In 2019, at the majority of the major global high tech companies, most of the manual, code quality arc welds will be made using the 70 plus year old DCEN TIG, (GTAW) process. And if not using traditional DCEN TIG for their manual welds, the weld shops will likely be using pulsed MIG, SMAW, and the Gas Shielded Flux Cored process. These  arc weld processes will require higher welder skills and always provide inferior weld quality with higher weld heat than DCEN TIP TIG.

For decades the global weld industry has been utilizing arc weld processes, in weld shops that expected weld REWORK.

As most weld shops will be aware, when X-Ray weld quality was required, with the traditional, primary manual arc weld processes that have been utilized  for decades, costly weld rework was the expected norm. This should  no longer be the case when the TIP TIG process is selected.


How weld shop attitudes can also affect weld process evolution & progressive weld process changes in weld shops. Lets face it, who has not heard the following two phrases in their weld shop. “Why change the way we have always done it”. Or  what about that old weld shop favorite.  “Can you give me sometime to play around with the weld controls?” Welder skills also play an important role in new process acceptance.  Traditional DCEN TIG for example requires the highest welder skills, and in some weld establishments these skills can create a welder diva mentality, whereas some of those TIG  welders may proudly proclaim,  “I am a Nuclear TIG Welder” or “I am a Titanium TIG welder”. TIP TIG takes a few days to learn and it takes weld quality to higher levels ever attained by manual TIG welders.


So when the Army wanted to make lightweight Howitzers out of Titanium, TIP TIG was available and I tried to inform them how this process would simplify the application and would cut  hundreds of millions of dollars of the Howitzer mfg. costs. No one listened. A decade later I doubt if any of the Army personnel involved in weld engineering decisions will be aware of the TIP TIG process, and especially the weld benefits it would bring to any alloys, all high strength steels, investment castings and  armor steels.


The more complex the alloy, the easier it is to do using the DC TIP TIG process.

IN 2019, MOST WELD SHOP WILL WELD TITANIUM APPLICATIONS USING THE 20 th CENTURY METHODS:  Typically all position, manual or mechanized Titanium TIG welds on parts > 3 mm, such as the  above USA Navy titanium pipe welds, will be carried with DC TIG that provides very low weld deposition rates producing  pipe “fill pass” weld speeds in the 3 to 5 inch/min range. Those multi pass, low DC TIG  weld speeds generate high weld heat, and therefore to minimize the effects of the weld heat oxidation on the titanium welds, there is time required for inter-pass temp. controls, and gas trailing shields have been considered essential for  Titanium pipe welds as indicated.

When alloy welds are made on titanium and the welds are highly sensitive to oxidation, the finished weld color will speak for itself,  and weld porosity will  often be a concern. In contrast to regular DC TIG, depending on the part thickness, TIP TIG manual or automated, titanium  pipe fill pass weld deposition rates will typically be 200 to 400% greater than TIG, enabling  weld fill pass travel rates  typically in the 9 to 25 inch/min rang. Please note also, on most titanium welds on parts over 1/8, inter pass temp is not required and  a gas trailing shield would not be required.


The following video is a TIP TIG Titanium weld that in 2019 no Aerospace, Defense, Power or Energy company is capable of making this weld using DC TIG, Pulsed MIG or Hot Wire TIG

“WILL YOU TAKE A MOMENT TO SEE HOW EASY IT CAN BE TO WELD TITANIUM: Welding the above army titanium howitzer or navy titanium pipe would have been simple with TIP TIG.  In 2010, when I was setting the TIP TIG weld parameters for my business partner Tom to weld some Grade 2. Titanium scrap parts, the engineering manager from  the large Philadelphia Titanium fabricator that supplied the test parts, asked why I was not going  to use an argon gas trailing shield to protect the titanium weld and part from  oxidation. I knew something that this engineer did not know.

Though this was the first time titanium would be welded with TIP TIG in North America, I was well aware when welding other heat sensitive alloys of the very low weld heat that I had already been attaining  and that we would not  likely need a gas trailing shield to minimize oxidation and attain the desired titanium weld SILVER color. By the way as we were just setting our TIP TIG weld shop at this time and we had nothing that would correctly clean the  titanium parts  and  they still had forming / cutting contaminates on, (the  reason for the weld  fumes).  

WHY TIP TIG DID NOT NEED A GAS TRAILING SHIELD. At a DC TIG weld speed of approx 3 inch/min with one weld start and stop for a new wire length, the time to weld the above eighteen inch long,  1/4 thick titanium  part with TIG would be approx 6 minutes. In contrast  the time to weld the titanium part with  TIP TIG travelling at 24 inch/min as shown on the video, was 44 seconds.  The weld heat  with DC. TIG  39,600 J/inch, the weld heat with DC. TIP TIG,  5.550 J/inch. Its the higher weld travel speeds attainable with  DC TIP TIG that will always on most applications > 1.6 mm enable a remarkable weld energy difference between  traditional DC TIG and TIP TIG. Keep in mind also that  even tho. DC. Pulsed MIG could weld a little faster than TIP TIG, that DC.Pulsed MIG uses Reverse Polarity which  concentrates the weld heat in the MIG plasma and this greatly influences the high weld and part HAZ heat you get with any Reverse Polarity MIG

Remember also when dealing with weld heat sensitive alloys and considering MIG, that  MIG provides higher part heat and also requires reactive gases such as CO2 or Oxy. which influence, oxidation and  porosity on any application. TIP TIG only requires argon and should never require helium.  The TIP TIG weld benefits that apply to this titanium weld, also applies to any alloy or steel application you want to weld with TIP TIG.

“WELDERS WANTED TO WELD  TITANIUM VESSELS, MINIMUM WELDER SKILLS REQUIRED”.  TIP TIG is easy to use,  just like MIG, with TIP TIG you can have one or two hands on the torch just point and move and no  foot control required. From a root pass to any position weld, TIP TIG  makes all position welds an easy task.

Dont forget that weld Costs are of course influenced by the required Welder Skills:  Apart from the weld deposition rates attained and weld rework required, weld costs are also influenced by the required welder skills. Weld shops take note, all of the traditional arc weld processes such as traditional DCEN TIG, Pulsed MIG, Flux Cored or the SMAW process, require higher all position welder skills than required with TIP TIG. Also as we are all aware when hiring TIG welders, the welder skill requirements will influence the hourly labor costs, and also the manual welder skill differences will affect weld defects.

Note. Every business is aware that  in 2019, all position skilled weld personnel are in short supply. With TIP TIG not only do you enable the highest all position weld quality, this also is a process that requires the lowest all position welder skills. 

With TIP TIG, in contrast to TIG, the weld application size and thickness are no longer that relevant.

Weld quality and Process influence:  Weld quality is not only influenced by manual welders skills, but also by the weld process selected. Apart from what influence a manual welder has on the welds being produced, the weld process selected will also influence the weld quality attained. Most weld shops are aware of the potential for lack of weld fusion and porosity with the Pulsed MIG process. And weld shops will expect trapped slag and porosity from the Flux cored  or SMAW process.  The high welder skills as required by traditional DCEN TIG, will also influence the weld quality attained, and the slow TIG weld speeds will influence the weld heat and hourly weld labor costs.After assisting over 1000 companies in 13 countries with their weld issues. From my perspective, it  does not matter if someone works in the front office, the QA office or on the weld shop floor, the first management and engineering priority should be on  the organizations Weld  Process Controls  &  Best Weld Practice expertise. These are subjects that over a thirty year period that I have both simplified and condensed.  If you can give any of these process subjects 15 – 20 hours of your time, and pay the cost of a good dinner for four, become an expert. My Training / Self teaching resources are available here. 

DCEN TIP TIG – Advanced AC TIG – Robot  & Manual MIG – FCAW, Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practice Expertise  here.

Its  2019,  and the majority of prime  Aerospace, Defense and Nuclear companies and their contractors have for more than a decade been using the outdated arc weld processes, outdated weld specifications and procedures, and not being aware of  the arc weld process controls and best weld practices required for weld process optimization.

My business partner Tom and I introduced TIP TIG to Australia, and the Australian Government Navy Department found out how easy it was with TIP TIG welds for their workers to pass the Navy destructive, explosive hull weld tests. 


While the world’s prime defense contractors  are usually stuck in an arc weld time warp, ASC Pty. Ltd, an Australian Government business owned ship builder has proven that the TIP TIG process  attains astounding weld quality and cost results on it’s  Submarine Hull Weld Tests. 

Ed Craig..2018. Collins Sub… The Australian Government company ASC approves TIP TIG as it’s arc weld process of choice for Submarine Hull build / repairs. The following comments are from the ASC Chief Executive Officer is Mr. Stuart Whiley….”To evaluate and approve  the TIP TIG process, ASC used an explosive weld test on Submarine Hull, High Strength Steel Plate”. 

To gain Commonwealth  engineering approval, ASC-welded test specimens of the hull steel had to pass repeated explosive bulge tests at a facility in Victoria. Not only did TIP TIG prove to be a superior process to the DCEN TIG process, the TIP TIG process solved a major problem for the Aussies, as this country has a concern with finding the skilled TIG welders to work on submarines.  TIP TIG quickly revealed it’s much easier to use than TIG,  it provides superior weld quality and mechanical properties and has the potential to lower reduce the TIG weld costs in the range of 200 to 400%.

TIP TIG was brought to Australia in 2009 – 2010 by myself,  and my business partner Tom  O’Malley, (both formerly TIP TIG USA owners). We established the Australian TIP TIG distributors and TIP TIG USA trained the Ausy personnel in the use of this unique weld process. In 2019  the Ausy government placed an order for 50 billion dollars to purchase submarines, and I know with TIP TIG that they will now feel confident that when it comes to doing future sub weld repairs it will be a simple task with TIP TIG. 

In conclusion from Em:  The following are a few  of the  things that would help any shipyard working on Merchant or Navy contracts.
[] Have the ability to take less advice from weld sales personnel.
[] Do not accept any welder training program that produces welders who  “play around” with weld controls.
[] Those that make make weld decisions, ensure you have the expertise required for weld process ownership.
[] Where  appropriate for all position code quality welds, consider TIP TIG.
[] For MIG – Flux Cored and TIP TIG welds, implement Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practice Training for  welders, inspectors  and involved front office personnel.
] Change the QA weld  inspection approach from defense to offence so inspection personnel , learn how to prevent rather than simply reveal weld defects. 

More data on on the dramatic weld cost issues in Ship and Sub building in my weld programs at

 If you want to discuss  TIP TIG call me eastern time U.S. 828 337 2695.  If you want Arc Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practice Self Teaching  / Training Programs that are necessary for process optimization and ownership, check the following link.

Em’s TIP TIG, or MIG and Flux cored  Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Self Teaching / Training Programs.

When using traditional DCEN TIG and welding a complex, heat sensitive alloy such as Titanium parts > 1/8, the weld shop will be aware of the sensitivity of the titanium to weld heat and the oxidation formation potential. This is an oxidation revealed when welding in the weld color, and that color will often be the subject of many QA personnel decisions that often result in  costly titanium part rejects. To prevent the oxidation that occurs with the weld solidification and cooling  of the titanium welds, a cumbersome inert gas trailing shield will be attached to the manual TIG welder torch, who typically will be welding at slow weld speeds that are the primary cause of the weld heat generated.

In contrast, the use of  DCEN TIP TIG on the > 1/8  titanium parts, would reveal that not only will TIP TIG not require the gas trailing shield,  it will always create the highest possible arc weld quality with the lowest possible weld heat.  As for the welder working with TIP TIG they will not require the typical welder skills of feeding a weld wire and will not require a foot control. The bottom line is most titanium applications can be welded with two simple weld settings using the same weld practices as they would use on simple steel or stainless applications.

Take a moment with the TIP TIG video below. Welding  a complex titanium alloy without using a gas trailing shield. 

When I set the TIP TIG data for a first time attempt on these titanium vessel parts, I knew as I set the weld data for Tom to weld the titanium, that we would not need to use  a gas trail shield.This I believe was the first time in North America that titanium was welded successfully without the use of a gas trail shield.

Em’s TIP TIG, or MIG and Flux cored  Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Self Teaching / Training Programs.a



The common global lack of engineering and management focus on the requirements for arc weld process ownership that would enable weld process quality – productivity optimization, is why we have a “play around with the weld controls” industry. An industry that too often relies on a weld salesman for weld advice, an individual that who has likely never ran a weld shop.

After evaluating and simplifying weld process for 50 years, what really frustrates me is the so called high tech industries such as Defence, Aerospace, Nuclear and Oil are typically the most entrenched in the use of 1950s arc weld processes, and also you would note that the weld procedures use in the 1970s – 1980s period are little different from those used today. This Rip Van Winkle approach to welding is especially evident  in  Aerospace, Oil, Nat Gas, Nuclear, and likely in every global Naval Ship Building yards. Ed Craig.

With Ships, Submarines and Offshore Oil Rig construction facilities, the common manual arc weld processes such as SMAW, Flux Cored, MIG and GTAW have been used for many decades. While these processes are effective for joining metals, none of these arc weld processes are ideal from a  weld quality, weld part properties or from a weld cost perspective.

Each of the common, long established arc weld processes has more than one Achilles heel that affects the weld quality or productivity,  and their has always been room for process improvement. We do see those improvements with MIG – TIG arc weld processes for  aluminum, yet for decades we have seen mostly useless electronic bells and whistles for steels and alloy welds.

However just because many weld shops are stuck in a 1960’s time warp does not mean, that the front office engineers, managers  and supervisors responsible for their companies arc welds, while lacking process expertise, should not at least  have an open mind to any weld process change that can prove in a demo in a matter of minutes, both dramatic weld quality and weld cost savings.

Many who work in our weld industry will be aware, that of the common attitude found in the “play around” with the MIG and FCAW weld controls weld shops, will be “why change the way we have always done it”. 

Traditional TIG, slow, highest skill requirements, high weld heat, yet entrenched throughout high tech industries that lack weld Management Ownership Expertise.

When the highest “manual arc weld quality”  has been desired to weld steels, alloy stls. and alloys, the DCEN. GTAW. (TIG) process has been the weld process of choice. As any good designer, weld manager or engineer involved with arc welds should appreciate, even that 70 year old, unchanged DCEN TIG process used in their weld shop, has to eventually evolve.

Traditional TIG first used in the 1940s, and  with with DCEN steel and alloy TIG welds, there’s little to differentiate a TIG weld made in 1958 or a TIG weld made in 2018. 

2018… It’s taken approx.  70 years, but for those front office personnel asleep at their computers, or constantly in the weld shop fireman mode, please note the evolution of the DCEN TIG process arrived about a decade ago.

TIP TIG. One hand, and in this demo the Westinghouse welder depositing approx. 400% more weld than any
Westinghouse pipe welder.

The above ten year old process is called TIP TIG. It was  invented by Plasch. Austria. I found TIP TIG in a visit to Scotland around 2008. I only needed 15 minutes with this process to know I had to get it to N.America. I found a business partner, Tom O’Malley who had more than the $50 I had in the bank. We quickly formed a U.S. company called TIP TIG U.S.A. Tom and I then introduced this process to both North America and Australia. TIP TIG is both a  unique Manual Semi-Automated process and also a process  highly suited to  Automated and Robot welds. TIP TIG has none of the limitations of the Hot Wire and Cold Wire TIG processes. See my blog on Hot Wire TIG. 

Single pass untouched TIP TIG steel fillet, note weld color and small HAZ from low weld heat. You would go to sleep with the slow weld speed that would be done doing a steel or stainless TIG weld like this. Not with TIP TIG that  300 –  400% increase in the TIG deposition means much faster TIG weld travel rates. TIP TIG opens up the opportunity to now use manual or automated TIG welds on any thickness. Think of those Stainless, Inconel, Duplex, Hastelloy,  Titanium and high strength steel weld application. By the way as the weld heat input is so low, TIP TIG would not require a gas trailing shield if this was a TITANIUM  application.


When the traditional DCEN TIG process evolved into TIP TIG, in contrast to DCEN. TIG, the TIP TIG enabled numerous weld / part benefits on all steels, alloy steels and alloy weld applications:


Now who in 2018 would want to produce the highest possible weld quality that ensures no weld rework? Who would would want to weld with a process that alway enables the lowest possible weld heat? Then again, why would anyone want to use a process that dramatically reduces the TIG welder skills? And lets face it, you would have to be an idiot to choose a process that that each hour does 200 to 400% more TIG weld. And don’t get me going on why you would want to use a process that delivers the lowest possible weld fumes.
  • [] TIP TIG provides far superior weld quality with a dramatic reduction in lack of weld fusion and weld porosity defects.|
  • [] TIP TIG provides the lowest possible arc weld heat on any application, with the increase in weld quality this enables superior part & weld metallurgical properties.
  • [] TIP TIG in contrast to both DCEN TIG and also to the Pulsed MIG process, enables  a dramatic reduction in “all position” welder skill requirements.
  • [] Also in contrast to DCEN TIG, the TIP TIG process typically enables a  200 – 400% increase in hourly weld deposition with dramatic reductions in the hourly TIG labor costs.
  • [] As TIP TIG welds are done so much quicker weld gas costs are dramatically reduced and the use of lower cost spools of 0.035 – to 1/16 MIG wire reduces the TIG weld wire costs.
  • [] Other benefits from TIP TIG are the capability with DCEN polarity and higher weld speeds to always  enable the least weld distortion, and create welds with the lowest possible weld fumes.By the way, with it’s latest Inverter TIG equipment,  Miller proudly announces it can speed your DCEN TIG welds by 17%. So that TIG weld in which  your welder travels at 3  inch/min, will now with Millers latest Inverter allow the welder to speed up be 3.5 inch/min. In contrast to the electronic advances in today’s Inverter TIG power sources,  TIP TIG will typically enables 200 to 400% increase in TIG weld speeds.Weld shop managers, engineers and supervisors you might want to wake up, as the benefits attained by TIP TIG are not the nickel and dime, hard to measure benefits that are usually enabled with the latest electronic inverter DCEN TIG and  also Pulsed MIG equipment changes.The beneficial process  attributes from the TIP TIG process enable game changing weld quality / production benefits that can  dramatically impact any weld shop’s weld application capability and weld quality and cost bottom line.



By the way if you need to hire MIG or flux cored welders that can meet any code welder qualification requirements for any industry , my unique process controls – best practice training  programs enable anyone who has never welded approx. 10 days  to meet those requirements, and these welders will not be “playing around” with their weld controls. 

2018.  High tech ships,  and low tech weld technology. 

Part of a 2018 article from B Peniston. Deputy Editor Defense  One he reports on what was being stated by J Geurts the Assistant Navy Secretary for research, development and acquisition. Geurts spoke at a Defense One Tech Summit. The following summarizes  a primary point of the seminar…

Geurts.. “The US Navy can’t build our future planned fleet unless it finds ways to dramatically reduce it’s ship / submarine build and repair costs”.

“For the Navy and the Marine Corps, if we can’t solve and fundamentally drive some of the costs out of our ships over the long term, especially with the construction, repair, and engineering costs,  our  U.S. industrial base will not  attain the 355-ship fleet goal required by our national strategy.  Please remember that it was only a few years ago,  that the USA had the world’s most capable and cost effective shipyards.

———————————————————————– 2018…Today in North America, when you examine  our general lack of industry management & engineering weld process ownership and the unnecessary daily,  manufacturing and construction issues, (Ed’s, extensive info on this subject) we need to go way beyond labor costs as the root cause of our frequent jobs demise. Perhaps we could spend a little more effort to examine our management, engineering and fabrication expertise and capability.   New Sub design, will it be built with old inferior weld Technology.
The Navy and of course the taxpayers are ready to purchase a new class of submarines and invest over 200 billion dollars. At the same time the Navy expresses it’s concerns about Submarine  fabrication delivery times, and reducing the sub. fab. and weld costs. As its done for decades the Navy calls out for ship yard improvements and  CHANGE,  but the Navy as the customer seems to lack the will for process ownership and therefore the   will to demand CHANGE.

Around  2009 to  2011, I called many high ranking Naval officials and asked them would they have a interest in dramatically increasing weld quality and decreasing both  their flux cored weld quality and productivity issues through weld process controls, and also viewing the new TIP TIG  process. Not one of the Navy executives indicated an interest. The Navy or the weld industry few want the responsibility for weld process Ownership.


As the U.S. Navy is aware, China as it does with any important technology, will embrace or copy it, and aggressively work to implement  it to become a global leader in defence projects and especially in Naval ship – submarine building. So maybe I should not have been surprised  that when we first opened our U.S. TIP TIG facility around 2009,  ironically our first  facility was located in the “Philadelphia Navy Yard”, that after attending one of my TIP TIG seminars,  our first large prime customer was CNOOC from China. CNOOC is the third largest “offshore” Oil company in China, they focus on the exploration & development of offshore Oil and Gas. CNOOC sent a group of their engineers  to my workshop then to our weld shop to view and test TIP TIG process.
One of the most difficult weld challenges is Sub Sea Pipe Welds

Offshore pipe laying barge can create great weld challenge. Imagine renting a ship to lay offshore sub-sea pipe,  that ship occurs a daily approx. cost of $255,000.00 a day.. Each 8 to 10 inch pipe start & end had to be ID automated clad weld with Inconel. Then after edge prep.  the pipe OD end joints had to be manually welded with two welders and X-rayed, there was   no tolerance for weld rework. Imagine  the cost consequences from  a pause in that pipe clad and weld joint weld production. Weld rework was for other people and the Chinese were lucky to find TIP TIG in  the USA.

CNOOC had a COMBINED  Inconel – alloyed steel  pipe weld and clad application that required the highest degree of weld challenge and had dramatic weld cost consequences if weld rework was required. Part of TIP TIG ID clad application below.

 Inconel multilayer, multi-pass welds on end of the sub sea pipe. With excess weld heat buildup you still have to control the weld freeze characteristics. No interpass temps or weld rework allowed. By the way the weld times were critical.. It was simple with TIP TIG and even the Chinese who had tried all other available TIG and pulsed MIG processes were impressed.

These  inconel clad welds  could only be a achieved  TIP TIG. 

Note: The multi-pass, multi-layer weld solidification uniformity, this is the ultimate in difficult clad weld control especially with no interpass weld control.

For their pipe welds that lay on the ocean floor, CNOOC traveled the globe and tried both the world’s best pulsed MIG process from companies like Fronius and the most sophisticated Advanced, pulsed Hot Wire TIG technology from Europe.  As the months passed, they found no weld process that capable of meeting either their weld or clad needs. A prime concern was the short weld times demanded, controlling the weld heat with the ID pipe multipass – multilayer inconel clad welds. and having no weld rework on the pipe weld joints.

The Chinese stayed in our TIP TIG weld shop for a week, working 12 hour days, and whatever the TIP TIG manual and automated weld and clad tests that they provided, passed with flying colors. 

Once the pipe clad ID welds on the barge were complete,  the pipes had to be edge prepped and OD welded. The all position, manual  TIP TIG pipe welds had to  meet the most stringent weld code requirements, weld rework was not acceptable  and the welds made in the shortest possible weld times. 

Each TIP TIG welder you see below required less welder skills than a regular TIG welder. Each of the TIP TIG  welders was producing approx. 300%  more weld each hour than any DCEN TIG manual welder could produce.  Also lets not forget the higher weld quality than possible with TIG, and  the lowest possible weld heat and lowest possible weld fumes. 

 The quicker the OD pipe welds were made and NDT reviewed and accepted, the quicker that pipe would end up on the ocean floor.  With the daily pipe production requirements and massive ship overhead costs, weld speed was critical and weld defects were simply not an option, on the numerous pipes that were fed daily onto the ocean floor.

WE CANT GET WELDERS THEY LAMENT, THAT’S BECAUSE YOU DON’T KNOW HOW TO CORRECTLY TRAIN WELDERS,  SAID I.Ed Craig.. For many years it’s been difficult for many countries to get the experienced TIG welders, especially when large scale weld projects requiring code quality weld work was required. TIP TIG has dramatically reduced those TIG welder skills and the TIG training requirements for  DCEN TIG welders. TIP TIG has also reduced TIG hourly labor costs typically in the range of  60 to 75%.  Any of the above statements can be proven in about 30 minutes at your facility. Contact  E. Craig  If you want a TIP TIG, flux cored MIG and robot MIG workshop, seminar or  training at your organization, give me a call. 828 337 2695.  If you want to do it yourself with the best possible TIP TIG, Gas Shielded Flux Cored, Manual MIG or Robot Mig and  Self Teaching and Process Controls – Best Weld Practice Resources,  click here.Most of the shipyards that build Aircraft Carriers or Navy Frigates will  annually create millions of dollars of unnecessary Flux Cored weld rework, the reason is simple,there are few in the front offices of this important  industry that understand the importance and requirements  of  weld  process ownership, and have the ability to implement the weld process controls – best weld practices that will minimize the opportunity for weld defects, and optimize weld production.  You would think that those designing and  building Submarines should have every incentive to change to a process such as TIP TIG, a process that enables both dramatic weld quality improvements and weld cost reductions. However there is a reason why my site is called WeldReality and I know that many of  you will likely understand why those that shy away from weld process ownership, will not likely be first in line to encourage a weld process change. Ed Craig… I sometimes wonder if reducing  Navy ship fabrication / welding  costs is possibly not a great incentive to  the contractors that deal with the lucrative, large Navy contracts. If that’s the case the Navy should drive the train, however from my perspective it sometimes seems  that the USA Navy top brass like to “talk the cost cutting  talk, but are  not prepared to walk the cost cutting walk”  required to drive the design, fabrication and weld changes necessary to attain  the desired  ship and submarine build cost reductions.EVERYONE THAT CALLS THEM-SELF A WELD DEPARTMENT MANAGER OR RESPONSIBLE ENGINEER OR SUPERVISOR, SHOULD BE AWARE THAT POSITIVE WELD CHANGE IS NOT  DRIVEN BY FRONT OFFICE WISHFUL THINKING AND DEFINITELY NOT  FROM THOSE THAT LACK THE ABILITY TO OWN THE PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO THEIR COMPANY. E Craig.E. Craig EMail  If you want a TIP TIG, flux cored. MIG and Robot MIG seminar or training at your organization, give me a call. 828 337 2695.  If you want to do it your your self, the best possible self teaching, process controls – weld data and best weld practice resource, are here.
The following is an example of the Australian approach to driving weld change with   Submarines.  

 Ed Craig. Sept 2018. AUSIES LEAD THE WAY, NOT AT THIS TIME IN BUILDING SUBS, BUT IN SUB ARC WELD  REPAIR TECHNOLOGY:   While the world’s prime defense contractors  are too often stuck in an arc weld time warp, ASC Pty. Ltd, an Australian Government business owned ship builder has proven that the TIP TIG process  attains astounding weld quality and cost results on it’s  Submarine Hull Weld Tests. 

Ed Craig..2018. Collins Sub… Australian Government company ASC approves TIP TIG as it’s arc weld process of choice for Submarine Hull build / repairs. Not only did TIP TIG prove to be a superior process to DCEN TIG, the TIP TIG process solved a major problem for the aussies, as this country has a concern with finding the necessary skilled TIG welders to work on submarines.  TIP TIG quickly revealed it’s much easier to use than TIG,  and has the potential to lower the TIG welder requirements in the range of 200 to 400%.

Ed Craig…TIP TIG is a process invented in Austria by Plasch. TIP TIG was brought to Australia in 2009 – 2010 by myself,  and my business partner Tom  O’Malley, (both formerly TIP TIG USA owners). Tom and I also set up Australian TIP TIG distributors and TIP TIG USA trained the Ausy personnel in the use of this unique weld process.

Comments from the ASC Chief Executive Officer is Mr. Stuart Whiley.

Whiley…To evaluate and approve  the TIP TIG process, ASC used an explosive weld test on Submarine Hull, High Strength Steel Plate. To gain Commonwealth / engineering approval, ASC-welded test specimens of the hull steel had to pass repeated explosive bulge tests at a facility in Victoria.

TIP TIG ROOT: Still walk the cup, no wire feed no foot control, then one more wire feed and amp change for all the pipe fill passes. 

Whiley…The weld tests involved a one square meter specimen of Collins Class Hull steel, made up of two sections welded together by TIP TIG. The weld test specimen was repeatedly blown up until the “bulge” in the steel produced a thinning of the hull. 

The last thing you would want to worry about on any sub, is the welds.

Whiley.. The Hull test specimen thinning continues to a certain specified percent. The tests were conducted with the specimens held at temperatures   significantly below zero degrees, simulating the most demanding under-sea conditions. 

Whiley…Careful examination of the TIP TIG welds showed that cracks did not grow or break through, successfully passing this destructive weld  test.  The successful explosive tests demonstrate ASC’s continued expertise in submarine hull fabrication and welding capability. “Proving this advanced application of TIP-TIG welding for the high tensile, low carbon steel used in the Collins Class submarine pressure hulls means we will achieve even higher quality and reliability in our future work on Australia’s fleet of Collins Class submarines,” Whiley said.

Whiley…The new TIP TIG process will be introduced for the re-welding of HMAS Waller’s hull in its current full cycle docking in Osborne, SA. The news follows the recent announcement that ASC is the first Australian defense company to receive the international corporate certification for excellence in procurement by the Chartered Institute of Procurement and Supply (CIPS).


Whiley… This achievement will guide our future work in procurement — a critical role as Australia’s largest locally owned defense prime contractor, supporting the Government’s Naval Shipbuilding Plan.”  ASC built and maintains the Collins Class submarine fleet, employing more than 1,200 submarine personnel in SA and WA. 


Ed Note:  On the subject of arc weld processes and weld defect potential. It’s very difficult to generate weld defects with the TIP TIG manual or automated  process, the reason is TIP TIG  in contrast to other arc weld processes provides the highest possible arc energy and weld fluidity, always with the lowest weld heat input.

Ed Craig …In contrast to TIP TIG,  irrespective of the welder skills, the Pulsed MIG – Regular TIG & the Gas Shielded Flux Cored process have inherent process issues  that can contribute to weld defects. At this site and in my process controls – best weld practice training programs, you not only learn to optimize the common arc  processes but became aware of all the variables that influence weld defects

Ed Craig…Apart from the welder’s skills, the effects of the  process & consumables selected, the lack of management process ownership, and the lack of weld process control & best weld practice expertise / training  are also the prime root causes for the formation of weld defects. 

 E. Craig Oct 2018.  If you want a TIP TIG flux core or MIG seminar or training program at your organization, give me a call. 828 337 2695.  If you want to do it yourself with these arc weld processes, the self teaching / training  process controls – best weld practice resource is here.

The above TIP TIG weld was made on scrap titanium parts that were dirty and not cleaned before weld, (smoke from cutting lubricants still on parts).  Note that  No Gas Trailing Shield was used. Note the fast TIP TIG weld speed for this 5 – 6 mm weld. Also and most important, take a look at the finished, acceptable SILVER weld color which shows the weld heat was so low that no detrimental titanium weld oxidation took place. Imagine this high quality, low weld heat on your alloys or high strength heat sensitive welds.

about weld distortion and the cost
consequences of weld rework revealed by NDT? 

Take a moment, which weld process would you select? The the weld shop wanted both the highest API code weld quality, (no weld rework)  and the lowest weld heat to minimize weld distortion that affects the flange placement. TIP TIG was selected.

Reminder on a few of the TIP TIG weld benefits: Reduced all position welder skills  – reduced weld defects – reduced weld distortion – superior mechanical and corrosion properties – the lowest possible weld fumes.

Managers and engineers involved with welding alloys and high strength steels should be aware that  TIP TIG not only reduces the welder skills, it also dramatically reduces the weld defect potential and enable the highest possible weld properties with the lowest possible weld stresses and distortion. 

Finally, attaining all position, code quality welds that should not require weld rework  is a simple task with TIP TIG. Also any TIG welder that occasionally feels the twinges of aching finger or leg weld joints, should appreciate the TIP TIG weld benefits obtained from not having to manually feed a TIG weld wire through their fingers, and being able to use one or two hands to control their weld torch. And lets not forget no leg work required as no foot amp control required.

2019. For seven  decades, pipe welds were never this simple. If you can lean on a pipe, move your hands in a controlled manner with TIP TIG you will make a good pipe welder.

So what do you think is unusual in the above TIP TIG, P91 pipe weld  application? Apart from the use of one hand, no foot control, no weld spatter, no weld smoke, pipe welder skills reduced and each hour the three to four hundred percent increase in the TIG weld deposition being produced for the weld shop.

P91 TIP TIG weld from first time user, (above video) and
of course NDT 
revealed defect frees.

First time TIP TIG user, X-Ray defect free. You should see what he will do with a few more hours with this process

What you don’t see with the above TIP TIG pipe weld is the best possible weld fusion and lowest weld porosity potential is attained. What you also don’t also see is always the lowest possible distortion and lowest possible weld  stresses. What you also don’t see is the  best possible metallurgical results. You cannot attain the same weld results with regular TIG or Pulsed MIG, and it takes a less than one hour to demonstrate the results.

Note: As all position TIP TIG welds are easy to do, the weld position presented is not that relevant which means with many of your parts less positioning of the parts.

Also on most parts welded > 1.6 mm, the weld application, steels and alloy metal types are not that relevant. And remember with TIP TIG in the weld shop, it does not matter if the welds are either manual or automated. 


As below, a company can spend money on fancy TIG welder jackets, helmets  gloves, yet in this weld shop the welders will still be using in 2019, a 70 year TIG process which takes 3 times longer to do the TIG welds. Using a  process that provides inferior weld quality and higher weld heat and costs than attained with the TIP TIG process.

DCEN TIG changed little in 70 years.

Manual or Automated weld, it’s all the same with TIP TIG. While traditional DCEN TIG is not suited as a Manual, Semi-automated weld process, and it also makes for a poor fully automated TIG process. And also lets not forget that the Automated Hot Wire TIG process is not considered  practical as a Manual TIG weld process. 

In contrast, the TIP TIG process is ideally suited both as a Manual, Semi-automated process, and an easy to use fully Automated arc weld process. As TIP TIG provides respectable weld deposition rates it should be given consideration instead of Pulsed MIG as TIP TIG will produce far superior weld quality with much smaller weld HAZ that will always enable superior mechanical properties, less distortion and stresses.

Question.  So why can’t  the weld shop just attach any old  MIG wire feeder to a TIG torch and make the regular, 70 year old  DCEN TIG process into a Manual Semi-Automated TIG process? 

A prime issue for decades with both the traditional manual DCEN TIG and also the Automated DCEN Hot Wire TIG process, is that they are both have wire feed restriction issues and both are  arc length sensitive.

Restrictions of the manual DCEN TIG & weld heat.
[1] The lack of ability with regular TIG, to manually feed a small diameter wire typically above one pound/hr into a rapid freeze weld usually results in welds with very slow weld speeds that with the high TIG arc temperatures, will  often result in  high weld heat. Remember it’s the slow weld speeds and high TIG arc temp. weld heat will often affect the part distortion, weld cracks, weld and part stresses, and the metallurgical properties.

[2] Plasm Restrictions and arc length sensitivity.  DCEN TIG arc length sensitivity is influenced by the amount of current and voltage used, also by the TIG arc plasma energy  that’s delivered directly to the weld surface.

The traditional DCEN TIG plasma energy is influenced by its function of melting a large TIG  wire  and the wire placement at the leading edge of the arc plasma. This  large wire placement and melt requirement intermittently deprives the TIG pool of a good portion of the plasma energy from the weld pool surface that can result in a small fluid, fast freeze weld pool that’s sensitive to electron flow disruptions. (arc length sensitivity).   

In contrast, TIP TIG reduces the TIG fast freeze weld effects and arc length sensitivity by the following:  The use of small diameter weld wires, and increased deposition rates that enable higher amps and volts to be used.

TIP TIG’s consistent weld wire placement at the plasma outer periphery  does not deprive the plasma energy from the weld surface.
The TIP TIG wire is angled to the outer periphery of the plasma. With the smaller diameter TIP TIG wire, there is sufficient energy in the plasma periphery to melt the wire  and uninterrupted, plasma energy on the TIP TIG weld surface is part of what makes TIP TIG unique. (The TIP TIG wire placement and small weld drops takes minimal energy from the TIP TIG arc plasma).

TIP TIG’s wire melt at the arc plasma periphery enables most  of the TIP TIG plasma heat to react on the surface of the weld part, this not only assists with electron flow that reduces arc length sensitivity, it also enables increased weld fusion and lower weld porosity. 

TIP TIG’s patented agitation of the weld wire not only assists in the small. rapid droplet transfer from the wire tip. The agitated drops also result in a slight stirring action of the fluid pool. Any agitation of molten metal  should slightly slow down the weld solidification times, an action that assists in electron flow so it helps reduce arc length sensitivity concerns, and assists in weld fusion and weld porosity reduction.

TIP TIG is a Manual or Automated arc process. The above unique DCEN TIP TIG arc plasma attributes combine to allow for a weld that in contrast to DCEN TIG, will provide much higher weld travel rates, a dramatic reduction in weld heat,  and the increased arc energy enables slower weld pool solidification and improved electron transfer stability. These benefits enable the TIP TIG process to be either a Manual Semi-automated or fully Automated TIG process.
Please note:  All of the TIP TIG info. at this site and in my other blogs are my own original thoughts on reviewing the TIP TIG process for the last decade.  This site is copyright protected and this information is not printed elsewhere. If you want to use it, please at least require my permission

That DCEN TIG Arc Length Sensitivity (ALS)  has Cost Consequences. ALS can cause arc / weld outages and is one reason why the automated Hot Wire DCEN TIG process, will depending on the weld application, often require costly  Automated Arc Length Control (ALC) equipment. However as  you see below with a common stainless tank welds. Arc Length Control equipment is not a requirement with Automated or Robot TIP TIG welds.

Below: TIP TIG attached to low cost automated carriage. The multi-pass  stainless TIP TIG welds are being made without the usual  TIG “arc length sensitivity concerns” that would occur with HW TIG.

No Arc Length Sensitivity issues with automated TIP TIG.

TIP TIG for the root and TIP TIG for the fill passes. No matter the weld application size or thickness, if you want the highest possible manual or automated weld quality, with the automation you can get out a carriage, a  rotating table, or utilize a robot. 

I DOUBT IN THE 21st CENTURY THAT THERE WILL BE ANY  OTHER ARC WELD PROCESS THAT CAN DELIVER HIGHER MANUAL OR AUTOMATED WELD QUALITY: Costly NDT will be utilized on most TIG and MIG welds to primarily reveal lack of weld fusion and excess weld porosity. In contrast to DCEN TIG welds, or from any available MIG Spray or Pulsed MIG welds, the higher TIP TIG weld pool energy generated with any all position TIP TIG welds, should always  enable the best possible weld fusion potential and always the lowest weld porosity formation potential. 
Always remember that apart from attaining the highest manual or automated weld quality potential, TIP TIG will also always enables the lowest possible weld heat input. And now think about what that does for mechanicals, for corrosion, distortion, stresses and cracking concerns.

Please note when comparing TIP TIG with Pulsed MIG, that the  TIP TIG welds  not only provides much greater arc temperatures, the TIP TIG weld are  also protected by an inert gas.  So in contrast to MIG, with TIP TIG there are no CO2 or O2 reactions that always influence MIG weld porosity and MIG weld surface cleaning. Also with the Reverse Polarity (RP) Pulsed MIG weld, most of the MIG weld energy is highly focussed in the arc plasma, which is necessity to melt the MIG wire.

That MIG Reverse Polarity plasma energy concentration at the wire tip area of the plasma, results in high localized weld heat that has great influence on the MIG weld heat affected zones. In contrast  with the electrode negative (EN) polarity  TIP TIG process, the majority of the TIP TIG plasma energy is driven to the base metals and with the weld speeds attained, enables the lowest possible weld heat input which enables extraordinary weld and  part metallurgical benefits as discussed below. 

WHEN ITS EASY TO USE IT ENHANCES THE WELD QUALITY POTENTIAL: The following, relaxed, pipe root TIP TIG welder still uses on the root, the same  walk the cup welder techniques as any TIG welder, however with fillet welds the TIP TIG welder will use weld techniques similar to MIG welds. 

Question.  Some may wonder how TIP TIG enables both the highest available arc weld energy while enabling the lowest weld heat capability?

Answer on weld energy. In contrast to a traditional DCEN TIG weld, the constant fed, smaller diameter TIP TIG weld wires typically enable a 100 to 400% increase in the TIG weld deposition rate capability. The increased weld deposition with the smaller TIP TIG weld wires enables increased TIG weld current to be used. As the TIP TIG weld wire and weld droplet transfer into the weld plasma provide minimal influence on the TIP TIG arc plasma energy and on the weld surface, therefore with the higher TIG weld current used, smaller wires utilized and more of the TIP TIG plasma affecting the fluid weld surface, the TIP TIG welds will provide greater weld energy than any other arc weld, and lets not forget the influence of the TIP TIG weld agitation which also helps slow down the weld solidification and adds to the weld fusion and reduced porosity capability.

For those weld shop managers and supervisors that care about looking for real world methods to reduce their weld shop labor costs, please note the TIP TIG increased weld deposition reduces DCEN TIG weld labor and weld gas costs typically in the range of 100 – 400%. Also in contrast to TIG, the weld wire costs are reduced typically by 15 – 25%.

Answer on Low Weld Heat. The increased TIP TIG weld deposition that’s possible on most parts > 1/16, (>1.6 mm), enables “higher TIG weld speed capability”. The faster TIP TIG weld speeds combined with DCEN polarity, (EN = work becomes large heat sink) enables extraordinary TIP TIG low weld and part heat that can provide extensive reductions in weld distortion and weld stresses. The low weld heat enables extraordinary weld & part metallurgical results that have never before been attained anywhere in the arc weld industry.

So today in most weld shops, we have traditional DCEN TIG with often slow weld travel rates of 1 to 5 inch/min that can create high weld & part heat, and we also have reverse polarity MIG and Gas Shielded Flux Cored that also provide high part heat, so these three arc weld processes typically end up with large weld heat affected zones.

In my next blog and in my TIP TIG self teaching / training program there is much data on TIP TIG welding alloys. And you will see why in 2019,  that the  TIP TIG  process is the only global Arc weld process with it’s low weld heat ability that can weld most  titanium parts > 3mm, without the use of a Gas Trailing Shield, and those titanium welds will meet any  Aerospace, Defence. Oil or Nuclear weld quality requirements.

As most alloys and high strength steels are relevant for most global weld shops,  and those alloys mostly attain their properties through heat treatment, why would any weld shop ignore an easy to use, ten year old process such as TIP TIG that always enables both the highest weld quality potential with the lowest possible weld joules. 

I did the following untouched  steel fillet weld.

Is your weld shop using more than one weld process
for root and fill passes?

Most global weld shops would consider choosing two arc weld processes for their open root and fill passes on pipe or plate welds. Processes such as TIG & Pulsed MIG or  Stick & FCAW and  TIG & FCAW or STT / RMD MIG & flux cored. Please remember that  TIP TIG is optimum for all position roots and for all fill passes.

Irrespective of the weld automation or the manual welder’s skills utilized, with MIG, SMAW and flux cored, as  NDT would reveal, there will often be process influenced weld fusion – weld slag – weld porosity issues, and with the inconsistent manual welder skills, the weld shops will typically anticipate some weld rework.

Of course the weld shop may may simply choose to  do the pipe root and fill passes completely with the super slow, time consuming DCEN TIG process as any country’s  Navy will attest, the weld defects mostly a result of the welders skills will still be an issue. In contrast, using my TIP TIG training program and the two simple TIP TIG weld settings that I recommend for any pipe or plate  welds, the weld shop should  anticipate using X-Ray evaluation, zero weld rework. The easy to use TIP TIG process will be highly cost effective for any pipe or plate  fill passes with any pipe / plate wall thickness or any pipe diameter.

TIP TIG Small Tubes Heat Exchange.

Imagine the weld benefits on these small diameter heat exchange tubes when you don't have to feed a wire and don't need a foot control. These welds easily made were as good as the welds made with automated equipment and TIP TIG put in less weld heat.

From pipe to heat exchange tube welds, with minimal manual skills, the manual TIP TIG welds as below, should look like automated welds. 

TIP TIG larger tube Heat Exchange welds.

Note with these untouched all position, manual TIP TIG welds. Note the weld continuity, the smallest possible weld HAZ, the optimum weld tie-ins, and a weld appearance that look like automated welds.

Weld Automation and more on TIG Arc Length Sensitivity.

Automated TIP TIG Weld Benefits.
In contrast to pulsed MIG which is often used with automated welds, the TIP TIG automated welds will produce welds with much smaller weld  Heat Affected Zones. The TIP TIG welds will enable the smallest possible weld distortion and stresses. The TIP TIG welds will have no spatter, no weld fusion, no porosity or fume concerns. TIP TIG welds with low oxidation potential will also be easier to clean. And for the first time in 70 years this sentence can be written about an arc weld process. With attention to weld placement, TIP TIG welds should not require weld rework.

So with regular DCEN TIG, its the the common low weld deposition rates with slow weld speeds and the  restricted current content that’s based on those weld deposition rates, and also the TIG tungsten erosion that’s  influenced by the large weld wire placed in close proximity to the tungsten tip along with the TIG arc length sensitivity, are the reasons that the traditional DCEN TIG process has often been a poor choice for automated weld applications which require filler metal, applications that  don’t have automated arc length control equipment.

Why Arc Length Control equipment is not required with automated  TIP TIG welds: In contrast to TIG, the TIP TIG process provides higher deposition rates usually 100 to 400%  more weld that results in  higher weld speeds that are better suited to weld automation investment. The higher TIP TIG deposition rates enable increased weld current, and the  unique TIP TIG weld droplet transfer that enables more of the arc plasma to impact the surface weld energy are factors that assist in the electron flow which reduce arc length sensitivity concerns. With TIP TIG you  are getting  a multi-process  from the use of a manual process, or very effective automated process.


TIP TIG easily adapted to robots.

Click here for my robot and manual  MIG and TIP TIG weld process controls – best weld practice, self teaching / training programs

When I was the USA weld manager at ABB Robotics, one of the world’s largest Robot Mfg, companies, the engineers and I would not be comfortable with robot applications that required the traditional  DCEN TIG process. The prime reasons for the discomfit was  due to the TIG arc length sensitivity issues, the tungsten contamination, wear influence on the welds,  the arc stability influences by electron flow issues, and also the typical slow weld speeds. A few years after I left ABB, I returned to their Colorado location introduced the ABB USA welding group to the TIP TIG process.

TIP TIG brings a unique process to welding robots.

Around 2010, a few years after I left the ABB Robot company, I went back to the ABB head office in Fort Collins CO,  to provide their engineers and managers with a seminar on TIP TIG.  The seminar was about the new unique robot weld application opportunities enabled with the TIP TIG process. During the workshop, I went step by step over why the TIP TIG process was unique and the weld and application feature benefits. I also pointed out how TIP TIG eliminated the normal TIG robot weld concerns. I pointed out to the ABB group  that this new process was ideally suited to numerous, new  robot applications, and would especially be beneficial with any code quality welds and on all high strength steels, low alloy steels and alloy applications. Think about those new robot Defense, Aerospace, Power and Oil – Gas applications.

The ABB engineers were impressed, however  like many young weld engineers and managers from Ohio State and LeTourneau they also lacked arc weld process controls  and weld application expertise, and so they lacked the confidence that was necessary for them to buy into marrying TIP TIG to their robots. However all was not lost, as eight years later,  around  2017,  some brighter ABB engineer or sales manager woke up to weld reality,  and finally figured that TIP TIG would open up many more robot weld application opportunities, and  therefore should be their  arc weld process of choice when in contrast to DCEN TIG and Pulsed MIG, superior weld quality, superior weld & part mechanicals and the lowest possible part distortion  was required.

Sometimes managers will lament. “Another big job coming up and we can’t find the necessary SKILLED TIG WELDERS”

This company used to use mostly pulsed MIG and flux cored on it’s large ship Duplex vessels,typical  thickness range, 1/8 to 5/8. As the vessels were used to transport beverages, food industry specs were in place and weld  spatter and cleanliness was always an issue. Weld distortion and the weld fumes from stainless and duplex were also issues. This large company now does most of its welds with TIP TIG and never has weld quality, distortion, spatter or weld fume issues.

With no wire to feed to the welds and no foot control required for controlling the weld amps, the TIP TIG job on the left is simplified, and let’s face it, the welder is much safer in that they can can  hold on to the part while TIP TIG welding. The company wanted no spatter, no distortion, no fume concerns and no weld rework, that’s what they got.

TIP TIG dramatically reduces all position welder skills. A TIG welder needs a day to learn this process and about 10 hours with my TIP TIG self teaching / training course. Someone who has never TIG welded can in a week pass most all position code welder qualification tests. With TIP TIG another skill not required is the correct wire placement.  The TIP TIG weld wire is always delivered into the arc plasma periphery sweet spot. Also as with MIG, the continuous fed TIP TIG weld wire drives the welders speed.  With TIP TIG a foot control is not necessary, weld start and stop data is always optimum and delivered from the TIG power source with the torch trigger commands. 

In contrast to any all position DCEN TIG, Pulsed MIG or Flux Cored welds, a five minute demo would show the weld shop how easy it is to use the TIP TIG process. Below, first time, TIP TIG rotated pipe weld reveals to the weld shop, pipe weld quality never before attained. 

TIP TIG defects not allowed.

Can we produce welds that will meet the most stringent ASME NDT requirements and not require weld rework?  For seven decades this not something that weld shops  would want to hear when using traditional, manual arc weld processes.  However with TIP TIG, it could be proven in minutes. 

Think about the billions of dollars annually spent around the world on the costs associated with weld testing, weld rework and weld rejects.

If used correctly, TIP TIG is a weld process in which you should expect  ZERO weld defects, and with the highest weld quality with lowest weld heat you should also always first time expect to attain the best mechanical and corrosion properties with all steels, alloy steels and alloy applications. 

By the way, with my Self Teach or Training Materials, it would take you approx. 20 hours to become a weld process control – best weld practice expert in one of the following. Manual / Robot MIG, Flux Cored,   Advanced AC/DC TIG Aluminum, and also with the DCEN TIP TIG process. Click here to take a look at the programs.

Nice to be able to put two hands on the TIP TIG torch, and
not be bothered by a foot control, weld spatter or fumes.

While the low deposition,  regular DCEN TIG was often poorly suited for large size and thick applications, this has changed with TIP TIG.  Weld applications any thickness > 1/16, applications big or small, the all position TIP TIG welds can typically be done with a couple of weld settings and with no weld cleaning, no distortion, no weld rework be cost effective.  It’s also as above nice, to enable lower welding skills and  be able guide the light torch with two hands, and not worry about weld fumes

Remember benefits from reduced weld preheat – interpass or postheat. By the way as a reminder, remember when you dramatically  reduce weld heat input, it’s also likely  you can eliminate inter pass weld temp and reduce or eliminate preheat and post heat. Of course you could ignore these game changing weld benefits, as as most do in 2019, continue to arc weld the way it’s been done since TIG was first introduced in the 1940s.

TIP TIG is much more than a “ONE OFF weld process solution for a companies weld problem.  

Many of the few global TIP TIG sellers while exited by their TIP TIG sales growth will also be aware that in many instances, their TIG TIG units are purchased by weld shop as a one off weld process solution. For example, the weld weld shop may have a weld problem with a specific alloy like Titanium, Duplex or Hastelloy, or have a difficult, crack sensitive weld application that if weld repairs were required would result in costly rejects or weld rework. Of course, TIP TIG with it’s highest weld quality and lowest weld heat potential should provide the best possible weld solution. Meanwhile, in the same weld shop that purchased the TIP TIG unit, the primary weld processes used daily in the weld shop for the code quality welds continue to be traditional TIG, pulsed MIG or flux cored process.  What most global weld shops often don’t realize, especially with manual or automated, all position, code quality welds on steels, alloy steels & high strength steels on 16 Gage to any thickness, is that TIP TIG is superior to all arc weld processes and can  provide numerous, unique, game changing  weld quality and weld cost benefits. By the way consider the new business opportunities that come with TIP TIG as any alloy welded with this process is as easy to weld as carbon steels.

2019. So now TIP TIG has been available for more than a decade:

[] Consider TIP TIG  when quality welds are required that will not require weld rework.

[] Consider TIP TIG when the lowes weld distortion or stresses are a benefit.

[] Consider TIP TIG if you are now using two weld processes for the part welded.

[] Consider TIG TIG FOR when all position welds are required.

[] Consider TIP TIG if you want the cleanest welds with lowest weld fumes.

DCEN TIG: Welds and CostsTIG weld costs are rare discussion with a process that often produces welds at the speed of a turtle. It’s more likely the weld shop will be concerned about not having enough skilled TIG welders. So let’s take a look at TIP TIG weld costs. So below we have two weld shops bidding on a new five years code quality weld contract, they need compete with each other. 


To get a welding project contract, shop one figures it needs to hire 10 DCEN TIG welders. The welders will mostly be welding on high strength steels and alloy steel, ASME code applications. Most of the parts TIG welded will be  3 to 25 mm thick. The project will last at least 5 years. The basic labor and power source budget for the shop one.  Weld labor first year. 10 welders x $65.000 = $650.000/yr. Plus 10 Inverter DCEN TIG power sources,  $7000 = $70,000. SHOP ONE first year labor costs plus weld equip.= $720,000. Remaining 4 years of TIG labor costs 4 x $650K =  $2.6 million, plus year one costs of $720,000 for a total  5 year weld labor / equip. costs $3,320.000.


This shop also is looking to  bid on the above contact. These guys had progressive weld management  that selected the TIP TIG  process. With TIP TIG the weld shop can expect a minimum  300% increase in the TIG weld production obtained each hour. Shop TWO was going to bid on the job with three  welders for the TIP TIG units. As much less welder skills are required with TIP TIG, it typically takes a few days to learn. The TIP TIG equipment costs were approx. $26,000 each = x 3 = $78,000.

Shop two employs 3 TIP TIG welders at an annual labor costs per-year of  $195,000 + $78.000 equip. costs, = first year weld costs of $273,000. Shop two, 4 year labor costs x $195,000 = $780,000,  plus year one costs $273,000. Shop two five year labor / equip costs $1,053.000.
Note, zero weld rework can be anticipated with TIP TIG, and also an approx. 300%  reduction in the annual argon gas costs. I am aware of many defence, aerospace, power, oil and other high tech companies that employ in their global facilities hundreds of TIG welders each year, thanks to their poor management and engineering decision they don’t seem to mind throwing  millions of dollars away every year.



Rarely discussed in weld shops. DCEN TIG Deposition rates.

Let’s say that manual TIG welder is welding pipe and using a common 3/32 steel or stainless TIG wire for the pipe vertical up fill passes. The welder typically would feed around 8 to 10 inch of the 3/32 wire length each minute.  8 inch/min of 3/32  wire is approx.  1 lb/hr. However with a manual DCEN TIG deposition of 1 lb/hr and an average arc on time of 20 min/hr, those TIG  welders are typically depositing  on average approx. 0.03 – 0.4 lb/hr.

In contrast to a manual TIG welder, a TIP TIG welder putting in the vertical up  fill passes on any steel or alloy steel pipe would average with an 0.035 MIG reel, about 180 inch/min of wire or approx 2.5lb/hr. As TIP TIG is a Semi-automated or fully Automated TIG weld process, it would of course when used manually also increase the TIG arc on times dramatically.  

While the manual DCEN TIG pipe welder is depositing 0.4 lb/hr, in contrast, with the manual TIP TIG pipe welds, and the increased  arc on time of  say 40  min/hr, the TIP TIG welders would  typically deposit  on average  about 1.6  lb/hr, this simply means the TIP TIG welder is depositing 300% more TIG weld each hour than the regular TIG welder.

You don’t have to be a rocket scientist, to figure out that this simple weld cost comparison between a manual TIP TIG and manual TIG welder would have has major weld cost and labor requirement ramifications for any company that employs welders. 

Confusion between Automated Hot Wire TIG & TIP TIG.  In the last decade, while  providing weld solutions for numerous plants, I found out that when discussing the merits of the unique TIP TIG weld process, that there was much confusion between the strictly Automated Hot  & Cold Wire  GTAW DCEN TIG  processes, and the Manual – Automated TIP TIG process. 

There are many different trade names automated Cold Wire (CW) TIG processes available, from my perspective they are a waste of money as they usually provide limited weld application value.

The reason for the ditain with the TIG Cold Wire processes  is that the weld deposition rates attained  is typically no more than what  a manual TIG welder can attain on the same application. The CW processes are also arc length sensitive and arc outages during the weld are prevalent.

Typical Hot Wire TIG High Amp Clad Application.


In contrast to HW TIG, with TIP TIG you have a wider amp weld application range. TIP TIG also eliminates arc length sensitivity concerns and where as HW is only suited to automated welds, with TIP TIG the weld shop has both a manual and automated process.


That Hot Wire (HW) weld, is a DCEN TIG weld, plus a MIG wire feeder that provides a continuous fed wire through a TIG torch. The  wire is preheated  by a separate,  small HW power source that usually provides 80 to 120 amp. The HW wire preheat adds additional energy into the weld pool which slightly reduces arc length sensitivity concerns. Note the clad application on the left where due to wire feed and melt issues its beneficial to feed wire into the rear of the weld pool. A poorly understood feature of many automated, “all position” Hot Wire OD or ID pipe welds, is the limitations that are occuring.  

HW always works better with high amps as the plasma is usually larger and more intense and therefore less arc length sensitive. With low to medium HW weld amp applications there is increased  arc length sensitivity concerns with the  faster weld freeze applications and they may require costly Automated Arc Length Equipment. Also  on some applications the HW torch may require to attain it’s wire melt continuity, by feeding the weld wire into the rear of the arc, see video below.

In contrast to HW, with TIP TIG you have a process suited to both manual and automated, low to high current applications whereas Cold Wire is a waste of money  and Hot wire is not suited to most manual welds.  Take a moment to view the HW weld below.

Why TIP TIG could be ideal for Clad Welds. Many clad weld applications, will thanks to the weld dilution require two or three weld layers to get the desired chemistry which likely could be attained with one weld layer using TIP TIG.

How does TIP TIG enable optimum clad welds on many parts? TIP TIG enables very low weld heat and also without Arc Length Controls, enables fast weld speeds with rapid weld weave oscillation without concern for arc outages, The EN polarity, the fast weld speeds and rapid rate weld weaves can enable the lowest possible single pass weld dilution. 

In contrast to HOT WIRE video above,
again take a close look at TIP TIG.


With many thin wall applications < 1/4,  < 6mm, when using HW or Cold Wire on all position pipe welds, take a look at the wire feed rates being  achieved. Remember a manual TIG welder puts in a little more or less than one pound per/hr. That HW or Cold wire automated weld using an 0.023 steel wire maybe  running in at approx. 140 inch/min. That  sounds much more cost effective than the manual TIG welder feeding their 3/32 wire at 8 inch/min.  However that 140 inch of 0.023 wire also provides a pound/hr.  Or the HW weld maybe using an  0.030 steel wire  running at approx. 80  inch/min again a pound/hr. 

To help you work out wire size, feed rate to deposition,  70 inch/min of 0.035 (1mm) wire is approx. pound/hr. While 70 inches of 0.045 (1.2mm) wire, is approx. 2 pound an hour.

As you become more aware of  the manual DCEN TIG and the automated DCEN Hot Wire TIG process limitations as revealed in this blog,  you become more aware of why these processes simply cannot compete with  DCEN. TIP TIG.  

Today after more than 50 years in this business. and all I have to do is walk my dog,  think and write about welding, I figured that a weld process comparison blog such as this, and access to my unique Weld Process Control self teaching / training programs on TIP TIG – Advanced AC/DC  TIG – MIG / Flux Cored and Robot MIG welds, would be helpful for those few that are beginning to believe in the importance of weld process ownership and  weld process controls – best weld practices.

Em in 2018.

Feb 4. 19. Ready for change. Contact  Em at  If you want a TIP TIG, flux cored, MIG or Robot MIG process control workshop, seminar or  training at your organization, give me a call. 828 337 2695.  For Em’s TIP TIG, or MIG and Flux cored  Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Self Teaching / Training Programs.