on steels, alloy steels, alloys and also specific AC TIG & MIG Aluminum applications, simply cannot afford to ignore.Please don’t forget that weld costs are of course influenced by weld deposition rates, weld rejects, weld rework, weld cleaning, by the welder’s skills, and by additional material costs or material handling.
Weld shops take note: The traditional arc weld processes such as AC/DC TIG, Pulsed MIG, Flux Cored or the SMAW process, require higher all position welder skills than required with TIP TIG. As we are all aware, when hiring TIG welders, the slow weld speed cost consequences, the never ending weld start and stops , the many trips to the grinder to reshape the tungsten, and the welder skill requirements that change from one welder to another, all have a major influence on both the TIG weld quality and the hourly labor costs generated. Watch 5 TIG welders produce the same welded parts, and it will be their different manual welder skills and weld practices that will influence that will result in a lack of TIG weld continuity and the weld quality attained,
Most companies that have weld shops will be aware that in 2019, all position skilled weld personnel are in short supply. With the semi-automated TIP TIG process you have a process that in contrast to DC GTAW – Pulsed MIG and flux cored requires the lowest all position welder skills and for those weld shops that need to grow, remember for every three DC TIG welders required, typically one TIP TIG welder will do the same production with superior weld quality.
NOTE ON THE FREQUENT TUNGSTEN CHANGES WITH TRADITIONAL DC TIG WELDS: As mentioned TIG welders have to place their weld wire in front of the weld in a very small, fast freeze weld pool and often that weld pool will touch and contaminate the tungsten, lowering the tungsten melt temperature and changing its required profile. The welder will then stop welding and replace their tungsten and create another weld start / stop which are common weld defect locations. When large amounts of AC/DC TIG weld are required, those tungsten changes will be very frequent. In contrast, the TIP TIG wire is fed to the side of the TIP TIG arc plasma and therefore its more difficult for the TIP TIG weld to contaminate a TIP TIG tungsten. Once this process is learnt correctly and especially the unique the TIP TIG Best weld practices the welder will likely have no more than one or two tungsten changes per shift.
SO LETS LOOK AT THE ANNUAL WELD DEPARTMENT BUDGET WELD COST CONSEQUENCES WITH A CHANGE TO TIP TIG: It would take about two hours to prove the following statement. “In a weld shop that employs mostly DC TIG welders, with a change to the TIP TIG process, that weld shop should anticipate at least a 65 – 75% annual weld labor cost cost reduction in their weld department budget.
The TIP TIG weld deposition and weld travel details that greatly influence weld costs are well documented below, however I want to get across both the the extensive weld costs savings potential and weld quality improvement impact with a change from TIG to TIP TIG with any company that provides Code Quality steels, alloy steels, alloys and many aluminum welds. The following info. provides how I attained a 70% weld cost reduction.
As an example, lets take a Fortune 500, aerospace or defense corporation that has many global plants that hire traditional DC TIG welders for code quality weld applications. One of the plants employs 10 DC TIG welders, five on each shift. The plant also employs two weld shop supervisors to manage the two shifts. The TIG welders earn $30 /hr, and mostly weld steels and alloy steel code applications. This companies typical weld labor costs $60,000.00 / yr, and the welders benefits are $8,000 / yr. TIG is slow process and overtime is the norm. The average overtime per-TIG welder was 10 hours a week at time and a half, 10 x $45 hr = $450 x 50 weeks = ($22,500 / year). This generates an annual TOTAL weld labor costs of $90,500.00 per/welder x 10 welders. Add the two weld supervisors at $80,000 /yr, with their combined annual salary of $160,000.yr and the total weld labor cots for this weld shop is $1,065,000. The TIG weld equipment investment for 10 welding units, approx. $78,000.
COMPARE THE ABOVE WITH TIP TIG WELD LABOR COSTS: Now for those still hanging in there, welding the same work at the aerospace plant could be done on one shift with three TIP TIG welders and one supervisor. No weld overtime required, and the TIP TIG weld quality would be much higher. Three TIP TIG welders wage plus benefits, 3 x $68,000 / yr = $204,000 / yr, plus one supervisor $80,000 / yr, producing a yearly TIP TIG WELD LABOR costs of $292,000. By the way with TIP TIG you would also reduce the annual argon TIG gas cost by at least 50%, and take approx. 15 – 20% of the weld wire costs. The TIP TIG equipment costs depending on the power sources available in the shop would be in the range between $50 to $80K. As you you can see with the added weld consumable savings, its easy to anticipate a 60 to 75% annual TIG labor cost savings would be anticipated.
The above annual TIP TIG weld shop wages total is $292.000. The annual TIG weld shop wage $1,065.000.
Note: Please keep in mind, that with all position code quality weld applications, many Fortune 500 corporations will across the globe “in all their plants” sometimes employ HUNDREDS of DC TIG and Pulsed MIG welders. As for Pulsed Pulsed MIG and code quality welds. In contrast to the TIP TIG process, for reasons listed below and also provided in the Pulsed MIG section, Pulsed MIG will always produce inferior weld and part quality with special concerns for the weld heat generated and weld fusion and porosity issues..
WHEN I STARTED TIP TIG USA, OUR FIRST CUSTOMERS CAME FROM ONE OF THE LARGEST OIL COMPANIES IN CHINA
As the U.S. Navy is well aware, China as it does with any important technology, will quickly copy it, embrace it, and aggressively implement it. So maybe I should not have been surprised that when we first opened our U.S. TIP TIG facility around 2009, ironically our first facility was located in the “Philadelphia Navy Yard”, that after attending one of my TIP TIG seminars in the Navy yard our first large customer was CNOOC from China. This company is an exploration & development offshore Oil and Gas company. CNOOC sent a group of their engineers first to my workshop then to our weld shop to view and test TIP TIG process.
One of the most difficult weld challenges is Sub Sea Pipe Welds
Part of CNOOC Inconel TIP TIG ID clad application below.
Above TIP Inconel, multilayer, multi-pass welds on end of the sub sea pipes. As these clad welds are made at the pipe ends, the weld heat quickly builds up, yet with the heat build up you still have to control the clad dilution. No inter-pass temp or weld rework allowed and the he weld times were critical.. It was simple with TIP TIG and even the Chinese who had tried all other available global advanced TIG and Pulsed MIG processes were impressed
These inconel ID pipe clad welds could only be a achieved TIP TIG.
Note: The multi-pass, multi-layer clad weld solidification uniformity, this is the ultimate difficult clad weld control especially with no inter-pass weld control allowed to control the weld solidification.
For their pipe welds that lay on the ocean floor, CNOOC traveled the globe and tried both the world’s best pulsed MIG process from companies like Fronius and the most sophisticated Advanced, pulsed Hot Wire TIG technology from Europe. As the months passed, they found no weld process that was capable of meeting either their weld or clad quality requirements. A prime concern was the short clad and weld times demanded, no inter-pass temp. allowed and no weld rework on the pipe weld joints allowed. The Chinese stayed in our TIP TIG weld shop for a week, working 12 hour days, and whatever the TIP TIG manual and automated weld and clad tests they provided, passed with flying colors. Once the pipe clad ID welds on the barge were complete, the pipes had to be edge prepped and OD manually welded. The all position, manual TIP TIG pipe welds had to meet the most stringent weld code requirements, weld rework was not acceptable and the welds made in the shortest possible weld times.
Each TIP TIG welder you see below on the sub sea pipe welds, required less welder skills than a regular TIG welder. Each of the TIP TIG welders was producing approx. 300% more weld each hour than any DCEN TIG manual welder could produce. Also lets not forget the higher weld quality than possible with TIG, and the lowest possible weld heat and lowest possible weld fumes that was IMPORTANT IN THE POORLY VENTILATED, TIGHT CONFINED SPACE IN THE SHIP.
TWO CHINESE TIP TIG WELDERS FINISH THE SUB SEA PIPE WELD
Sept 2018. AUSSIES FOUND A SIMPLE SOLUTION SUB ARC WELD REPAIR TECHNOLOGY:
While the world’s prime defense contractors are often stuck in an weld time warp, ASC Pty. Ltd, the Australian Government owned ship builder was concerned about the lack of skilled GTAW welders, found that the easy to use TIP TIG process attained astounding weld quality and cost results when tested on it’s Submarine Hull Exposive Weld Tests.
I brought TIP TIG to Australia in 2009 and my business partner Tom O’Malley, set up Australian TIP TIG distributors and trained the Ausy personnel in the use of this unique weld process.
It does not matter what the size of the weld application is, with the easy to use TIP TIG process, (if taught correctly) you will attain moderate weld deposition rates, the lowest weld rework potential, the lowest distortion the best possible mechanical properties, and least possible weld fumes.
TIP TIG being tested on overhead, single pass welds on 3/8 Duplex plate.
REGULAR DC TIG HAS RESULTED IN SEVEN DECADES OF RESTRICTED WELD APPLICATION USE: DC TIG low weld deposition rates have for decades restricted the TIG weld application capability. No one wanted to use traditional TIG on large weldments or thick weld applications such as shown on left which is now COMPLETELY welded with TIP TIG. The bottom line in 2019 is when all position welds are required the weld shop will usually turn to Pulsed MIG and flux cored and and always attain slag, porosity fusion, weld fume and heat concerns.
Since the DC TIG introduction, a prime issue with with the TIG process that required filler metal when welding good size applications, was the very low weld deposition rates, the very slow weld speeds too many weld start – stops. Those DCEN TIG, large diameter 1/16 to 1/8 (1.6 – 3.2 mm) weld wires, and the required manual wire dipping action into the welds, typically resulted in average TIG weld deposition rates of less than one pound / hr. If the manual TIG welder tried to utilize smaller weld wire diameters such as 0.035 or 0.045, (1 – 1.2 mm), the welder would find they lack the ability to continuously feed the small diameter wires in a controlled manner at weld deposition rates greater than that attained with the easier to control, much slower fed, larger diameter wires.
Question: Em, as weld deposition rates are a large factor in weld costs, can you provide more detailed info. on the typical average weld deposition rate capability with manual DCEN TIG welding?
Answer. An average DCEN TIG manual weld deposition rate attained with a 1/16 or 3/32, (1.6 – 2.4 mm) steel or stainless wire is approx. 1 lb / hr with a 60 minute arc on time. Lets say that the DCEN TIG welders average arc on time per-hr is 20 minutes. The DC TIG welder on average feeds their common 3/32 steel or stainless TIG wire into the weld pool at approx. 8 inch minute, (20 cm/min). This feed rate delivers approx. 1 lb/hr with 60 minutes arc on time. If the welder decided to try and feed a smaller 0.035 (1 mm) wire. To attain that pound an hour with the 0.035 steel or stainless wire, the welder would require that the TIG welder continuously feed the 0.035 wire around 70 inches per-minute for 60 minutes, (not going to happen with traditional TIG). More on this subject below.
HIGHLY SENSITIVE ARC LENGTH & LOW DEPOSITION RATES DON’T MAKE A GOOD SEMI OR AUTOMATED PROCESS: With DCEN TIG, the use of low – medium weld current which is influenced by the low DC TIG deposition rates, plus the use of large wires. and wire placement in the arc plasma can result in rapid freeze welds that can interrupt the electron flow, creating “arc length sensitive”, conditions. Arc length sensitivity and low weld deposition rates have for decades made the DCEN TIG process unsuited as either a semi-automatic or fully automated arc weld process. When used for weld automation the traditional DCEN process typically requires costly automated arc length equipment and the welds are still made with very low deposition rates.
Get the Bug-O or any weld carriage out.Connect TIP TIG. No other weld equipment required. Weld both the root and fill passes. Always superior weld quality than Pulsed MIG and FCAW. No weld cleaning or weld fume concerns.
In contrast to regular DC TIG, the TIP TIG process is easy to automate
HIGH STRENGTH STEELS AND ALL ALLOY STEELS ARE ALL INFLUENCED BY HEAT TREATMENT AND WELD HEAT. TIP TIG IS THE ONLY ARC WELD PROCESS THAT CAN MINIMIZE THE WELDED PART HEAT WHICH ENABLES THE BEST POSSIBLE WELDED PART METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES.
To change that 70 year old DCEN TIG manual process into the easier to use, much higher weld deposition, semi-automatic or automated TIP TIG process, that can enable superior weld results than GTAW – MIG and FCAW dramatic, innovative TIG process changes were required by the inventor Plasch, in Austria. However its one thing to change the weld dynamics of an arc weld process and another thing to evaluate the often subtle differences and weld process and application benefits attained with a process such as TIP TIG in comparison to competing, commonly utilized arc weld processes such as DC TIG, Pulsed MIG and gas shielded flux cored. This is my area of expertise, its what I have done for a more than four decades in a 1000 plus weld shops in 13 countries.
WHY THE MIG PROCESS WILL NEVER COMPETE WITH TIP TIG WELD QUALITY AND THE TIP TIG WELDED PART METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES.
For seven plus decades, a unique attribute of the high arc temp. traditional DCEN TIG process, has been the “Electrode Negative” weld transfer that has the potential to promote rapid weld heat conduction into the Positive Work. However the DCEN TIG weld application reality has been that the metallurgical weld and part benefits that could have been achieved from rapid DC TIG weld heat conduction, was in in most cases greatly restricted as the very low DC TIG weld deposition rates usually resulted in “very slow weld speeds” that are the prime factor in retaining the high TIG weld heat. DCEN TIP TIG with its faster weld speed capability simply enables rapid weld heat conduction into most parts welded.
Low Background to Peak Pulsed MIG:
PULSED MIG ENABLES INCREASED WELD DEPOSITION RATES THAT ALLOW FASTER WELD SPEEDS, WITH HOWEVER, REVERSE ELECTRODE POSITIVE: In contrast to the higher arc temperature DCEN TIP TIG process in which the electrons flow from the Negative Tungsten to Positive work, both MIG and Gas Shielded Flux Cored welds use Reverse Polarity Electrode Positive (RPEP), a polarity in which the electron flow is from the positive work to the tip of the continuous fed MIG weld wire.
The Electrode Positive Polarity concentrates the majority of the arc plasma energy around the positive MIG or flux cored wire tip. This plasma energy concentration enables rapid melting of the continuous fed MIG weld wire, producing typical MIG weld depositions rates that can be as high as 15 times than that attained with traditional DCEN TIG. Even with the greater MIG and flux cored weld deposition rates that enable far greater weld speeds than regular DCEN TIG welds, that highly concentrated MIG / FCA plasma energy retention in the arc plasma results in welds that typically will produce Large Weld Heat Affected Zones and concerns for Distortion, Stresses and Oxidation.
WHILE LOW DEPOSITION PROCESSES LIKE DC TIG CAN CREATE WELD HEAT ISSUES DUE TO SLOW WELD SPEEDS, HIGHER DEPOSITION RATES FROM MIG SHORT CIRCUIT, PULSED & SPRAY ENABLE FASTER WELD SPEED BUT ALSO CAUSE WELD HEAT AND QUALITY ISSUES.
Weld speeds influence the time required for weld fusion to occur. MIG and flux cored weld deposition rates enable much faster weld speeds than processes such as DC TIG and SMAW. In many instances those weld speeds especially with Pulsed MIG (background current influence) can produce welds that may have lack of fusion. The lack of fusion issue also applies to MIG Spray Transfer that will provide higher plasma energy than Pulsed MIG, As all MIG modes and flux cored require reactive gas mixes such as CO2 or Oxygen, these processes are also more prone to porosity, surface oxidation and weld fume concerns.
In contrast to regular DC TIG, TIP TIG enables one to five hundred percent increase in weld deposition rates which are still less less than MIG and flux cored. However the deposition rates attained with the “higher arc temperature” TIP TIG process creates a unique optimum Weld Energy to Weld Deposition Rate Balance, that enables the best possible arc weld fusion and all position weld control.
Note: As its been for at least twenty years, The TIP TIG, MIG and Flux Cored weld information attained at this web site is not be available from Lincoln, Miller, Hobart, ESAB or any other global source of weld process data:
With regular TIG or Pulsed MIG, you could not duplicate this manual TIP TIG single pass, untouched stainless weld.
WHAT MANAGER DOES NOT WANT TO SEE WELD COSTS REDUCED AND WELD FAILURE RISKS & LIABILITY REDUCED? You don’t have to be an accountant to understand the weld cost savings potential from TIP TIG. Its easy to see that once the traditional TIP TIG process is selected that the numerous global companies using DC TIG and Pulsed MIG for “code quality” steels and alloy steel welds, will with the elimination of weld rejects and rework generate extensive annual weld cost savings. An important point also for many companies is the ability with TIP TIG to dramatically reduce or eliminate Weld Failure Risk and Liability Concerns, which should be of special interest for Aerospace, Energy and Defense companies.
Remember TIP TIG with increased weld quality potential and reduced welder skills. management should anticipate more manual and automated weld quality uniformity and consistency in their daily welds produced. Lets also not forget that another benefit with the TIP TIG process is that companies will not have the future worry of finding and hiring skilled DC TIG welders, (always difficult and now redundant).
TIP TIG PIPE ROOT. ROTATE THE TIP TIG NOZZLE ON THE GROOVE SIDES AND LET THE PROCESS DO THE REST.
HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO TRAIN SOMEONE TO USE TIP TIG? For most welders the pipe root is the most difficult weld. So with TIP TIG you show the person who wants to weld how to Walk the Cup by resting the torch ceramic on the surface of the pipe groove and working that nozzle from side to side as the weld progresses upwards. No foot control and no feeding a weld wire. Believe me it does not take long to train someone.
If the welder is a TIG welder it typically takes one to two days to learn all the TIP TIG best practices as provided in my program. However something that should give every manager joy, in an industry in which its difficult to find skilled TIG welders, it takes about eight to ten days to train someone Who Has Never Welded to become a TIP TIG weld expert and pass any code,(including ASME) all position, pipe Welder Qualification Tests.
At most of the fortune 500 high tech corporations, you will usually find minimum weld focus on weld process controls and best weld practice expertise. This lack of focus adds dramatically to the daily weld quality, rework, rejects and production costs. By the way any manager that believes in the importance of engineering evolution, should wonder why their company is still likely using Weld Procedures & Specifications that were likely generated in the 20th century, or why there is little focus by their companies on weld process control and best weld practices.
Note: My easy to learn TIP TIG – MIG and Flux Cored, Self Teaching / Process Controls – Best Weld Practice Training programs require approx. 15 hours. These are a great tools to train yourself or those employees that for decades think its normal to “play around” with their weld controls. Its no good purchasing a new process such as TIP TIG and having weld personnel struggle to use the process. It does not matter how experienced the weld personnel are, all weld personnel benefit from my weld process control – best practice training programs. To get the immediate and dramatic weld quality – cost benefits from this process, and to avoid weld personnel playing around with the TIP TIG weld controls, and also not using the best TIP TIG weld practices, consider spending a couple of hundred dollars and get the worlds best TIP TIG – ADVANCED TIG – MANUAL & ROBOT MIG – FLUX CORED training program.
Not interested in TIP TIG, but would enjoy the most comprehensive real world information on the flux cored process, the Pulsed MIG process and equipment issues, and which are the best MIG weld gas mixes that all global weld shops should use, then visit here.
LETS GET BACK TO TIP TIG AND TRADITIONAL DC TIG PLUS PULSED MIG WELD FACTS:
In contrast to traditional TIG, when evaluating the traditional DC TIG weld and application benefits, its easier if you first understand the;
[a] THE TRADITIONAL TIG ARC WELD PROCESS RESTRICTIONS,
[b] THE TIG WELDER SKILLS AND TECHNIQUE REQUIREMENTS,
[c] THE TIG APPLICATION LIMITATIONS.
Then compare DC TIG with the unique arc and weld metal transfer characteristics along with the weld application benefits attained with the TIP TIG process.
Note: DCEN (Electrode Negative) is used with DC TIG welds on steels, alloy steels and alloys. In contrast, AC polarity, or Variable EN – EP polarity can used for TIG welds on aluminum and sometimes alloys. The TIG weld polarity requirements apply to both traditional TIG and the TIP TIG process.
For seven decades, the manual DC TIG process has enabled the highest possible manual arc weld quality, however the TIG welder skills, and weld characteristics restricted DC TIG from attaining the capability to be a cost effective, easy to use, semi-automatic or fully automated arc weld process. These attributes are attained with TIP TIG, however its important to also compare the TIP TIG weld benefits with processes such as Pulsed MIG and the automated Hot Wire TIG process.
2019: TEN YEARS HAVE PASSED SINCE I INTRODUCED THE TIP TIG PROCESS TO NORTH AMERICA. THE REALITY HOWEVER WHEN WELDING MOST CODE QUALITY STEELS AND ALLOY WELD APPLICATIONS, IS THE MAJORITY OF THE NORTH AMERICAN WELD INDUSTRY DAILY PAYS AN EXORBITANT UNNECESSARY COST BY USING TRADITIONAL DCEN TIG, INSTEAD OF THE TIP TIG PROCESS.
A QUESTION THAT COULD BE ASKED OF ANY WELD SHOP MANAGER, ENGINEER OR SUPERVISOR THAT DAILY PRODUCES A SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNT OF DC TIG WELDS, OR IS CONSIDERING PULSED MIG FOR CODE QUALITY STEEL OR ALLOY WELDS;
[a] Why are you still selecting DC TIG or the pulsed MIG process that will that require higher all position weld skills than TIP TIG?
[b] Why are you still selecting DC TIG or the pulsed MIG process both of which will always produce inferior weld quality than TIP TIG?
[c] Why are you still selecting DC or pulsed MIG, when TIP TIG will enable the lowest weld / part heat providing the lowest weld distortion, the lowest weld stresses and the best possible weld & part metallurgical properties?
[d] Why are you still selecting DC TIG, when the TIP TIG process will reduce your organizations TIG hourly labor costs by approximately 70%?
There are numerous weld quality, part metallurgical and weld cost benefits attained from TIP TIG, and most are addressed.
Around 2000, after I set this pipe weld parameters, this Westinghouse TIP TIG welder was not aware that he was putting in 350% more weld wire into this pipe weld than he usually produces on a pipe with the traditional GTAW process. Of course ten years later I would think that most of the engineering and project managers at Westinghouse are still not aware of the weld quality and productivity benefits attained from TIP TIG.
2019: TRADITIONAL TIG AND OBSOLETE WELDER SKILLS: As TIG welders cannot consistently feed small diameter weld wires fast enough, the welders typically use large wire diameter wires, 1/16 to 1/8, (1.6 to 3.2 mm) are common. Part of a TIG welders “skills” and learning curve is to be aware of the TIG weld pool fluidity, and manually feed the large weld wire so it makes an intermittent, rapid contact with the small rapid freeze fluid area at the front edge of the TIG weld, and then be aware of when to withdraw the wire from the pool so the plasma retains the required weld fluidity.
The DC TIG manual wire feed requirements, maintaining the correct arc length from the tungsten to the weld, avoiding contamination of the tungsten with either the weld and wire, understanding the weld pool fluidity, with the sometimes the use of a foot amp control, have for seven decades been important prerequisites of the manual TIG welder’s skills, and those skill in reality for more a decade have no longer been required with the TIP TIG process.
TRADITIONAL TIG COMBINES POOR ARC PLASMA ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FOR A TIG WELD WITH VERY LOW WELD DEPOSITION POTENTIAL: Take at the left picture at how a good portion of the traditional DCEN TIG arc plasma energy is required to assist in melting a small amount of the large DC TIG wire tip, while almost an equal portion of the TIG arc plasma is required to maintain a small fluid weld area. Its notable with the DC TIG welds, that as the TIG wire is dipped in the weld pool, it absorbs energy away from both the fluid part of the weld pool and also from the arc plasma. When you combine the “dual plasma DC TIG energy distribution requirements” with the DC Electrode Negative polarity in which the electrons are drawn to to the positive work, we end up with a DC TIG process that provides rapid freeze welds, arc length sensitivity concerns and very low weld deposition rates.
Unfortunately over the last decade, many of the managers and engineers in the Power, Medical, Defense, Aerospace, Oil and Gas industries that are responsible for weld decisions, seem to be stuck with 20th Century weld processes, and unfortunately most are not aware of the reduced weld risk, and extensive weld quality & cost benefits that could be derived for their organizations from the use of either the manual or automated DC TIP TIG process.
2019 Fancy Gloves & Jacket. New TIG Torch & Helmet. New TIG Inverter power source, yet still using the outdated, 20th century GTAW process.
2018: WHEN A WELD SHOP UTILIZES THE ABOVE 70 YEAR OLD, DC GTAW (TIG) PROCESS INSTEAD OF TIP TIG, EACH HOUR THEY ARE PRODUCING INFERIOR WELD QUALITY. EACH HOUR THEY ARE TYPICALLY PRODUCING 200 TO 400% LESS WELD. EACH HOUR THEY ARE USING A PROCESS THAT REQUIRES MUCH HIGHER WELDER SKILLS. EACH HOUR THEY CREATE UNNECESSARY WELD HEAT AFFECTING WELD/ PART PROPERTIES AND DISTORTION.
IN 2019, THE MAJORITY OF COMPANIES IN NORTH AMERICA THAT MAKE HEAT EXCHANGES ARE STUCK IN THE 20th CENTURY USING MANUAL OR AUTOMATED TIG. The poor quality “manual TIG welds below were proudly displayed in a US, 2109 weld magazine. These are heat exchange tubes and when you get sad manual weld quality like this, its one reason the companies that make these products will turn to costly, automated TIG weld equipment. With welds like this, the back plates are typically grooved, so the welds will typically require two or more weld passes per-tube. Note. On Heat Exchange welds. if the manual or automated TIG welds required two to three passes, in contrast TIP TIG depositing much more weld metal would typically require one weld pass.
REGULAR MANUAL GTAW HEAT EXCHANGE WELDS.
Heat exchange tube approx. circumference 9 inches. Note the weld inconsistency as the welder has gone around the tube.
Lets say for example with the above heat exchange welds that with the regular TIG weld stops / starts, it took approx. 5 – 7 minutes for the TIG first pass, and 9 – 11 min for the second larger TIG pass. We end up with an average time of 15 minutes for this one weld joint completion with two weld passes. In contrast, manual TIP TIG would not only produce much higher quality welds that would look like they were made with automation, TIP TIG would take approx. 1 minutes to complete a weld such as below.
TIP TIG HEAT EXCHANGE WELDS.
SO WITH TIP TIG the welder is again producing weld quality that looks like its produced with automated weld equipment. TIP TIG requires far less manual welding skills than TIG. TIP TIG reduces weld cleaning and weld fumes. TIP TIG dramatically lowers the weld heat input. TIP TIG will reduce the number of weld start stops, (common weld defect locations). TIP TIG reduces the amount of weld passes required. And after more than a decade since TIP TIG was introduced, thanks to ineffective weld management, most global weld shops are still using tradition TIG or wasting money on unnecessary costly, automated Hot Wire TIG equipment.
TIP TIG on difficult small diameter heat exchange welds.
It has to be a benefit on these difficult to weld, small diameter tube welds, to;
[a] Use an arc weld process that enables one or two hands.
[b] A process that does not require a foot control.
[c] A process that enables optimum control of the weld starts and stops.
[d] A process that continuously delivers the weld wire into the arc sweet spot from the weld start too the weld end.
[e] A process that requires less skills than TIG or pulsed MIG.
[f] A process that always provides higher weld quality than TIG.
[g] A process that always produces lower weld heat than any TIG or pulsed MIG weld.
[h] A process that will always enable superior weld mechanicals and corrosion properties than any GTAW, Pulsed MIG or Hot Wire TIG weld.
IN THE 1960s, I STARTED MIG, TIG & FLUX CORED WELDING ON TRACTORS AT MASSEY FERGUSON IN THE UK. IF I COULD TAKE YOU BACK TO THAT TIME, AND WAS ABLE TO USE THE WELD EQUIPMENT AND CONSUMABLES AVAILABLE, IN A FEW MINUTES, I WOULD SHOW YOU HOW LITTLE THINGS HAVE CHANGED AND PRODUCE OPTIMUM MIG, FCAW AND TIG WELD QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY THAT IN REALITY IS NO DIFFERENT THAN WHAT WILL BE PRODUCED IN 2020 ON STEELS & ALLOY APPLICATIONS. THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT WELD CHANGES THAT HAVE HAPPENED OVER 60 YEARS, ARE PULSED MIG FOR THIN ALUMINUM AND TIP TIG FOR CODE QUALITY WELDS.
A MISSING LINK OVER THE 60 YEARS. Thanks to the general lack of global weld process controls and best weld practice expertise, for six plus decades, too many in the weld industry have relied on weld sales advice. From my perspective, (Note I trained over 2000 weld salesmen in the US and Canada) weld sales advice is rarely the logical engineering route to weld process optimization and process ownership. My weld reality has been, that most weld shops are likely to get more realistic weld process control – best weld practice advice from a used car salesman.
IF YOU WANT THE BEST POSSIBLE WELD QUALITY WITH THE LOWEST WELD REPAIR COSTS, AND YOU WOULD LIKE AN ALL POSITION PROCESS THAT REQUIRES THE LEAST WELDING SKILLS, YOU MAY WANT TO RELY LESS ON A SALESMAN FOR WELD ADVICE, AND TAKE A LOOK AT TIP TIG & ALSO TAKE A LOOK AT MY WELD PROCESS CONTROL – BEST WELD PRACTICE SELF TEACHING / TRAINING RESOURCES.
ABOUT THE SAME BS AS FOUND IN A USED CAR LOT.
2019: PLEASE NOTE: AS LINCOLN MILLER, ESAB, HOBART DID NOT INVENT THE TIP TIG PROCESS, A PROCESS THAT BY THE WAY ATTAINS IT’S PRIMARY TIG WELD BENEFITS NOT FROM ELECTRONICS BUT FROM A PATENTED MECHANICAL WIRE ACTION, THERE WILL NOT LIKELY BE A WELD DISTRIBUTOR SALESMAN KNOCKING ON MOST COMPANIES DOORS TO INTRODUCE THIS PROCESS. HOWEVER, THE WELD REALITY IS, IF MANAGERS, ENGINEERS AND SUPERVISORS HAVE TO RELY ON A SALESMAN FOR THEIR COMPANIES WELD APPLICATIONS & PROGRESS, ALL I CAN SAY IS, FOR GODS SAKE, IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN ATTAINING THE BEST POSSIBLES WELD QUALITY AND THE LOWEST WELD COSTS, “STEP UP TO THE PLATE AND TAKE OWNERSHIP.”
2018: FOR A DECADE, ITS MADE NO ENGINEERING SENSE FOR MANAGERS & ENGINEERS TO REQUEST UNNECESSARY WELDER SKILLS: As the aerospace welder on the right indicates with his complex TIG alloy application, how many other global companies in 2019 are welding heat sensitive alloys and code quality components & using the obsolete, DC TIG weld process that produce pathetic weld production, high weld heat and requires high welder skills?
Of all available manual “arc” weld processes, for the last seven decades, the traditional DC TIG process has required the highest welder skills, and those skills and weld practices vary greatly from one TIG welder to another. The different skills and techniques that welders use in feeding their TIG weld wire, plus the common contamination and wear of the tungsten, and also the too frequent weld starts and stops which come with wire length changes, dramatically impact both the DC TIG weld quality and consistency.
Note: I should not have to remind those that arc weld parts in the Aerospace, Defense, Power, Medical and Energy industries, of the importance of using an arc weld process such as TIP TIG which enable minimal welder skills for all position welds, and produces the most uniform, consistent, highest possible, manual or automated weld quality with the benefits attained from lowest possible weld heat.
With with TIP TIG manual welds, the welds are being made with a “Semi-Automatic” TIG process that is readily Automated without the requirement for costly, automatic arc length adjustment equipment. The TIP TIG manual welder does not need skills to feed a weld wire. With TIP TIG, the weld wire is continuously fed into a TIG plasma sweet spot, something not possible from any manual TIG welder. The TIP TIG wire melt rate is both uniform and continuous, again something not possible from a manual TIG welder. With TIP TIG no foot controls required and no stopping of the weld for a new wire length. With TIP TIG the weld wire is not fed close to the tungsten, its fed instead into the edge of the arc plasma periphery, avoiding the chances of tungsten contamination, and tungsten melting into the weld is also dramatically reduced. Once a welder becomes familiar with TIP TIG, its likely in a shift that they may only have to grind their tungsten once.
FROM PIPE ROOTS TO PIPE FILL, LARGE OR SMALL PARTS, MANUAL OR AUTOMATED, YOU WILL FIND TIP TIG IS AN EASY TO USE PROCESS AND REQUIRES NO MORE THAN “THREE WELD SETTINGS” TO JUST ABOUT WELD ANY ALL POSITION STEELS AND ALLOY STEEL APPLICATIONS FROM 16 GAGE TO ANY THICKNESS. TIP TIG PROVIDES ANY COMPANY FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE ARC WELD PROCESSES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED TO FINALLY PRODUCE FIRST TIME, DEFECT FREE WELDS. NO ERGONOMIC OR WELD FUME ISSUES. NO METALLURGICAL OR DISTORTION ISSUES. REDUCED PREHEAT – INTER-PASS TEMP OR POST HEAT CONCERNS. NO WELD CLEANING & DON’T FORGET THE MINIMAL WELDER SKILLS REQUIRED.
THE PRIMARY ARC WELDING PROCESSES SUCH AS MIG – TIG – FLUX CORED & SMAW, HAVE CHANGED LITTLE IN SIX DECADES, AND THESE WELD PROCESSES ACCOUNT FOR MORE THAN 98% OF THE GLOBAL WELDS PRODUCED DAILY. A logical question would be why would any manger or engineer responsible for welds, ignore a new arc weld process that can provides extensive weld quality and cost benefits, an easy to use weld process that anyone who has never welded can learn in less than 10 days.
2018: THE “WHY CHANGE THE WAY WE HAVE ALWAYS DONE IT” WELD SHOPS CAN CONTINUE TO PURCHASE MAGIC WELD GAS MIXES OR WELD EQUIPMENT TOO OFTEN LOADED WITH COSTLY, USELESS ELECTRONIC BELLS AND WHISTLES, OR THEY CAN SIMPLY LEARN ABOUT PROCESSES AND PROCESS CONTROLS, AND GET A GRIP ON THE REQUIREMENTS FOR WELD PROCESS OWNERSHIP WHICH WILL ENABLE POSITIVE COST EFFECTIVE WELD CHANGES FOR THEIR COMPANIES:
With it’s latest Inverter TIG equipment, Miller proudly announced with the advanced electronics that it can speed a companies DC TIG welds by 17%. What does that mean? Well your DC TIG welder is making a weld on 3/16 or 1/4 stainless at a typical travel rate of 3 inch/min, that new Millers Inverter TIG power source now enables with the 17% increase in weld speed a new weld speed of 3.5 inch/min, yawn. In contrast, when TIP TIG equipment is added to that Miller power source, it usually enables 200 to 400 % in weld deposition rates that enable 300 to 700% increase in TIG weld speeds. Remember weld speeds influence weld & clad heat, and weld heat influences weld – part metallurgical properties, distortion, stresses and oxidation.
Its common in high tech industries, to find that the managers & engineers responsible for welds, will often not be aware of the required weld process control expertise and therefore struggle to attain weld process ownership.
Aerospace Industry, often using 30 year old weld specifications and weld procedures from the 20th Century.
2018: WHEN HIGH TECH. INDUSTRIES, THE ARMED FORCES & RESEARCH FACILITIES SUCH AS LOS ALAMO LABS AND COLORADO SCHOOLS OF MINES IGNORE OR ARE NOT AWARE OF AN IMPORTANT ARC WELD PROCESS THAT’S BEEN AVAILABLE FOR A DECADE, WHAT DOES THAT SAY ABOUT THOSE RESEARCHERS THAT ARE MAKING THE WELD DECISIONS?
Hundreds of millions of dollars would have be saved on any LNG construction, offshore or sub-sea projects, if the engineers responsible made the right weld decisions and stopped using traditional DC GTAW and Pulsed MIG, and instead used TIP TIG on most of their code quality welds.
Thousands or millions of weld labor hours wasted on building projects like this.
FOR THOSE LOOKING FOR NEW BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES OR FOR RAPID WELD COST QUALITY / PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENTS? Weld shop managers, engineers and supervisors might want to wake up to the weld quality & productivity benefits attained by TIP TIG, these are not the nickel and dime, hard to measure weld benefits that are usually proclaimed with the latest electronic Inverter DC TIG or Pulsed MIG equipment when welding steels and alloy welds. The highest all position weld quality and lowest weld heat means minimal concerns with even the most complex alloys. The beneficial weld process attributes from the easy to use TIP TIG process, enable game changing weld quality / production benefits that can dramatically impact any weld shop’s manual and automated weld application capability, think about the cost benefits from zero weld rework.
THE PULSED MIG ACHILLES HEEL: When it comes to delivering optimum manual arc weld quality, many steel and alloy steel welds are made with the manual Pulsed MIG process, with it’s weld fusion, porosity, spatter, arc stability and weld heat concerns. For more than three decades, many companies simply have not understand why Pulsed MIG can be a poor process choice when welding code quality steels and alloy steel parts > 4 mm, and especially welding alloy steels such as stainless and duplex, which have sluggish, slower weld solidification characteristics.
2019: The most critical defect any weld can have is lack of weld fusion and with many pulsed MIG welds you will find manual weld fusion concerns especially on fillet and groove welds on parts 3/16 plus. I have written three books on the weld fusion concerns with pulsed MIG, and for twenty years my weldreality.com web site has been presenting the pulsed MIG steel weld issues along with evidence of the poor pulsed MIG weld results.
PULSED MIG AND LACK OF WELD FUSION: There are two primary factors why Pulsed MIG will at times result in weld fusion issues.
 Pulsed MIG has to use a “low back ground current” to form and sustain the weld droplet and transfer. In contrast to MIG Spray transfer, the pulsed MIG back ground current takes weld energy away from the pulsed weld. To attain a higher energy pulsed MIG weld, the welder would have to turn the wire feed up and increase the weld deposition rates, (increase weld travel rates). From a cost perspective, high deposition rates are a good feature of a weld process. From a weld fusion perspective, increasing weld speeds does not enhance weld fusion capability.
 In contrast to SMAW (stick) and DC TIG , Pulsed MIG enables all position welds at much higher weld deposition rates. A welder could weld a 6 mm wall stainless pipe (fill passes) with pulsed MIG, and readily attain a weld deposition rate of 6 to 10 lb/hr. with typical manual weld travel rates on the vertical up welds usually between 10 and 15 inch/min. The same vertical up, pipe fill pass welds made with DC TIG or the SMAW process would typically be delivering approx. one pound/hr, with weld travel rates of 1 to 3 inch/min.
WELD DEPOSITION & TRAVEL RATES AND WELD FUSION: Note on the importance of weld travel rates and weld fusion: Its the low weld deposition and resulting LOW WELD TRAVEL RATES that enable the time required for all position weld fusion to occur with both the TIG and SMAW process. The all position weld fusion that occurs with these two low deposition weld processes is usually equal or superior weld fusion than that possible with the higher weld deposition, much faster weld travel rate, Pulsed MIG process. However from my perspective the weld speeds attainable with TIG and SMAW are too slow while the pulsed MIG travel rates are too fast. Manual or automated welds, there is only one process that provides the ideal weld speeds, with the highest weld energy, and that process is TIP TIG.
One easy to use process. No spatter, no fumes, no weld defects from pipe or plate root to fill. It would take 7 to 8 TIG welders to achieve in one hour, what we trained these two TIP TIG welders to attain for the Chinese National Oil Company welding sub-sea pipe.
The following are logical reasons why TIP TIG will provide superior weld fusion and lower weld porosity than any other arc weld process.
 TIP TIG ENABLES HIGHER WELD ENERGY THAN BOTH DC TIG AND PULSED MIG.
 TIP TIG IS THE ONLY ARC PROCESS THAT AGITATES THE WELD POOL SLOWING THE WELD SOLIDIFICATION WHICH NOT ONLY BENEFITS WELD FUSION AND REDUCES WELD POROSITY, IT ALSO ELIMINATES SLUGGISH ALLOY CONCERNS.
 TIP TIG PROVIDES WELD SPEEDS SUITED TO ATTAIN WELD FUSION, SLOWER THAN PULSED MIG & FASTER THAN TIG.
 TIP TIG REQUIRES LESS ALL POSITION WELDER SKILLS THAN TIG AND PULSED MIG.
 TIP TIG ONLY REQUIRES ONE PROCESS FOR ROOT AND FILL ON ANY THICKNESS.
 TIP TIG PROVIDES SOMETHING THAT TIG CANNOT PROVIDE, IT PROVIDES CONSTANT, UNIFORM MELTING OF THE WELD WIRE DELIVERED TO THE SWEET ARC SPOT.
Few global weld decision makers will be aware of the TIP TIG weld capability and weld benefits as both a manual, semi-automated process, or fully automated arc weld process. Few will be aware that TIP TIG is an easy to use process especially with all position welds. Few will be aware that it typically takes three to four DCEN TIG welders to do the work that one TIP TIG welder can do each hour. Few will be aware that TIP TIG will always provide superior weld quality than DCEN TIG, Plasma, Hot Wire TIG, Hybrid MIG and the Pulsed MIG process. Few will be aware that the DCEN TIP TIG process always enables not only the highest arc weld / part quality capability but also the lowest possible weld and part heat enabling the lowest weld distortion and never before attained metallurgical properties.
2018: The bottom line in the why change the way we have always done it, and give me some time to play with the weld controls, or lets get weld advice from a salesman, weld industry, is that there is an excellent opportunity for front office weld decision makers to enable dramatic weld quality improvements and cost reductions, for their organizations. However to attain those weld quality / cost benefits, front office personnel would have to do something many are often reluctant to do, step up to the plate, take process ownership, learn and embrace a 21st century weld process called TIP TIG (my TIP TIG program has all the training and procedure data you need for any application).
Consider providing yourself or employees with one or more of my TIP TIG – Advanced TIG – MIG – Flux cored or Robot MIG Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practice, Self Teaching / Training Programs. By the way, why the above submarine? If like me you have an interest in the never ending, dramatic, inexcusable weld cost consequences for the Navy and its prime contractors when they build subs or any sea going vessels, scroll down. For those that want more info. you can call me at 828 337 2695 Eastern time. For those like me that don’t have a life and love this stuff keep on trucking.
TIP TIG, unique weld attributes and unique weld and part benefits.
Lets further evaluate the TIP TIG manual and automated weld / part application benefits between the following three widely used arc weld processes, and also discuss the weld shop reluctance to change which is common throughout the global weld industry.
 Traditional Manual DCEN TIG.
 Automated DCEN Hot Wire TIG.
 Reverse Polarity Pulsed MIG.
2019. WHY CHANGE THE 70 YEAR OLD WAY WE HAVE ALWAYS DONE IT? Since the 1940’s, DCEN TIG has been attaining the highest manual arc weld quality, however for more than a decade, TIP TIG has been a superior semi-automatic and automated arc process, providing many weld and application benefits.
Great weld quality with numerous weld shop issues & restrictions.
2019: Its been approx. 10 years since DCEN TIG evolved into a process called DCEN TIP TIG, however a primary issue in the global weld industry has been the slow acceptance of the TIP TIG process, and the weld reality has been that many companies that use traditional DCEN TIG are missing out on an opportunity for their companies to extend their weld application capability and make dramatic weld quality improvements with extensive weld cost savings. Its important to also note that out of all the common arc weld processes daily utilized, the DCEN TIG process has required the “highest manual welder skills” that when combined with the lowest weld deposition rates typically produces the “highest arc weld labor costs”.
One hindrance against weld shop progress and TIG evolution, is often weld shop attitude. Those that know me will be aware from my arc weld process controls – best weld practice books, 40 plus weld articles, and process control training materials and workshops, would be aware that for more than three decades, I have been more than a little frustrated with;
(a) the global, lack of management and engineer weld process ownership,
(b) the why change the way we have always done it attitude,
(c) the play around with the weld controls weld shop acceptance,
(d) the reliance on a weld salesman for weld advice,
(e) the lack of weld process controls and best weld practice expertise.
With the above in mind, I would like to start this blog on the now approx. decade old TIP TIG process, by asking a question.
“How long do you believe it should take experienced global weld decision makers to recognize the superior weld quality capability, the improved part mechanical or metallurgy properties and dramatic weld cost reduction benefits derived from a an arc weld process such as TIP TIG”?
 TIP TIG enables the lowest possible all position welder skills,
 TIP TIG always provides superior weld quality than manual TIG, and also Automated Hot Wire TIG and the Pulsed MIG process.
 TIP TIG while providing the highest possible arc weld quality, also provides the lowest possible weld heat. This unique combination enables extraordinary weld quality & part metallurgical benefits never before attained in the welding industry.
 TIP TIG with providing the lowest possible arc weld heat enables the lowest possible weld stresses and distortion.
 TIP TIG with the lowest possible weld heat and inert gas enables the lowest possible weld fumes.
 TIP TIG dramatically lowers hourly labor costs from increased TIG weld productivity typically in the range of 200 to 400%.
 TIP TIG is the first semi-automated and fully automated arc weld process that has the potential on most all position, steels. alloy steels and alloy welds, to eliminate the need for weld rework.
 TIP TIG requires less all position welder skills than any of the traditional arc weld processes.
As someone who has been requested by frustrated managers to solve their weld problems and improve their weld quality and productivity in over a 1000 weld shops in 13 countries, I am well aware that the majority of the companies employ front office personnel that lacked the Weld Process Control – Best Weld Practice expertise that’s necessary for front office weld process ownership.
In many companies, the front office personnel responsible for the weld shop will often rely on the weld shop personnel that when not playing around with their weld controls, will be asked to evaluate new weld equipment or consumables that’s typically recommended by a sales rep. The weld personnel will rarely have weld process control expertise, and that sales rep will usually have had no previous experience in running a weld shop.
As the TIP TIG process was not invented by the major global weld equip. manufactures, it’s unlikely a weld sales rep will turn up at your facility and discuss, or even be aware of the weld benefits of the TIP TIG process. Also, it’s not likely that any company that has to seek arc weld process advice from a weld salesman, will be anxious to seek out new weld technology that’s not introduced by the conventional weld distributors. However as the useless politicians in Washington keep informing us, “it’s time for change”. And let’s face it! there should be no room in the highly competitive, global weld industry for arc weld process confusion, weld process ignorance or weld process apathy, especially in any business in which the arc welds play an important role in their organization.
The DCEN TIP TIG process, is a unique arc weld process that provides a continuous fed, preheated and agitated weld wire into a DCEN (electrode negative) arc. Variable polarity TIP TIG can also provide remarkable TIG weld benefits.
With the TIP TIG there is a relationship between the TIP TIG wire diameter, the continuous fed wire feed rates, the wire to tungsten placement, the tungsten size, profile and current utilized. To attain weld optimization with TIP TIG, there are specific techniques and best weld practices that should be applied. All of these requirements are provided and simplified in my TIP TIG process control and best weld practice self teaching / training program provided below.
WHILE SOME IN AMERICA ARE ASLEEP AT THE WHEEL:
It’s ironic that the first customer for TIP TIG at our USA facility, was the “Chinese National Oil Company”.
TIP TIG and Welder Skills: AS the TIP TIG weld wire does not have to be fed manually, and a foot amp control is not necessary, in contrast to regular TIG, the TIP TIG process dramatically reduces welder skills. However to attain the full TIP TIG weld process and weld application potential, and to also break the common weld shop “play around” with the weld controls approach to many arc welds, it would be beneficial if in 2019 that management take a role in process ownership and ensure that both the TIP TIG process controls and best weld practices are learnt. Remember to learn the “all position” TIP TIG pipe welder skills would take a TIG welder between 1 to 2 days. And to train someone with someone who has never welded with any process, it would take them with the TIP TIG process, if taught correctly, 3 to 5 days to pass any code pipe welder qualification test.
TIP TIG and Weld Practices: No matter what the skill level of the welder is, the weld personnel should learn the unique TIP TIG weld practices, techniques, and the few required optimum weld settings. These are available in my TIP TIG Self Teaching – Training program. This program requires approx. 10 to 12 hours.
As I write this in 2019, I hope this blog will help take some of the weld process and application confusion out of the TIP TIG process. I also hope that the TIP TIG info and application data at this site speeds up the acceptance of this unique, important weld process and enable weld decision makers to be aware of where DCEN TIP TIG process belongs throughout the global weld industry.
I recognize that while the lack of Manual and Robot MIG weld process control expertise and best weld practices maybe an acceptable way of life with the majority of front office weld decision makers in the global Auto & Truck industry, an industry that is used to daily accepting 30 – 60% daily robot MIG weld rework and extensive daily robot down time. However this lack of expertise should not be considered acceptable in weld shops that produce code quality welds. Weld shops that have an interest in enhancing their company’s weld capability and reputation. Weld shops that have an interest in reducing their weld costs and increasing profits.
You don’t need to be a rocket scientist to figure out that the global lack of arc weld process controls & best weld practice expertise, along with the too common reliance by weld shops for weld advice from sales reps, would influence the weld shop and the front office culture and possibly have a negative impact on the acceptance of a new arc weld process such as the TIP TIG.
Sales Influence on weld shops: Lets face it, when weld sales reps are required to guide key weld shop decision makers on arc weld equipment or consumables, products that in reality have changed little in decades, this is usually an indication that the company lacks the ability for Weld Process Ownership. When this expertise is lacking, someone will pay a steep price.
MIG – FCAW – Advanced TIG – TIP TIG or ROBOT MIG, every weld shop will benefit from focus on Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practice Expertise.
AN INDUSTRY THAT RELIES ON INEXPERIENCED SALES ADVICE TO RESOLVE THEIR WELD PROCESS ISSUES, PAYS A PRICE:
Costly MIG power source Bells and Whistles: It’s not difficult to comprehend that much of the traditional Pulsed MIG weld equipment purchased over the last three decades, will have been purchased as a result of weld sales influence, and as a result of dubious product marketing weld claims from weld equip. mfgs. The MIG equipment purchased would often be loaded with costly, useless electronic bells and whistles, circuit boards that rarely influenced the weld quality or productivity, circuit boards that however typically enabled the weld equipment and distributor’s to increase their MIG power source profits.
Salesmanship also has influenced the purchase of weld consumables. For example, instead of the four MIG gas mixes required for all global MIG welds, we have more than 40 MIG gas mixes to choose from. (By the way I was a key writer of the AWS MIG gas specifications). And instead of using MIG wires many companies will often purchase unnecessary and more costly, Flux Cored or Metal Cored wires.
What makes TIP TIG Unique? In contrast to many of the weld power sources produced in the last two decades, the DCEN TIP TIG process does not derive its increased TIG weld quality productivity and weld application capability from a weld power source loaded with electronic bells and whistles. TIP TIG DC weld current is derived from a conventional, suitable, 300 to 500 amp DC TIG power source. That TIG power source is combined with a patented TIP TIG Wire Feed delivery system, plus a small Hot Wire TIG power source and a unique torch is provided.
The TIP TIG Mechanical Wire Action drives TIP TIG benefits: Through a patented mechanical action, the TIP TIG wire feed drive roll mount goes back and forth at high speed. This action on the wire creates a restricted tension and release on the continuous fed weld wire. The mechanical action on the TIP TIG continuous fed wire creates an agitation effect on the weld wire, which when viewed is similar to a vibrating guitar string. The pre-heated agitated TIP TIG weld wire is fed through the unique TIP TIG torch that delivers the wire to a specific point near the tungsten.
TIP TIG WIRE AGITATION AND WELD BENEFITS:
TIP TIG Wire Agitation enables benefits. As the TIP TIG weld wire makes contact with the outer periphery of the TIG arc plasma, the wire tip melts and a droplet is formed. The TIP TIG wire agitation helps detach and speed up the transfer of the molten weld drops into the fluid weld pool. Without the wire agitation the droplet at the wire tip could grow larger, and the continuous, rapid fed wire could be driven into the weld causing a disruption. No Manual TIG welder could provide a continuous fed weld wire consistently at the TIG arc plasma sweet spot. The TIP TIG optimum wire placement at the sweet spot in the arc outer plasma periphery, is using an area in the plasma in which minimal plasma energy is utilized for the wire melt, and therefore in contrast to regular DCEN TIG, more of the TIP TIG arc plasma energy can be maintained over the fluid surface of the weld.
TIP TIG Plasma Heat Distribution is different than TIG. Again note with regular DCEN TIG, the plasma distribution and the intermittent plasma task between melting the large diameter TIG wire and heating the weld and part surface. The TIP TIG wire agitation and the wire preheat are the defining difference between TIP TIG and the traditional, manual, DCEN TIG process. The TIP TIG wire agitation is also the prime difference between TIP TIG and the Automated Hot Wire TIG process.
Note: TIP TIG is highly suited as both a Manual and Automated weld process. In contrast, regular DCEN TIG is rarely suited to weld automation, and the Hot Wire TIG process is rarely suited as a manual arc weld process.
With TIP TIG, a complex alloy becomes a simple weld application.
TIP TIG should be the logical manual and automated arc weld process of choice for the high tech industries. From welding investment castings in fighter planes or welding super alloys, armor plate, duplex, titanium, hastelloy or high strength steels on submarines and tanks. With many alloy welds welds, the high tech industries industries often look towards complex, automated weld processes such as the Electron Beam, Laser, Plasma or the Friction Stir process, to produce high quality welds with minimal influence on the weld Heat Affected Zones, which in many instances, (weld joint design permitting), may also be delivered by the much lower cost, manual or automated TIP TIG process.
Think of the manual or automated weld application possibilities.
Please remember that TIP TIG is both a manual and easily automated weld process. If the TIP TIG manual or automated process is suitable to the joint design, (the alloy is usually not relevant), remember that in contrast to the sophisticated automated weld processes, if TIP TIG is suited to the weld joint design and thickness, that the TIP TIG weld equipment that will typically costs 5 to 10% of a laser or EB unit, will produce the weld quality desired with minimal weld heat influence on the part weld’s HAZ.
Note: The easy to use TIP TIG process would not require the special process expertise that comes with a Laser, EB or Friction process. TIP TIG would also have less weld dimension tolerance concerns and less weld fixture requirements than is typically required with the mentioned automated weld processes.
Why would anyone not consider TIP TIG for welding those LNG facilities and vessels?
A moment on Pulsed MIG. I have spent over 35 years evaluating the Pulsed MIG process and written hundreds of pages on why so many weld issues occur with this process. After 35 years of pulsed MIG evaluation, the same weld quality issues are occurring especially with steels, alloys and alloy steels >5 m. My web site weldreality.com and my weld process control training programs go into extensive details why the use of this process requires weld shop caution on many applications. However the reality is for three plus decades, pulsed MIG has been presented by the weld equipment manufactures and distributor sales reps as the greatest thing since sliced bread, of course many weld shops will buy into another crutch for their steel and alloy steel welds.
Without question pulsed MIG provides excellent weld benefits for aluminum welds that benefit from the moderate weld energy attained. In contrast steels and sluggish alloys benefit from “consistent high weld energy”, so the weld shop has the option of pulsed MIG which spends 50% of its time at a low back ground current usually less than 120 amps and the traditional MIG spray mode in which the high energy is relatively constant.
Pulsed MIG weld Fusion and Porosity: One thing that influences both Pulsed MIG and Spray weld fusion is the weld deposition rates typically attained with these two weld transfer modes are often too high, and will require fast weld travel rates. The rapid weld speeds and the pulsed MIG weld energy produced on many steel and alloy welds especially on parts > 5, may produce marginal weld fusion or lack of weld fusion.
In contrast to pulsed MIG welds, TIP TIG provides a much “higher arc temperature” and “lower deposition” rates that require slower weld speeds than pulsed MIG. Remember slower weld speeds are helpful in attaining good weld fusion especially with all position welds and welds on sluggish alloys. Also with TIP TIG you have the weld metal agitation which when combined with the higher TIP TIG arc and weld temperatures should enable TIP TIG to always produce superior weld fusion than any pulsed MIG weld. As TIP TIG does not use the reactive gas mixes required by pulsed MIG, TIP TIG with its inert argon and high temp welds, should always enable the lowest weld porosity potential.
If a company is considering manual pulsed MIG for welding submarine high strength steels, the duplex and stainless metals on LNG vessels, or for that matter welding any code quality welds on parts thicker than 5 mm, be warned. Do weld section macros first on scrap of the same metal type and thickness. Apart from the middle of the weld joint where you will often find marginal weld fusion, also make sure you examine the first inch of weld, and any weld tie-ins. There is a good chance you will reveal lack of weld fusion or porosity. That weld defects are not likely to occur with TIP TIG welds made in any weld positions.
BOY YOU HAVE TO LOVE THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY.
As someone who for a short time was involved with weld joint design and weld process decisions on the Moon & Mars Orion Spacecraft, I am well aware that many of the weld joints required in Aerospace, Defense and Power industry are unique, and yes many will justify the use of EB, Laser or Friction Stir. However lets face it, a good engineer in the high tech industry would be aware of the practical and cost effective weld technology available. And when possible, that engineer should be making practical, cost effective weld process decisions. YAWN.
TIP TIG and dramatic weld Heat Reductions: Few of the engineers that deal with high strength steels and alloys will be aware that in contrast to regular TIG and pulsed MIG, that TIP TIG has the capability not only to meet any weld quality requirements but also provides the ability to reduce traditional TIG and Pulsed MIG weld joules input by approx. 60 to 75%. Proof in TIP TIG video below.
What could the remarkable TIP TIG weld joules reductions do for the parts that your company daily welds?
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low heat and the reduction of stresses that reduce weld crack and weld HAZ potential.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG lowest weld heat and ability to eliminate weld distortion concerns.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low weld heat that enables the smallest weld HAZ and easily attains the best possible mechanical and corrosion properties.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low weld heat and producing arc welds with the lowest possible oxidation potential, reducing weld porosity concerns.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low weld heat capability, and the weld shops present use of ASTM and other specification guidelines for preheat – inter-pass and post heat treatments with high strength. alloy steels and alloys. The common heat treat recommendations typically used in the global weld industry in 2019 belong to arc weld processes such as MIG – TIG and Flux Cored that on average will put 50% more weld joules into the welded parts than the DCEN TIP TIG process.
Weld Preheat, Inter-pass or Post Heat may be reduced or eliminated.
With DCEN TIP TIG, your typical preheat, inter-pass and post heat weld heat recommendations may either be eliminated or dramatically reduced. As you will see in the video below, the weld heat from DCEN TIP TIG is so low, that welding heat sensitive Titanium can be done without a gas trailing shield.
2019. The following SpaceX 300 series, stainless vessel will be the world’s largest, 21st Century spaceship. It’s a pity that TIP TIG which has been around more than a decade, would likely not have been given the consideration it deserves for some of the required welds.
It’s also a sad engineering fact that 20 Century arc weld processes, weld specifications and weld procedures are still being used for 21st Century space travel.
In a few years, Mr. Musk would like to send humans on a round trip to Mars in his companies giant, 300 series stainless spaceship. It’s understandable that Mr. Musk at his Tesla CA. facility, possibly did not understand the human, arc weld process controls & best weld practice expertise that was and still is required by his MIG and Resistance robot workers, however its been sad reality that when welding the parts for his SpaceX vessels, that the SpaceX engineers will like their peers at many of the other aerospace companies, likely will not be aware of the TIP TIG weld application potential. If you worked in a weld shop, you may have heard this.