DC TIP TIG always provides superior weld quality and mechanical properties and less weld heat than both the traditional DC TIG and the Pulsed MIG process. TIP TIG is also much easier to use than TIG, & TIP TIG lowers DC TIG labor costs in the range of 200 - 400%.
2019. Emily Craig: From a weld process application potential, after studying the TIP TIG process versus traditional DCEN TIG, Pulsed MIG and the Hot Wire TIG process now for more a decade, you will find the TIP TIG data and weld application potential available at this site, is from both a weld process and application evaluation, unique, practical, cost effective and comprehensive. Please note also that this is the only global site that for more than two decades has focused on the common weld quality and cost consequences from lack of global focus on the benefits weld process controls and best weld practice expertise.
The TIP TIG, Pulsed MIG and Hot Wire TIG weld advice and data I provide, is based on my weld application and process control expertise that I developed over 5 decades while assisting approx. 1000 companies in 13 countries with their manual, automated and robot weld issues. My weld data is always honest, factual and provides numerous, practical cost effective weld solutions. As I have spent hundreds of hours writing and rewriting this TIP TIG section, and thousands of hours writing the MIG, flux cored and advanced AC – DC TIG arc weld data sections in my weldreality web site, I would appreciate that if you wish to use any of my original, copyright protected data, that you at least please request my permission at, email@example.com.
After 70 years it was time for TIG to evolve, now all that needs to happen is for weld shops need to catch up.
Aug. 9 2019: I am aware that the technical weld process process details at this site may not get everyone as exited as I get when discussing TIP TIG versus the AC/ DC TIG, Pulsed MIG and Hot Wire DC TIG weld differences and weld application potential, so let me provide you in the first few paragraphs, more than twelve years after it was introduced, some of the unique TIP TIG prime weld Quality – weld Cost reasons that any company that requires code quality welds on steels, alloy steels, alloy and many aluminum applications, simply cannot afford to ignore.
From welding submarines to aerospace components, or welds on turbine and sub sea parts, for decades with code quality weld applications, when using the common arc weld processes such as GTAW (TIG) – Pulsed MIG or Flux Cored, weld shops would often anticipate weld issues, rework and rejects. Or possibly there would be distortion, mechanical and corrosion concerns with the high strength steels, alloy steels and alloy applications.
As TIP TIG is a process that consistently delivers higher weld quality than possible with with the TIG and Hot Wire TIG process, and also provides the unique attribute of enabling the lowest possible weld heat on most applications, weld shops would do well to step into the 21 st Century and evolve their weld quality and productivity expectations with a process that is the evolution of TIG, that process is TIP TIG.
I want to start this section with the following statement. In 2019, if any of the global weld shops involved with Aerospace, Defense, Oil or Power industry welds are still using manual or automated GTAW, Pulsed MIG or Hot / Cold Wire TIG for their daily code quality welds, then none of these weld shops have the weld capability to produce the weld quality shown in the following video.
2019. FOLLOWING IS A TITANIUM WELD THAT NO GLOBAL WELD SHOP COULD ACHIEVE IF THE TIG OR PULSED MIG WAS UTILIZED.
The Way many titanium welds should be made.
I SET THIS TIP TIG WELD IN 2009 TO WELD TITANIUM WITHOUT A GAS TRAILING SHIELD & PRODUCE A WELD QUALITY THAT WOULD MEET ANY CODE REQUIREMENT.
WHAT USED TO BE A COMPLEX TITANIUM WELD APPLICATION IS SIMPLE WITH TIP TIG: When welding Titanium parts thicker than 3 mm with TIP TIG, in reality the application would be as simple as welding carbon steels.
In the above video, in 2009, when I was setting the TIP TIG weld parameters for my business partner Tom to weld some Grade 2. Titanium scrap parts, the engineering manager from the large Philadelphia Titanium fabricator that supplied the titanium test parts, asked me why I was not set up to use an argon gas trailing shield to protect his titanium parts from weld / part oxidation. I smiled as I knew something that this engineer did not know then, and unfortunately most global engineers and managers ten years later, still don’t know.
Though this was the first time Titanium would be welded with TIP TIG in North America, I was well aware when I welding other heat sensitive alloys of the very low weld heat that was always attained through the silver and gold colors I was attaining on on both steels and stainless. The lack of oxidation that I had attained on both thin and thick parts was an indication to me that we would not likely need a gas trailing shield which was usually necessary to minimize the titanium weld oxidation concerns. Please go back to the titanium weld above and note the untouched desired silver color of the titanium gauge weld that if welded with TIG or pulsed MIG would normally retain high weld heat input. By the way as we were just setting our TIP TIG weld shop at this time, I had nothing that would correctly clean the titanium parts, therefore these parts were welded with contaminated from cutting and forming, (the reason for the weld fumes).
IF THE ABOVE TITANIUM WELD HAD BEEN MADE BY REGULAR GTAW OR PULSED MIG YOU WOULD HAVE SEEN MANY COLORS.
If regular DC GTAW had been used for the above titanium weld. The regular TIG manual weld speed for this single pass, 3/16 – 1/4, (6 mm) horizontal lap weld would likely be approx. 3 to 5 inch/minute, with weld starts and stops and a wire length change required. A gas trailing shield would have to be used, and there would likely be concern for weld oxidation formation on the rear side of the welded titanium plates. The time required to weld the above length of 18 inches with TIP TIG at the weld speeds of 24 inch/min would have be less than a minute. The time required by With regular TIG, would be around 6 to 9 minutes.
2019: THAT TITANIUM WELD ABOVE IS NOT ACHIEVED WITH ELECTRONIC BELLS & WHISTLES, ITS SIMPLY A RESULT OF THE WELD JOULES CAPABILITY OF DC TIP TIG, A PROCESS THAT ATTAINS IT’S LOW WELD HEAT AND HIGHER QUALITY TIG WELD BENEFITS FROM A PATENTED MECHANICAL ACTION.
2019: DC TIP TIG VERSUS TRADITIONAL DC TIG WELD JOULES: The typical weld joules if using regular DC TIG for a titanium single pass weld on this 1/4 part thickness would be in the range of 35,000 to 40,000 J/inch. In contrast, the weld heat generated with TIP TIG on the titanium weld was approx. 5550 J/inch, this low heat was attained from the much higher weld travel speeds attainable with TIP TIG.
2019: DC TIP TIG VERSUS RP PULSED MIG WELD JOULES: What about TIP TIG versus Pulsed MIG and weld joules differences. In contrast to many pulsed MIG welds, the weld shop could anticipate approx. a 50 to 70% weld heat reduction. Also note the weld heat conductivity benefits of DC Electrode Negative TIP TIG with its higher weld speed potential versus the Reverse Polarity Pulsed MIG or Spray weld modes are poorly understood by weld industry personnel that should be looking for ways to reduce weld heat on heat treated applications.
Keep in mind that while the Pulsed or Spray MIG weld transfer modes will weld faster than TIP TIG, the Reverse Polarity MIG is using Electrode Positive, which concentrates the MIG weld heat in the upper portion of the MIG plasma, ( around the continuous fed weld wire tip). While weld shops are aware that arc weld polarity will greatly influence weld / part heat input, you have to remember that for almost 70 years the traditional DC Electrode Negative TIG process which directs the TIG arc plasma energy towards the part welded has rarely been able to benefit from it’s DCEN weld polarity in which those TIG welded parts become a large heat sink (rapid weld heat conduction) for the DC TIG weld heat generated. The reason for the high TIG weld heats is simple, traditional TIG on most parts > 2 mm typically generates very low weld deposition rates and resulting slow arc weld speeds. So the weld reality has been with many TIG welds, you would find that the slow moving Direct Current Electrode Negative TIG welds and the much faster Reverse Polarity MIG welds often generate similar weld joules.
2019: NOTE FOR THOSE OF YOU STILL USING WELD & MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS AND CODE INFO. GENERATED IN THE 20th CENTURY: The typical weld joules heat input attained from Spray – Pulsed MIG, AC/DC TIG, have for many decades influenced the weld preheat, inter pass, and post heat recommendations. Also weld filler metals specifications and the weld / part properties attained are based not only on the weld wire chemistry but on the filler wires weld quality potential and typical arc weld heat input generated With this info we end up with the typical arc weld mechanical or corrosion properties that have been attained for decades from the conventional arc weld processes. Then along comes TIP TIG, a process that not only provides the highest possible arc weld quality, but also the lowest possible weld heat. Think of the weld opportunities and the weld solutions. Think about how many engineers in 2019 are daily dealing with weld quality or heat related concerns with their weld applications, and those concerns simply would not happen or be dramatically reduced if they made use of the 12 year old TIP TIG process
SO FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE HISTORY OF ARC WELDS, APART FROM THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE WELD QUALITY, TIP TIG ENABLES EXTRAORDINARY REDUCTIONS IN WELD & PART HEAT, AND THIS IS ATTAINED FROM A MECHANICAL ACTION ON THE TIP TIG WIRE FEED THAT ENABLES A DRAMATIC INCREASE IN TIG WELD SPEEDS AND THE DCEN POLARITY.
TIP TIG ELIMINATES THOSE OXIDE REACTIONS THAT INFLUENCE WELD POROSITY. When dealing with weld heat and oxide sensitive alloys, and lets say the weld shop is considering using pulsed MIG, apart from the concentrated high pulsed MIG weld heat from reverse polarity, pulsed MIG also requires reactive gases in the argon mix, such as CO2 or Oxy. The reactive gases will influence, oxidation and porosity on any weld application. In contrast to pulsed MIG, TIP TIG only requires straight argon, (should never require helium for any welds).
Note: To every global weld shop that wants to produce code quality welds, the TIP TIG weld quality / weld heat benefits that apply to the above titanium weld, would also apply to any steels, alloy steels, alloy steels and many aluminum applications.
THE ACCEPTANCE OF AN IMPORTANT NEW ARC PROCESS IS INFLUENCED BY THE ABILITY OF THE WELD SHOP MANAGEMENT ABILITY TO EMBRACE CHANGE. WITH TIP TIG REMEMBER THAT CHANGE WILL INSTANTLY ENABLE DRAMATIC WELD & PART QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS WITH EXTENSIVE WELD COST REDUCTIONS:
Lets face it, who has not heard the following two phrases in their weld shop, “why change the way we have always done it”. Or what about that old weld shop favorite, “can you give me sometime to play around with the weld controls?” these are not weld shop floor problems, they should be front office problem.
ALL POSITION WELDER SKILLS INFLUENCE WELD DEFECTS: Welder skills play an important role in a new arc weld process acceptance. Traditional DC GTAW for example requires the highest arc welder skills. Weld shop decision makers need to be aware that with someone who has never welded, that TIP TIG would take less than two weeks to pass any code welders qualification test. For experienced TIG welders, it would take one or two days if taught correctly.
THE ARMY, THIS LARGE SCALE TITANIUM APPLICATION WAS BOTH COSTLY AND COMPLEX, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN SIMPLE WITH TIP TIG?
IN 2019, MOST GLOBAL WELD SHOPS ARE STILL WELDING TITANIUM, ALLOY STEELS, ALLOYS AND ALUMINUM CODE QUALITY APPLICATIONS WITH OUTDATED 20th CENTURY ARC WELD METHODS:
Typically all position, manual or mechanized Titanium TIG welds on parts > 3 mm, such as the above Army Howitzer, or welds on USA Navy Titanium pipe welds, left) on Aircraft Carriers would be carried with DC GTAW that for 70 years has provided very low weld deposition rates, (often less than one pound/hr) producing typical pipe “fill pass” weld speeds in the 2 to 5 inch/min range. Those multi pass, low DC TIG weld speeds of course generate high weld heat, and to minimize the effects of the weld heat oxidation on the titanium welds, and to also control the effects of weld heat on the HAZ, there typically will be time wasted for inter-pass temperature controls, and the weld personnel will have to deal with cumbersome gas trailing shields that have been essential for GTAW Titanium pipe welds.
When welds are made on Titanium, Stainless, Inconel, Duplex,or Hasteloy, or on any welded parts sensitive to weld heat heat, the as welded finished weld color will speak for itself. In contrast to regular DC TIG, depending on the part thickness, TIP TIG manual or automated, pipe fill pass weld deposition rates will typically be 200 to 400% greater than TIG, enabling weld fill pass travel rates typically in the 9 to 25 inch/min range. Most TIP TIG welds will reveal a silver to gold as welded color. Note. On most alloys and alloy steel welds on parts over 1/8, inter pass temp will likely not required, also preheats are often reduced or eliminated.
WELDERS WANTED…. THIS IS WHAT AN ADD FOR TIP TIG WELDERS SHOULD LOOK LIKE… “WELDERS WANTED TO WELD CODE QUALITY TITANIUM, STAINLESS AND DUPLEX VESSELS, GOOD WORK ETHIC REQUIRED, WILLING TO LEARN, MINIMUM WELDER SKILLS REQUIRED“.
Yes TIP TIG is easy to use, just like MIG, with TIP TIG you can have one or two hands on the torch, just point the torch and move. No foot control required, weld start / stop data is automatic. With TIP TIG one process for the job. From the pipe root pass to any all position welds, TIP TIG makes those welds an easy task, and don’t forget when skills are reduced, weld quality is increased..
WELD SHOPS TAKE NOTE. THE FOLLOWING IS ANOTHER WELD THAT CANNOT BE PRODUCED BY ANY GLOBAL COMPANY THAT WELDS STAINLESS, DUPLEX, INCONEL OR HASTELOY AND MOST OTHER ALLOY THIN PARTS.
HEAT SENSITIVE GAUGE STAINLESS PARTS WELDED WITH TIP TIG.
If you work in the Aerospace, Power or Defense industries, stainless, inconel, titanium, duplex inconel and hasteloy welded parts are the norm. Please don’t waste you time having your welders trying to duplicate the above, simple gauge stainless fillet weld that’s made with TIP TIG.
Examine the above TIP TIG 16 gauge stainless fillet weld. In contrast to what TIG welders would do for these welds, note the TIP TIG weld speed which will be 5 to 8 times faster over this weld length of 18 inch. Note also the weld quality continuity and uniformity not attained by GTAW or pulsed MIG. Go back and look at the untouched silver weld color that indicates the lack of oxidation, that enables the lowest weld porosity. With these welds, no cleaning, no spatter, no weld fume concerns. And of course the smallest possible weld HAZ which means the lowest weld distortion, the lowest weld stresses, and lowest possibility of weld cracking. These are welds that cannot be duplicated with any DC TIG or Pulsed MIG welds.
A SUMMARY OF SOME OF THE DC TIP TIG BENEFITS VERSUS TRADITIONAL DC TIG.
[a] TIP TIG ENABLES FAR SUPERIOR WELD QUALITY THAN TIG.
[b] TIP TIG ENABLES THE LOWEST ARC WELD HEAT. PRODUCES THE HIGHEST WELD QUALITY WITH THE LOWEST WELD HEAT ENABLES. THIS ENABLES THE BEST POSSIBLE METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES AND LOWEST WELD DISTORTION & CRACKING POTENTIAL.
[c] FOR ALL POSITION WELDS, TIP TIG REQUIRES LESS WELDER SKILLS THAN BOTH TIG AND PULSED MIG, AND REQUIRES NO MORE THAN 3 WELD SETTINGS FOR ALL WELDS,
[d] IN CONTRAST TO ARC LENGTH SENSITIVE TIG, TIP TIG IS READILY SUITED TO MOST MANUAL, ROBOT AND AUTOMATED WELD APPLICATIONS,
[e] TIP TIG PROVIDES MUCH HIGHER WELD DEPOSITION RATES THAN TIG, DRAMATICALLY IMPACTING BOTH MANUAL AND AUTOMATED DC TIG WELD SPEEDS & LABOR COSTS. IN CONTRAST TO DC TIG, ONE TIP TIG WELDER IN AN HOUR WILL USUALLY DO THE WELD PRODUCTION OF 3 TO 4 DC TIG WELDERS.
OPTIMIZING WELD QUALITY & REDUCING WELD COSTS SHOULD BE OF INTEREST TO ANY WELD DECISION MAKER.
I would like to start out by simplifying the extraordinary weld cost savings potential with the TIP TIG process. Don’t forget that weld costs are of course influenced by weld deposition rates, weld rejects and weld rework, and also by the welder’s skills. Weld shops take note, all of the traditional arc weld processes such as traditional DCEN TIG, Pulsed MIG, Flux Cored or the SMAW process, require higher all position welder skills than required with TIP TIG. As we are all aware, when hiring TIG welders, the slow weld speed cost consequences, the never ending weld start and stops and the welder skill requirements have a major influence on both the weld quality and hourly labor costs. Watch 5 TIG welders produce the same welded parts, and it will be their manual welder skills and different weld practices that will influence the weld quality attained.
Note. Every business is aware that in 2019, all position skilled weld personnel are in short supply. With TIP TIG you have a process that requires the lowest all position welder skills and for every three or four TIG welders required , one TIP TIG welder will do the same production with superior weld quality.
THE SLOWEST INDUSTRIES TO EMBRACE POSITIVE WELD CHANGE ARE TOO OFTEN THE HIGH TECH INDUSTRIES.
SO LETS LOOK AT THE ANNUAL WELD DEPARTMENT BUDGET WELD COST CONSEQUENCES WITH A CHANGE TO TIP TIG: It would take about two hours to prove the following statement. “In a weld shop that employs mostly DC TIG welders, with a change to the TIP TIG process, that weld shop should anticipate at least a 65 – 75% annual weld labor cost cost reduction in their weld department budget.
The TIP TIG weld deposition and weld travel details that greatly influence weld costs are well documented below, however I want to get across both the the extensive weld costs savings potential and weld quality improvement impact with a change from TIG to TIP TIG with any company that provides Code Quality steels, alloy steels, alloys and many aluminum welds. The following info. provides how I attained a 70% weld cost reduction.
As an example, lets take a Fortune 500, aerospace or defense corporation that has many global plants that hire traditional DC TIG welders for code quality weld applications. One of the plants employs 10 DC TIG welders, five on each shift. The plant also employs two weld shop supervisors to manage the two shifts. The TIG welders earn $30 /hr, and mostly weld steels and alloy steel code applications. This companies typical weld labor costs $60,000.00 / yr, and the welders benefits are $8,000 / yr. TIG is slow process and overtime is the norm. The average overtime per-TIG welder was 10 hours a week at time and a half, 10 x $45 hr = $450 x 50 weeks = ($22,500 / year). This generates an annual TOTAL weld labor costs of $90,500.00 per/welder x 10 welders. Add the two weld supervisors at $80,000 /yr, with their combined annual salary of $160,000.yr and the total weld labor costs for this weld shop is $1,065,000. The TIG weld equipment investment for 10 welding units, approx. $78,000.
COMPARE THE ABOVE WITH TIP TIG WELD LABOR COSTS: Now for those still hanging in there, welding the same work at the aerospace plant could be done on one shift with three TIP TIG welders and one supervisor. No weld overtime required, and the TIP TIG weld quality would be much higher. Three TIP TIG welders wage plus benefits, 3 x $68,000 / yr = $204,000 / yr, plus one supervisor $80,000 / yr, producing a yearly TIP TIG WELD LABOR costs of $292,000. By the way with TIP TIG you would also reduce the annual argon TIG gas cost by at least 50%, and take approx. 15 – 20% of the weld wire costs. The TIP TIG equipment costs depending on the power sources available in the shop would be in the range between $50 to $80K. As you you can see with the added weld consumable savings, its easy to anticipate a 60 to 75% annual TIG labor cost savings would be anticipated.
The above annual TIP TIG weld shop wages total is $292.000. The annual TIG weld shop wage $1,065.000.
Note: Please keep in mind, that with all position code quality weld applications, many Fortune 500 corporations will across the globe “in all their plants” sometimes employ HUNDREDS of DC TIG and Pulsed MIG welders. As for Pulsed Pulsed MIG and code quality welds. In contrast to the TIP TIG process, for reasons listed below and also provided in the Pulsed MIG section, Pulsed MIG will always produce inferior weld and part quality with special concerns for the weld heat generated and weld fusion and porosity issues..
With TIG or Pulsed MIG don’t try to duplicate this manual TIP TIG single pass, untouched stainless weld.
SOMETHING I FOUND OUT OVER THE DECADES WHILE ASSISTING MANY GLOBAL COMPANIES WITH THEIR WELD ISSUES: Its unfortunately an ironic point that, “the higher the technical capability of corporations, the more common the isolation of the front office managers and engineering decision makers are from the daily manual or automated weld process decisions that are being made on the weld shop floor.” And as you will see in the “play around with weld controls weld shops, and with the why change the way we have always done it weld personnel” lack of management & engineering weld process ownership often leaves the weld shops without the impetus for progressive weld change, and too often those the weld shops are stuck in the 20th. Century with the weld processes, weld practices, procedures and specifications utilized.
To enable the highest weld cost savings and weld quality improvements and to put a stop to welders playing around with the TIP TIG weld controls, or using poor TIP TIG weld practice please consider my TIP TIG, or MIG and Flux cored, Weld Process Controls & Best Weld Practice, Self Teaching / Training Programs.
As the weld quality improvements and weld cost reductions will be dramatic with process control expertise or TIP TIG, the question becomes, who in the plant management will step into the 21 st century & take the WELD PROCESS OWNERSHIP that necessary to both drive and implement their companies weld quality improvements and weld cost reductions?
WHAT MANAGER DOES NOT WANT TO SEE WELD COSTS REDUCED AND WELD FAILURE RISKS & LIABILITY REDUCED? You don’t have to be an accountant to understand the weld cost savings potential from TIP TIG. Its easy to see that once the traditional DC TIG to DC TIP TIG process change decision is made in the numerous global companies that are using DC TIG and Pulsed MIG for code quality steels and alloy steel welds, that the annual weld cost savings for many large companies could be measured in the millions. Also note that many companies will have the opportunity to dramatically reduce weld rejects and rework costs.
An important point also for many companies is the ability with TIP TIG to dramatically reduce or eliminate Weld Failure Risk and Liability concerns. Remember TIP TIG should always enable superior weld quality than TIG or Hot Wire TIG, with less manual welder skills. And by bringing the TIP TIG a process into a weld shop, management should anticipate more uniformity and consistency in their daily weld quality attained. Lets also not forget that another benefit with the TIP TIG process is that companies will not have the future worry of finding and hiring skilled TIG welders, (always difficult and now redundant).
As for the weld quality and cost benefits attained from providing employees with Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practice Expertise. Surly there is not one logical thinking manager, engineer or supervisor that believes their daily manual or robot weld quality and productivity optimization will come from weld personnel that have to “play around” with two MIG equipment weld controls that have barely changed in sixty years. By the way, it would take me about two hours at any global facility to prove the TIP TIG process, and also the benefits of weld process controls – best weld practice expertise on providing a weld quality uniformity and consistency never before attained.
TIP TIG PIPE ROOT.
HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO TRAIN SOMEONE TO USE TIP TIG? For most welders the pipe root is the most difficult weld. So with TIP TIG you show the person who wants to weld how to walk the cup by resting the torch ceramic on the surface of the pipe groove and working that nozzle from side to side as the weld progresses upwards. No foot control and no feeding a weld wire. Believe me that does not take more than a few minutes to train someone.
If the welder is a TIG welder it typically takes one to two days to learn all the TIP TIG best practices as provided in my program. However something that should give every manager joy, in an industry in which its difficult to find skilled TIG welders, it takes about eight to ten days to train someone Who Has Never Welded to become a TIP TIG weld expert and pass any code,(including ASME) all position, pipe Welder Qualification Tests.
At most of the fortune 500 high tech corporations, you will usually find minimum weld focus on weld process controls and best weld practice expertise. This lack of focus adds dramatically to the daily weld quality, rework, rejects and production costs. By the way any manager that believes in the importance of engineering evolution, should wonder why their company is still likely using Weld Procedures & Specifications that were likely generated in the 20th century, or why there is little focus by their companies on weld process control and best weld practices.
Note: My easy to learn TIP TIG – MIG and Flux Cored, Self Teaching / Process Controls – Best Weld Practice Training programs require approx. 15 hours. These are a great tools to train yourself or those employees that for decades think its normal to “play around” with their weld controls. Its no good purchasing a new process such as TIP TIG and having weld personnel struggle to use the process. It does not matter how experienced the weld personnel are, all weld personnel benefit from my weld process control – best practice training programs. To get the immediate and dramatic weld quality – cost benefits from this process, and to avoid weld personnel playing around with the TIP TIG weld controls, and also not using the best TIP TIG weld practices, consider spending a couple of hundred dollars and get the worlds best TIP TIG – ADVANCED TIG – MANUAL & ROBOT MIG – FLUX CORED training program.
Not interested in TIP TIG, but would enjoy the most comprehensive real world information on the flux cored process, the Pulsed MIG process and equipment issues, and which are the best MIG weld gas mixes that all global weld shops should use, then visit here.
LETS GET BACK TO TIP TIG AND TRADITIONAL DC TIG PLUS PULSED MIG WELD FACTS:
In contrast to traditional TIG, when evaluating the traditional DC TIG weld and application benefits, its easier if you first understand the;
[a] THE TRADITIONAL TIG ARC PROCESS RESTRICTIONS,
[b] THE TIG WELDER SKILLS AND TECHNIQUE REQUIREMENTS,
[c] THE TIG APPLICATION LIMITATIONS.
Then compare DC TIG with the unique arc and weld metal transfer characteristics along with the weld application benefits attained with the TIP TIG process.
Note: DCEN (Electrode Negative) is used with DC TIG welds on steels, alloy steels and alloys. In contrast, AC polarity, or Variable EN – EP polarity can used for TIG welds on aluminum and sometimes alloys. The TIG weld polarity requirements apply to both traditional TIG and the TIP TIG process.
For seven decades, the manual DC TIG process has enabled the highest possible manual arc weld quality, however the TIG welder skills, and weld characteristics restricted DC TIG from attaining the capability to be a cost effective, easy to use, semi-automatic or fully automated arc weld process. These attributes are attained with TIP TIG, however its important to also compare the TIP TIG weld benefits with processes such as Pulsed MIG and the automated Hot Wire TIG process.
2019: TEN YEARS HAVE PASSED SINCE I INTRODUCED THE TIP TIG PROCESS TO NORTH AMERICA. THE REALITY HOWEVER WHEN WELDING MOST CODE QUALITY STEELS AND ALLOY WELD APPLICATIONS, IS THE MAJORITY OF THE NORTH AMERICAN WELD INDUSTRY DAILY PAYS AN EXORBITANT UNNECESSARY COST BY USING TRADITIONAL DCEN TIG, INSTEAD OF THE TIP TIG PROCESS.
A QUESTION THAT COULD BE ASKED OF ANY WELD SHOP MANAGER, ENGINEER OR SUPERVISOR THAT DAILY PRODUCES A SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNT OF DC TIG WELDS, OR IS CONSIDERING PULSED MIG FOR CODE QUALITY STEEL OR ALLOY WELDS;
[a] Why are you still selecting DC TIG or the pulsed MIG process that will that require higher all position weld skills than TIP TIG?
[b] Why are you still selecting DC TIG or the pulsed MIG process both of which will always produce inferior weld quality than TIP TIG?
[c] Why are you still selecting DC or pulsed MIG, when TIP TIG will enable the lowest weld / part heat providing the lowest weld distortion, the lowest weld stresses and the best possible weld & part metallurgical properties?
[d] Why are you still selecting DC TIG, when the TIP TIG process will reduce your organizations TIG hourly labor costs by approximately 70%?
There are numerous weld quality, part metallurgical and weld cost benefits attained from TIP TIG, and most are addressed.
This Westinghouse TIP TIG welder is putting 350% more TIG wire into this weld than is possible with GTAW.
2019: TRADITIONAL TIG AND OBSOLETE WELDER SKILLS: As TIG welders cannot consistently feed small diameter weld wires fast enough, the welders typically use large wire diameter wires, 1/16 to 1/8, (1.6 to 3.2 mm) are common. Part of a TIG welders “skills” and learning curve is to be aware of the TIG weld pool fluidity, and manually feed the large weld wire so it makes an intermittent, rapid contact with the small rapid freeze fluid area at the front edge of the TIG weld, and then be aware of when to withdraw the wire from the pool so the plasma retains the required weld fluidity.
The DC TIG manual wire feed requirements, maintaining the correct arc length from the tungsten to the weld, avoiding contamination of the tungsten with either the weld and wire, understanding the weld pool fluidity, with the sometimes the use of a foot amp control, have for seven decades been important prerequisites of the manual TIG welder’s skills, and those skill in reality for more a decade have no longer been required with the TIP TIG process.
TRADITIONAL TIG COMBINES POOR ARC PLASMA ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FOR THE WELD WITH VERY LOW WELD DEPOSITION RATES: Take at the left picture at how a good portion of the traditional DCEN TIG arc plasma energy is required to assist in melting a small amount of the large DC TIG wire tip, while almost an equal portion of the TIG arc plasma is required to maintain a small fluid weld area. Its notable with the DC TIG welds, that as the TIG wire is dipped in the weld pool, it absorbs energy away from both the fluid part of the weld pool and also from the arc plasma. When you combine the “dual plasma DC TIG energy distribution requirements” with the DC Electrode Negative polarity in which the electrons are drawn to to the positive work, we end up with a DC TIG process that provides rapid freeze welds, arc length sensitivity concerns and very low weld deposition rates.
Unfortunately over the last decade, many of the managers and engineers in the Power, Medical, Defense, Aerospace, Oil and Gas industries that are responsible for weld decisions, seem to be stuck with 20th Century weld processes, and unfortunately most are not aware of the reduced weld risk, and extensive weld quality & cost benefits that could be derived for their organizations from the use of either the manual or automated DC TIP TIG process.
2019 FANCY GLOVES & JACKET & NEW TORCH & HELMET, USING THE OUTDATED 20th CENTURY GTAW PROCESS.
2018: WHEN A WELD SHOP UTILIZES THE ABOVE 70 YEAR OLD, DC GTAW (TIG) PROCESS INSTEAD OF TIP TIG, EACH HOUR THEY ARE PRODUCING INFERIOR WELD QUALITY. EACH HOUR THEY ARE TYPICALLY PRODUCING 200 TO 400% LESS WELD. EACH HOUR THEY ARE USING A PROCESS THAT REQUIRES MUCH HIGHER WELDER SKILLS. EACH HOUR THEY CREATE UNNECESSARY WELD HEAT AFFECTING WELD/ PART PROPERTIES AND DISTORTION.
IN 2019, THE MAJORITY OF COMPANIES IN NORTH AMERICA THAT MAKE HEAT EXCHANGES ARE STUCK IN THE 20th CENTURY USING MANUAL OR AUTOMATED TIG. The poor quality “manual TIG welds below were proudly displayed in a US, 2109 weld magazine. These are heat exchange tubes and when you get sad manual weld quality like this, its one reason the companies that make these products will turn to costly, automated TIG weld equipment. With welds like this, the back plates are typically grooved, so the welds will typically require two or more weld passes per-tube. Note. On Heat Exchange welds. if the manual or automated TIG welds required two to three passes, in contrast TIP TIG depositing much more weld metal would typically require one weld pass.
REGULAR MANUAL GTAW HEAT EXCHANGE WELDS.
Heat exchange tube approx. circumference 9 inches. Note the weld inconsistency as the welder has gone around the tube.
Lets say for example with the above heat exchange welds that with the regular TIG weld stops / starts, it took approx. 5 – 7 minutes for the TIG first pass, and 9 – 11 min for the second larger TIG pass. We end up with an average time of 15 minutes for this one weld joint completion with two weld passes. In contrast, manual TIP TIG would not only produce much higher quality welds that would look like they were made with automation, TIP TIG would take approx. 1 minutes to complete a weld such as below.
TIP TIG HEAT EXCHANGE WELDS.
SO WITH TIP TIG the welder is again producing weld quality that looks like its produced with automated weld equipment. TIP TIG requires far less manual welding skills than TIG. TIP TIG reduces weld cleaning and weld fumes. TIP TIG dramatically lowers the weld heat input. TIP TIG will reduce the number of weld start stops, (common weld defect locations). TIP TIG reduces the amount of weld passes required. And after more than a decade since TIP TIG was introduced, thanks to ineffective weld management, most global weld shops are still using tradition TIG or wasting money on unnecessary costly, automated Hot Wire TIG equipment.
TIP TIG on difficult small diameter heat exchange welds.
Nice on these difficult to weld, small diameter tube welds to use a process that enables two hands, a process that enables great control of the weld start and stop without a foot control. A process that continuously delivers the weld wire in the arc sweet spot from the weld start too the weld end. A process that always provides higher weld quality than TIG. A process that always produces lower weld heat than any TIG or pulsed MIG welds.
IN THE 1960s, I STARTED MIG, TIG & FLUX CORED WELDING AT MASSEY FERGUSON IN THE UK. IF I COULD TAKE YOU BACK TO THAT TIME, AND WAS ABLE TO USE THE WELD EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE, IN A FEW MINUTES, I WOULD SHOW YOU HOW LITTLE THINGS HAVE CHANGED AND PRODUCE OPTIMUM MIG, FCAW AND TIG WELD QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY THAT IN REALITY IS NO DIFFERENT THAN WHAT WILL BE PRODUCED IN 2020 ON STEELS & ALLOY APPLICATIONS. THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT WELD CHANGES THAT HAVE HAPPENED OVER 60 YEARS, ARE PULSED MIG FOR THIN ALUMINUM AND TIP TIG FOR CODE QUALITY WELDS.
A MISSING LINK OVER THE 60 YEARS. Thanks to the general lack of global weld process controls and best weld practice expertise, for six plus decades, too many in the weld industry have relied on weld sales advice. From my perspective, (Note I trained over 2000 weld salesmen in the US and Canada) weld sales advice is rarely the logical engineering route to weld process optimization and process ownership. My weld reality has been, that most weld shops are likely to get more realistic weld process control – best weld practice advice from a used car salesman.
IF YOU WANT THE BEST POSSIBLE WELD QUALITY WITH THE LOWEST WELD REPAIR COSTS, AND YOU WOULD LIKE AN ALL POSITION PROCESS THAT REQUIRES THE LEAST WELDING SKILLS, YOU MAY WANT TO RELY LESS ON A SALESMAN FOR WELD ADVICE, AND TAKE A LOOK AT TIP TIG & ALSO TAKE A LOOK AT MY WELD PROCESS CONTROL – BEST WELD PRACTICE SELF TEACHING / TRAINING RESOURCES.
ABOUT THE SAME BS AS FOUND IN A USED CAR LOT.
2019: PLEASE NOTE: AS LINCOLN MILLER, ESAB, HOBART DID NOT INVENT THE TIP TIG PROCESS, A PROCESS THAT BY THE WAY ATTAINS IT’S PRIMARY TIG WELD BENEFITS NOT FROM ELECTRONICS BUT FROM A PATENTED MECHANICAL WIRE ACTION, THERE WILL NOT LIKELY BE A WELD DISTRIBUTOR SALESMAN KNOCKING ON MOST COMPANIES DOORS TO INTRODUCE THIS PROCESS. HOWEVER, THE WELD REALITY IS, IF MANAGERS, ENGINEERS AND SUPERVISORS HAVE TO RELY ON A SALESMAN FOR THEIR COMPANIES WELD APPLICATIONS & PROGRESS, ALL I CAN SAY IS, FOR GODS SAKE, IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN ATTAINING THE BEST POSSIBLES WELD QUALITY AND THE LOWEST WELD COSTS, “STEP UP TO THE PLATE AND TAKE OWNERSHIP.”
2018: FOR A DECADE, ITS MADE NO ENGINEERING SENSE FOR MANAGERS & ENGINEERS TO REQUEST UNNECESSARY WELDER SKILLS: As the aerospace welder on the right indicates with his complex TIG alloy application, how many other global companies in 2019 are welding heat sensitive alloys and code quality components & using the obsolete, DC TIG weld process that produce pathetic weld production, high weld heat and requires high welder skills?
Of all available manual “arc” weld processes, for the last seven decades, the traditional DC TIG process has required the highest welder skills, and those skills and weld practices vary greatly from one TIG welder to another. The different skills and techniques that welders use in feeding their TIG weld wire, plus the common contamination and wear of the tungsten, and also the too frequent weld starts and stops which come with wire length changes, dramatically impact both the DC TIG weld quality and consistency.
Note: I should not have to remind those that arc weld parts in the Aerospace, Defense, Power, Medical and Energy industries, of the importance of using an arc weld process such as TIP TIG which enable minimal welder skills for all position welds, and produces the most uniform, consistent, highest possible, manual or automated weld quality with the benefits attained from lowest possible weld heat.
With with TIP TIG manual welds, the welds are being made with a “Semi-Automatic” TIG process that is readily Automated without the requirement for costly, automatic arc length adjustment equipment. The TIP TIG manual welder does not need skills to feed a weld wire. With TIP TIG, the weld wire is continuously fed into a TIG plasma sweet spot, something not possible from any manual TIG welder. The TIP TIG wire melt rate is both uniform and continuous, again something not possible from a manual TIG welder. With TIP TIG no foot controls required and no stopping of the weld for a new wire length. With TIP TIG the weld wire is not fed close to the tungsten, its fed instead into the edge of the arc plasma periphery, avoiding the chances of tungsten contamination, and tungsten melting into the weld is also dramatically reduced. Once a welder becomes familiar with TIP TIG, its likely in a shift that they may only have to grind their tungsten once.
FROM PIPE ROOTS TO PIPE FILL, LARGE OR SMALL PARTS, MANUAL OR AUTOMATED, YOU WILL FIND TIP TIG IS AN EASY TO USE PROCESS AND REQUIRES NO MORE THAN “THREE WELD SETTINGS” TO JUST ABOUT WELD ANY ALL POSITION STEELS AND ALLOY STEEL APPLICATIONS FROM 16 GAGE TO ANY THICKNESS. TIP TIG PROVIDES ANY COMPANY FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE ARC WELD PROCESSES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED TO FINALLY PRODUCE FIRST TIME, DEFECT FREE WELDS. NO ERGONOMIC OR WELD FUME ISSUES. NO METALLURGICAL OR DISTORTION ISSUES. REDUCED PREHEAT – INTER-PASS TEMP OR POST HEAT CONCERNS. NO WELD CLEANING & DON’T FORGET THE MINIMAL WELDER SKILLS REQUIRED.
THE PRIMARY ARC WELDING PROCESSES SUCH AS MIG – TIG – FLUX CORED & SMAW, HAVE CHANGED LITTLE IN SIX DECADES, AND THESE WELD PROCESSES ACCOUNT FOR MORE THAN 98% OF THE GLOBAL WELDS PRODUCED DAILY. A logical question would be why would any manger or engineer responsible for welds, ignore a new arc weld process that can provides extensive weld quality and cost benefits, an easy to use weld process that anyone who has never welded can learn in less than 10 days.
Minimal welder skills, no weld fumes,
no weld spatter, no weld cleaning, highest weld quality, lowest weld heat.
2018: THE “WHY CHANGE THE WAY WE HAVE ALWAYS DONE IT” WELD SHOPS CAN CONTINUE TO PURCHASE MAGIC WELD GAS MIXES OR WELD EQUIPMENT TOO OFTEN LOADED WITH COSTLY, USELESS ELECTRONIC BELLS AND WHISTLES, OR THEY CAN SIMPLY LEARN ABOUT PROCESSES AND PROCESS CONTROLS, AND GET A GRIP ON THE REQUIREMENTS FOR WELD PROCESS OWNERSHIP WHICH WILL ENABLE POSITIVE COST EFFECTIVE WELD CHANGES FOR THEIR COMPANIES:
With it’s latest Inverter TIG equipment, Miller proudly announced with the advanced electronics that it can speed a companies DC TIG welds by 17%. What does that mean? Well your DC TIG welder is making a weld on 3/16 or 1/4 stainless at a typical travel rate of 3 inch/min, that new Millers Inverter TIG power source now enables with the 17% increase in weld speed a new weld speed of 3.5 inch/min, yawn. In contrast, when TIP TIG equipment is added to that Miller power source, it usually enables 200 to 400 % in weld deposition rates that enable 300 to 700% increase in TIG weld speeds. Remember weld speeds influence weld & clad heat, and weld heat influences weld – part metallurgical properties, distortion, stresses and oxidation.
Its common in high tech industries, to find that the managers & engineers responsible for welds, will often not be aware of the required weld process control expertise and therefore struggle to attain weld process ownership.
2018: WHEN HIGH TECH. INDUSTRIES, THE ARMED FORCES & RESEARCH FACILITIES SUCH AS LOS ALAMO LABS AND COLORADO SCHOOLS OF MINES IGNORE OR ARE NOT AWARE OF AN IMPORTANT ARC WELD PROCESS THAT’S BEEN AVAILABLE FOR A DECADE, WHAT DOES THAT SAY ABOUT THOSE RESEARCHERS THAT ARE MAKING THE WELD DECISIONS?
Hundreds of millions of dollars would have be saved on any LNG construction, offshore or sub-sea projects, if the engineers responsible made the right weld decisions and stopped using traditional DC GTAW and Pulsed MIG, and instead used TIP TIG on most of their code quality welds.
Thousands or millions of weld labor hours wasted on building projects like this.
FOR THOSE LOOKING FOR NEW BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES OR FOR RAPID WELD COST QUALITY / PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENTS? Weld shop managers, engineers and supervisors might want to wake up to the weld quality & productivity benefits attained by TIP TIG, these are not the nickel and dime, hard to measure weld benefits that are usually proclaimed with the latest electronic Inverter DC TIG or Pulsed MIG equipment when welding steels and alloy welds. The highest all position weld quality and lowest weld heat means minimal concerns with even the most complex alloys. The beneficial weld process attributes from the easy to use TIP TIG process, enable game changing weld quality / production benefits that can dramatically impact any weld shop’s manual and automated weld application capability, think about the cost benefits from zero weld rework.
THE PULSED MIG ACHILLES HEEL: When it comes to delivering optimum manual arc weld quality, many steel and alloy steel welds are made with the manual Pulsed MIG process, with it’s weld fusion, porosity, spatter, arc stability and weld heat concerns. For more than three decades, many companies simply have not understand why Pulsed MIG can be a poor process choice when welding code quality steels and alloy steel parts > 4 mm, and especially welding alloy steels such as stainless and duplex, which have sluggish, slower weld solidification characteristics.
2019: The most critical defect any weld can have is lack of weld fusion and with many pulsed MIG welds you will find manual weld fusion concerns especially on fillet and groove welds on parts 3/16 plus. I have written three books on the weld fusion concerns with pulsed MIG, and for twenty years my weldreality.com web site has been presenting the pulsed MIG steel weld issues along with evidence of the poor pulsed MIG weld results.
PULSED MIG AND LACK OF WELD FUSION: There are two primary factors why Pulsed MIG will at times result in weld fusion issues.
 Pulsed MIG has to use a “low back ground current” to form and sustain the weld droplet and transfer. In contrast to MIG Spray transfer, the pulsed MIG back ground current takes weld energy away from the pulsed weld. To attain a higher energy pulsed MIG weld, the welder would have to turn the wire feed up and increase the weld deposition rates, (increase weld travel rates). From a cost perspective, high deposition rates are a good feature of a weld process. From a weld fusion perspective, increasing weld speeds does not enhance weld fusion capability.
 In contrast to SMAW (stick) and DC TIG , Pulsed MIG enables all position welds at much higher weld deposition rates. A welder could weld a 6 mm wall stainless pipe (fill passes) with pulsed MIG, and readily attain a weld deposition rate of 6 to 10 lb/hr. with typical manual weld travel rates on the vertical up welds usually between 10 and 15 inch/min. The same vertical up, pipe fill pass welds made with DC TIG or the SMAW process would typically be delivering approx. one pound/hr, with weld travel rates of 1 to 3 inch/min.
WELD DEPOSITION & TRAVEL RATES AND WELD FUSION: Note on the importance of weld travel rates and weld fusion: Its the low weld deposition and resulting LOW WELD TRAVEL RATES that enable the time required for all position weld fusion to occur with both the TIG and SMAW process. The all position weld fusion that occurs with these two low deposition weld processes is usually equal or superior weld fusion than that possible with the higher weld deposition, much faster weld travel rate, Pulsed MIG process. However from my perspective the weld speeds attainable with TIG and SMAW are too slow while the pulsed MIG travel rates are too fast. Manual or automated welds, there is only one process that provides the ideal weld speeds, with the highest weld energy, and that process is TIP TIG.
One easy to use process. No spatter, no fumes, no weld defects from pipe or plate root to fill. It would take 7 to 8 TIG welders to achieve in one hour, what we trained these two TIP TIG welders to attain for the Chinese National Oil Company welding sub-sea pipe.
The following are logical reasons why TIP TIG will provide superior weld fusion and lower weld porosity than any other arc weld process.
 TIP TIG ENABLES HIGHER WELD ENERGY THAN BOTH DC TIG AND PULSED MIG.
 TIP TIG IS THE ONLY ARC PROCESS THAT AGITATES THE WELD POOL SLOWING THE WELD SOLIDIFICATION WHICH NOT ONLY BENEFITS WELD FUSION AND REDUCES WELD POROSITY, IT ALSO ELIMINATES SLUGGISH ALLOY CONCERNS.
 TIP TIG PROVIDES WELD SPEEDS SUITED TO ATTAIN WELD FUSION, SLOWER THAN PULSED MIG & FASTER THAN TIG.
 TIP TIG REQUIRES LESS ALL POSITION WELDER SKILLS THAN TIG AND PULSED MIG.
 TIP TIG ONLY REQUIRES ONE PROCESS FOR ROOT AND FILL ON ANY THICKNESS.
 TIP TIG PROVIDES SOMETHING THAT TIG CANNOT PROVIDE, IT PROVIDES CONSTANT, UNIFORM MELTING OF THE WELD WIRE DELIVERED TO THE SWEET ARC SPOT.
Few global weld decision makers will be aware of the TIP TIG weld capability and weld benefits as both a manual, semi-automated process, or fully automated arc weld process. Few will be aware that TIP TIG is an easy to use process especially with all position welds. Few will be aware that it typically takes three to four DCEN TIG welders to do the work that one TIP TIG welder can do each hour. Few will be aware that TIP TIG will always provide superior weld quality than DCEN TIG, Plasma, Hot Wire TIG, Hybrid MIG and the Pulsed MIG process. Few will be aware that the DCEN TIP TIG process always enables not only the highest arc weld / part quality capability but also the lowest possible weld and part heat enabling the lowest weld distortion and never before attained metallurgical properties.
2018: The bottom line in the why change the way we have always done it, and give me some time to play with the weld controls, or lets get weld advice from a salesman, weld industry, is that there is an excellent opportunity for front office weld decision makers to enable dramatic weld quality improvements and cost reductions, for their organizations. However to attain those weld quality / cost benefits, front office personnel would have to do something many are often reluctant to do, step up to the plate, take process ownership, learn and embrace a 21st century weld process called TIP TIG (my TIP TIG program has all the training and procedure data you need for any application).
Consider providing yourself or employees with one or more of my TIP TIG – Advanced TIG – MIG – Flux cored or Robot MIG Weld Process Controls – Best Weld Practice, Self Teaching / Training Programs. By the way, why the above submarine? If like me you have an interest in the never ending, dramatic, inexcusable weld cost consequences for the Navy and its prime contractors when they build subs or any sea going vessels, scroll down. For those that want more info. you can call me at 828 337 2695 Eastern time. For those like me that don’t have a life and love this stuff keep on trucking.
Traditional DCEN TIG Arc and Weld Wire influence on both the TIG weld Energy and weld Deposition.
SEVEN DECADES OF RESTRICTED THE WELD APPLICATION POTENTIAL: The DCEN TIG low weld deposition rates have for decades restricted the TIG weld capability and weld application potential. No one wanted to use traditional TIG on large weldments or thick weld applications so they would usually turn to MIG and Pulsed MIG and and always attain inferior weld quality, along with weld fumes, spatter or weld heat concerns. In contrast, on the left, these welds were made with TIP TIG, (note the one hand and no stainless fumes) and the TIP TIG is producing superior quality than possible TIG with lower weld heat and weld fumes than any process.
Note: An application such as this on the lest would typically be welded with MIG Spray or Pulsed MIG, often resulting in weld fusion, porosity quality, spatter, weld fumes and distortion concerns.
LOW DC TIG WELD DEPOSITION RATE CONSEQUENCES: So since it’s introduction, a prime issue with DCEN TIG welds that require filler metal has been the very low weld deposition rates, slow weld speeds and numerous weld start / stops. The DCEN TIG, large diameter 1/16 to 1/8 (1.6 – 3.2 mm) weld wires, and the manual wire dipping action into the welds typically results in average TIG weld deposition rates of less than one pound / hr. If the manual TIG welder utilized smaller weld wire diameters such as 0.035 or 0.045, (1 – 1.2 mm), the welder would find they lack the ability to continuously feed the small diameter wires in a controlled manner at weld deposition rates greater than that attained with the easier to control, much slower fed larger diameter wires.
Question: Em, as weld deposition rates are a large factor in weld costs, can you provide more detailed info. on the typical average weld deposition rate capability with manual DCEN TIG welding?
Answer. An average DCEN TIG manual weld deposition rate attained with a 1/16 or 3/32, (1.6 – 2.4 mm) steel or stainless wire is approx. 1 lb / hr with a 60 minute arc on time and typically a DCEN TIG welders arc on time may average between 10 – 20 minutes. Lets say the TIG welder is feeding the common 3/32 steel or stainless TIG wire into the weld pool at a controllable, approx. 8 inch minute, (20 cm/min) which delivers approx. 1 lb/hr with 60 minutes arc on time. If the welder decided to try and feed a smaller 0.035 (1 mm) wire. To attain a pound an hour with the 0.035 steel or stainless wire, the welder would require that the TIG welder continuously feed the 0.035 wire around 70 inches per-minute for 60 minutes, (not going to happen with traditional TIG). More on this subject below.
HIGHLY SENSITIVE ARC LENGTH & LOW DEPOSITION RATES DON’T MAKE A GOOD SEMI OR AUTOMATED PROCESS: With DCEN TIG, the use of low – medium weld current, the use of large wires and the wire placement in the arc plasma can result in rapid freeze welds that can interrupt the electron flow, creating “arc length sensitive”, conditions. Arc length sensitivity and low weld deposition rates have for decades made the DCEN TIG process unsuited as either a semi-automatic or fully automated arc weld process. When used for weld automation the traditional DCEN process typically requires costly automated arc length equipment and the welds are still made with very low deposition rates.
In contrast to DCEN TIG, the DCEN TIP TIG process provides;
[a] TIP TIG: A preheated, small diameter, continuous fed weld wire that melts at the plasma outer periphery taking minimal heat from the arc plasma and allowing more energy to the weld pool.
[b] TIP TIG: The higher energy weld pool is slightly agitated, both influence a reduction in the weld solidification rates.
[c] TIP TIG: Greater weld deposition rates that allow the use of higher weld current.
These weld energy factors will in contrast to DCEN TIG produce welds with more fluidity, welds with a more intense & wider arc plasma, factors which combine to reduces arc length sensitivity. This enables TIP TIG to be both a semi-automated and fully automated arc weld process.
THE WORLD’S HIGH STRENGTH STEELS AND ALL ALLOY STEELS ARE ALL INFLUENCED BY HEAT TREATMENT. TIP TIG IS THE ONLY ARC WELD PROCESS THAT CAN MINIMIZE THE NEGATIVE WELD AND PART METALLURGICAL INFLUENCE PRODUCED BY ARC WELD HEAT.
WHY MIG CAN NEVER COMPETE WITH TIP TIG WELD QUALITY AND WITH TIP TIG METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES. For seven plus decades, a unique attribute of the high arc temp. traditional DCEN TIG process, has been the “Electrode Negative” weld transfer that has the potential to promote rapid weld heat conduction into the Positive Work. However the DCEN TIG weld application reality has been that the metallurgical weld and part benefits that could have been from rapid TIG weld heat conduction, was in in most cases greatly restricted as the very low DC TIG weld deposition rates usually result in “very slow weld speeds” that are the prime factor in retaining the high TIG weld heat.
In contrast to traditional DCEN TIG and DCEN TIP TIG process in which electrons flow from the Negative tungsten to Positive work, both MIG (pulsed MIG on left) and Gas Shielded Flux Cored welds use Reverse Polarity Electrode Positive (EP) So with EP MIG polarity, the electron flow is from the positive work to the tip of the continuous fed MIG weld wire. Electrode positive polarity concentrates the majority of the arc plasma energy around the positive MIG and flux cored wire tip which enables rapid melting of the weld wire, producing typical MIG weld depositions rates that can be as high as 10 to 14 times than that attained with traditional DC TIG. Even with the greater MIG and flux cored weld deposition rates that enable much greater weld speeds than DCEN TIG welds, that concentrated energy retention in the MIG arc plasma results in MIG and flux cored welds that typically produce Large Heat Affected Zones. The faster MIG and flux cored weld speeds and the use of reactive gases such as CO and oxygen in the MIG argon mixes can produce welds with lack of fusion, internal porosity, spatter, surface oxidation and weld fume concerns. With many alloy steel MIG weld applications, there is concern with larger weld heat affected zones, and welds & parts subject to high stresses and distortion.
So now we can examine what weld benefits are produced with a DCEN (straight polarity) TIP TIG, a process that can produce much higher weld deposition rates and faster weld speeds than TIG and this enables the lowest possible arc weld joules. More on the important subject of weld heat to follow.
To change that 70 year old DCEN TIG manual process into the easier to use, much higher weld deposition, semi-automatic or automated TIP TIG process, dramatic, innovative TIG process changes were required by the inventor Plasch, Austria. However its one thing to change the weld dynamics of an arc weld process and another thing to evaluate the often subtle differences and weld process and application benefits attained with TIP TIG against the competing, commonly utilized ac weld processes such as DC TIG and Pulsed MIG, and this is my area of expertise, its what I have done for a living in more than a 1000 weld shops in 13 countries.
For those like myself that love to look at what goes on in the depths of a weld arc plasma, and examine in detail the weld transfer characteristics of the weld metal being deposited, please note in the left DCEN TIP TIG video, how in contrast to the manual DCEN TIG weld below, the TIP TIG, constant fed, smaller wire diameter melts and forms droplets at the Outer TIG arc Plasma Periphery. This weld drop formation and the unique shaken wire droplet detachment enables the majority of the DCEN TIP TIG plasma energy to be consistently applied on the weld surface.
NOTE REMEMBER HOW A TRADITIONAL DCEN TIG WELD HAS TO UTILIZE A LARGE PART OF THE PLASMA ENERGY TO KEEP THE WELD SURFACE FLUID AND AN ALMOST EQUAL PART OF THE PLASMA TO MELT THE WIRE TIP. ALSO NOTE THAT THE DCEN TIG PLASMA WIDTH AND DENSITY BEING PRODUCED IS ALSO INFLUENCED BY THE LOW WELD DEPOSITION RATES WHICH RESTRICT THE WELD CURRENT UTILIZED WHICH INFLUENCES THE PLASMA WIDTH AND DENSITY.
TIP TIG BENEFIT: It’s not just the small diameter TIP TIG wires, or the unique wire feed angle that places the TIP TIG wire at the outer plasma periphery (enables most of the plasma energy to be directed on the weld and part surface) that enables the small TIP TIG weld drops to transfer across the arc plasma into a weld surface which attains more energy than any DC TIG weld,, that are distinctly different than DCEN TIG, its also the patented TIP TIG “Wire Vibration” and resulting small “Weld Droplet Agitation” that enables the weld drops formed on the TIP TIG wire tip, to rapidly detach and transfer into the fluid weld area providing a slight agitation to the pool that can slow the TIG weld solidification reducing weld porosity potential to the lowest degree and also enable the best possible arc weld fusion capability.
I would like to emphasize what makes TIP TIG unique. Without the TIP TIG wire vibration that results from the patented wire feed action, those small weld drops on the wire tip may be slow to detach, or not detach and grow in size until the continuous fed weld wire runs into the weld pool disrupting both the wire feed and causing weld transfer issues.
The DCEN TIP TIG preheated Hot Wire(HW) and agitated weld drops when transferred into the fluid weld, create a slight stirring action of the puddle which assists in slowing the weld pool solidification. Apart from the current delivered to the tungsten from the TIG power source, the HW power source typically also delivers on average approx. 70 to 100 amps that heats the weld wire before it enters the arc plasma. The DCEN TIP TIG HW amps, plus smaller wires typically delivering 100 to 400% more weld than DCEN TIG. Remember more weld wire increases the potential for “increased weld current” than that possible with traditional TIG welds.
In contrast to DCEN TIG, the increased DCEN TIP TIG weld current capability, the HW amps, and wire feed agitation result in welds with that typically will have a wider more dense arc plasma, welds with increased weld surface fluidity, welds that will attain superior weld fusion and the lowest weld porosity, welds with increased arc stability and decreased arc length sensitivity. Also the capability to produce DCEN higher weld speeds enables the lowest possible weld joules, the smallest possible weld HAZ and the least weld oxidation. These achievements enable TIP TIG to be an easy to use, “all position”, SEMI-AUTOMATIC or AUTOMATED TIG process that is providing weld and part metallurgical application benefits never before attained in the weld industry.
TIP TIG, unique weld attributes and unique weld and part benefits.
Lets further evaluate the TIP TIG manual and automated weld / part application benefits between the following three widely used arc weld processes, and also discuss the weld shop reluctance to change which is common throughout the global weld industry.
 Traditional Manual DCEN TIG.
 Automated DCEN Hot Wire TIG.
 Reverse Polarity Pulsed MIG.
2019. WHY CHANGE THE 70 YEAR OLD WAY WE HAVE ALWAYS DONE IT? Since the 1940’s, DCEN TIG has been attaining the highest manual arc weld quality, however for more than a decade, TIP TIG has been a superior semi-automatic and automated arc process, providing many weld and application benefits.
Great weld quality with numerous weld shop issues & restrictions.
2019: Its been approx. 10 years since DCEN TIG evolved into a process called DCEN TIP TIG, however a primary issue in the global weld industry has been the slow acceptance of the TIP TIG process, and the weld reality has been that many companies that use traditional DCEN TIG are missing out on an opportunity for their companies to extend their weld application capability and make dramatic weld quality improvements with extensive weld cost savings. Its important to also note that out of all the common arc weld processes daily utilized, the DCEN TIG process has required the “highest manual welder skills” that when combined with the lowest weld deposition rates typically produces the “highest arc weld labor costs”.
One hindrance against weld shop progress and TIG evolution, is often weld shop attitude. Those that know me will be aware from my arc weld process controls – best weld practice books, 40 plus weld articles, and process control training materials and workshops, would be aware that for more than three decades, I have been more than a little frustrated with;
(a) the global, lack of management and engineer weld process ownership,
(b) the why change the way we have always done it attitude,
(c) the play around with the weld controls weld shop acceptance,
(d) the reliance on a weld salesman for weld advice,
(e) the lack of weld process controls and best weld practice expertise.
With the above in mind, I would like to start this blog on the now approx. decade old TIP TIG process, by asking a question.
“How long do you believe it should take experienced global weld decision makers to recognize the superior weld quality capability, the improved part mechanical or metallurgy properties and dramatic weld cost reduction benefits derived from a an arc weld process such as TIP TIG”?
 TIP TIG enables the lowest possible all position welder skills,
 TIP TIG always provides superior weld quality than manual TIG, and also Automated Hot Wire TIG and the Pulsed MIG process.
 TIP TIG while providing the highest possible arc weld quality, also provides the lowest possible weld heat. This unique combination enables extraordinary weld quality & part metallurgical benefits never before attained in the welding industry.
 TIP TIG with providing the lowest possible arc weld heat enables the lowest possible weld stresses and distortion.
 TIP TIG with the lowest possible weld heat and inert gas enables the lowest possible weld fumes.
 TIP TIG dramatically lowers hourly labor costs from increased TIG weld productivity typically in the range of 200 to 400%.
 TIP TIG is the first semi-automated and fully automated arc weld process that has the potential on most all position, steels. alloy steels and alloy welds, to eliminate the need for weld rework.
 TIP TIG requires less all position welder skills than any of the traditional arc weld processes.
As someone who has been requested by frustrated managers to solve their weld problems and improve their weld quality and productivity in over a 1000 weld shops in 13 countries, I am well aware that the majority of the companies employ front office personnel that lacked the Weld Process Control – Best Weld Practice expertise that’s necessary for front office weld process ownership.
In many companies, the front office personnel responsible for the weld shop will often rely on the weld shop personnel that when not playing around with their weld controls, will be asked to evaluate new weld equipment or consumables that’s typically recommended by a sales rep. The weld personnel will rarely have weld process control expertise, and that sales rep will usually have had no previous experience in running a weld shop.
As the TIP TIG process was not invented by the major global weld equip. manufactures, it’s unlikely a weld sales rep will turn up at your facility and discuss, or even be aware of the weld benefits of the TIP TIG process. Also, it’s not likely that any company that has to seek arc weld process advice from a weld salesman, will be anxious to seek out new weld technology that’s not introduced by the conventional weld distributors. However as the useless politicians in Washington keep informing us, “it’s time for change”. And let’s face it! there should be no room in the highly competitive, global weld industry for arc weld process confusion, weld process ignorance or weld process apathy, especially in any business in which the arc welds play an important role in their organization.
The DCEN TIP TIG process, is a unique arc weld process that provides a continuous fed, preheated and agitated weld wire into a DCEN (electrode negative) arc. Variable polarity TIP TIG can also provide remarkable TIG weld benefits.
With the TIP TIG there is a relationship between the TIP TIG wire diameter, the continuous fed wire feed rates, the wire to tungsten placement, the tungsten size, profile and current utilized. To attain weld optimization with TIP TIG, there are specific techniques and best weld practices that should be applied. All of these requirements are provided and simplified in my TIP TIG process control and best weld practice self teaching / training program provided below.
WHILE SOME IN AMERICA ARE ASLEEP AT THE WHEEL:
It’s ironic that the first customer for TIP TIG at our USA facility, was the “Chinese National Oil Company”.
TIP TIG and Welder Skills: AS the TIP TIG weld wire does not have to be fed manually, and a foot amp control is not necessary, in contrast to regular TIG, the TIP TIG process dramatically reduces welder skills. However to attain the full TIP TIG weld process and weld application potential, and to also break the common weld shop “play around” with the weld controls approach to many arc welds, it would be beneficial if in 2019 that management take a role in process ownership and ensure that both the TIP TIG process controls and best weld practices are learnt. Remember to learn the “all position” TIP TIG pipe welder skills would take a TIG welder between 1 to 2 days. And to train someone with someone who has never welded with any process, it would take them with the TIP TIG process, if taught correctly, 3 to 5 days to pass any code pipe welder qualification test.
TIP TIG and Weld Practices: No matter what the skill level of the welder is, the weld personnel should learn the unique TIP TIG weld practices, techniques, and the few required optimum weld settings. These are available in my TIP TIG Self Teaching – Training program. This program requires approx. 10 to 12 hours.
As I write this in 2019, I hope this blog will help take some of the weld process and application confusion out of the TIP TIG process. I also hope that the TIP TIG info and application data at this site speeds up the acceptance of this unique, important weld process and enable weld decision makers to be aware of where DCEN TIP TIG process belongs throughout the global weld industry.
I recognize that while the lack of Manual and Robot MIG weld process control expertise and best weld practices maybe an acceptable way of life with the majority of front office weld decision makers in the global Auto & Truck industry, an industry that is used to daily accepting 30 – 60% daily robot MIG weld rework and extensive daily robot down time. However this lack of expertise should not be considered acceptable in weld shops that produce code quality welds. Weld shops that have an interest in enhancing their company’s weld capability and reputation. Weld shops that have an interest in reducing their weld costs and increasing profits.
You don’t need to be a rocket scientist to figure out that the global lack of arc weld process controls & best weld practice expertise, along with the too common reliance by weld shops for weld advice from sales reps, would influence the weld shop and the front office culture and possibly have a negative impact on the acceptance of a new arc weld process such as the TIP TIG.
Sales Influence on weld shops: Lets face it, when weld sales reps are required to guide key weld shop decision makers on arc weld equipment or consumables, products that in reality have changed little in decades, this is usually an indication that the company lacks the ability for Weld Process Ownership. When this expertise is lacking, someone will pay a steep price.
MIG – FCAW – Advanced TIG – TIP TIG or ROBOT MIG, every weld shop will benefit from focus on Weld Process Controls and Best Weld Practice Expertise.
AN INDUSTRY THAT RELIES ON INEXPERIENCED SALES ADVICE TO RESOLVE THEIR WELD PROCESS ISSUES, PAYS A PRICE:
Costly MIG power source Bells and Whistles: It’s not difficult to comprehend that much of the traditional Pulsed MIG weld equipment purchased over the last three decades, will have been purchased as a result of weld sales influence, and as a result of dubious product marketing weld claims from weld equip. mfgs. The MIG equipment purchased would often be loaded with costly, useless electronic bells and whistles, circuit boards that rarely influenced the weld quality or productivity, circuit boards that however typically enabled the weld equipment and distributor’s to increase their MIG power source profits.
Salesmanship also has influenced the purchase of weld consumables. For example, instead of the four MIG gas mixes required for all global MIG welds, we have more than 40 MIG gas mixes to choose from. (By the way I was a key writer of the AWS MIG gas specifications). And instead of using MIG wires many companies will often purchase unnecessary and more costly, Flux Cored or Metal Cored wires.
What makes TIP TIG Unique? In contrast to many of the weld power sources produced in the last two decades, the DCEN TIP TIG process does not derive its increased TIG weld quality productivity and weld application capability from a weld power source loaded with electronic bells and whistles. TIP TIG DC weld current is derived from a conventional, suitable, 300 to 500 amp DC TIG power source. That TIG power source is combined with a patented TIP TIG Wire Feed delivery system, plus a small Hot Wire TIG power source and a unique torch is provided.
The TIP TIG Mechanical Wire Action drives TIP TIG benefits: Through a patented mechanical action, the TIP TIG wire feed drive roll mount goes back and forth at high speed. This action on the wire creates a restricted tension and release on the continuous fed weld wire. The mechanical action on the TIP TIG continuous fed wire creates an agitation effect on the weld wire, which when viewed is similar to a vibrating guitar string. The pre-heated agitated TIP TIG weld wire is fed through the unique TIP TIG torch that delivers the wire to a specific point near the tungsten.
TIP TIG WIRE AGITATION AND WELD BENEFITS:
TIP TIG Wire Agitation enables benefits. As the TIP TIG weld wire makes contact with the outer periphery of the TIG arc plasma, the wire tip melts and a droplet is formed. The TIP TIG wire agitation helps detach and speed up the transfer of the molten weld drops into the fluid weld pool. Without the wire agitation the droplet at the wire tip could grow larger, and the continuous, rapid fed wire could be driven into the weld causing a disruption. No Manual TIG welder could provide a continuous fed weld wire consistently at the TIG arc plasma sweet spot. The TIP TIG optimum wire placement at the sweet spot in the arc outer plasma periphery, is using an area in the plasma in which minimal plasma energy is utilized for the wire melt, and therefore in contrast to regular DCEN TIG, more of the TIP TIG arc plasma energy can be maintained over the fluid surface of the weld.
TIP TIG Plasma Heat Distribution is different than TIG. Again note with regular DCEN TIG, the plasma distribution and the intermittent plasma task between melting the large diameter TIG wire and heating the weld and part surface. The TIP TIG wire agitation and the wire preheat are the defining difference between TIP TIG and the traditional, manual, DCEN TIG process. The TIP TIG wire agitation is also the prime difference between TIP TIG and the Automated Hot Wire TIG process.
Note: TIP TIG is highly suited as both a Manual and Automated weld process. In contrast, regular DCEN TIG is rarely suited to weld automation, and the Hot Wire TIG process is rarely suited as a manual arc weld process.
With TIP TIG, a complex alloy becomes a simple weld application.
TIP TIG should be the logical manual and automated arc weld process of choice for the high tech industries. From welding investment castings in fighter planes or welding super alloys, armor plate, duplex, titanium, hastelloy or high strength steels on submarines and tanks. With many alloy welds welds, the high tech industries industries often look towards complex, automated weld processes such as the Electron Beam, Laser, Plasma or the Friction Stir process, to produce high quality welds with minimal influence on the weld Heat Affected Zones, which in many instances, (weld joint design permitting), may also be delivered by the much lower cost, manual or automated TIP TIG process.
Think of the manual or automated weld application possibilities.
Please remember that TIP TIG is both a manual and easily automated weld process. If the TIP TIG manual or automated process is suitable to the joint design, (the alloy is usually not relevant), remember that in contrast to the sophisticated automated weld processes, if TIP TIG is suited to the weld joint design and thickness, that the TIP TIG weld equipment that will typically costs 5 to 10% of a laser or EB unit, will produce the weld quality desired with minimal weld heat influence on the part weld’s HAZ.
Note: The easy to use TIP TIG process would not require the special process expertise that comes with a Laser, EB or Friction process. TIP TIG would also have less weld dimension tolerance concerns and less weld fixture requirements than is typically required with the mentioned automated weld processes.
Why would anyone not consider TIP TIG for welding those LNG facilities and vessels?
A moment on Pulsed MIG. I have spent over 35 years evaluating the Pulsed MIG process and written hundreds of pages on why so many weld issues occur with this process. After 35 years of pulsed MIG evaluation, the same weld quality issues are occurring especially with steels, alloys and alloy steels >5 m. My web site weldreality.com and my weld process control training programs go into extensive details why the use of this process requires weld shop caution on many applications. However the reality is for three plus decades, pulsed MIG has been presented by the weld equipment manufactures and distributor sales reps as the greatest thing since sliced bread, of course many weld shops will buy into another crutch for their steel and alloy steel welds.
Without question pulsed MIG provides excellent weld benefits for aluminum welds that benefit from the moderate weld energy attained. In contrast steels and sluggish alloys benefit from “consistent high weld energy”, so the weld shop has the option of pulsed MIG which spends 50% of its time at a low back ground current usually less than 120 amps and the traditional MIG spray mode in which the high energy is relatively constant.
Pulsed MIG weld Fusion and Porosity: One thing that influences both Pulsed MIG and Spray weld fusion is the weld deposition rates typically attained with these two weld transfer modes are often too high, and will require fast weld travel rates. The rapid weld speeds and the pulsed MIG weld energy produced on many steel and alloy welds especially on parts > 5, may produce marginal weld fusion or lack of weld fusion.
In contrast to pulsed MIG welds, TIP TIG provides a much “higher arc temperature” and “lower deposition” rates that require slower weld speeds than pulsed MIG. Remember slower weld speeds are helpful in attaining good weld fusion especially with all position welds and welds on sluggish alloys. Also with TIP TIG you have the weld metal agitation which when combined with the higher TIP TIG arc and weld temperatures should enable TIP TIG to always produce superior weld fusion than any pulsed MIG weld. As TIP TIG does not use the reactive gas mixes required by pulsed MIG, TIP TIG with its inert argon and high temp welds, should always enable the lowest weld porosity potential.
If a company is considering manual pulsed MIG for welding submarine high strength steels, the duplex and stainless metals on LNG vessels, or for that matter welding any code quality welds on parts thicker than 5 mm, be warned. Do weld section macros first on scrap of the same metal type and thickness. Apart from the middle of the weld joint where you will often find marginal weld fusion, also make sure you examine the first inch of weld, and any weld tie-ins. There is a good chance you will reveal lack of weld fusion or porosity. That weld defects are not likely to occur with TIP TIG welds made in any weld positions.
BOY YOU HAVE TO LOVE THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY.
As someone who for a short time was involved with weld joint design and weld process decisions on the Moon & Mars Orion Spacecraft, I am well aware that many of the weld joints required in Aerospace, Defense and Power industry are unique, and yes many will justify the use of EB, Laser or Friction Stir. However lets face it, a good engineer in the high tech industry would be aware of the practical and cost effective weld technology available. And when possible, that engineer should be making practical, cost effective weld process decisions. YAWN.
TIP TIG and dramatic weld Heat Reductions: Few of the engineers that deal with high strength steels and alloys will be aware that in contrast to regular TIG and pulsed MIG, that TIP TIG has the capability not only to meet any weld quality requirements but also provides the ability to reduce traditional TIG and Pulsed MIG weld joules input by approx. 60 to 75%. Proof in TIP TIG video below.
What could the remarkable TIP TIG weld joules reductions do for the parts that your company daily welds?
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low heat and the reduction of stresses that reduce weld crack and weld HAZ potential.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG lowest weld heat and ability to eliminate weld distortion concerns.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low weld heat that enables the smallest weld HAZ and easily attains the best possible mechanical and corrosion properties.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low weld heat and producing arc welds with the lowest possible oxidation potential, reducing weld porosity concerns.
 Think about the DCEN TIP TIG low weld heat capability, and the weld shops present use of ASTM and other specification guidelines for preheat – inter-pass and post heat treatments with high strength. alloy steels and alloys. The common heat treat recommendations typically used in the global weld industry in 2019 belong to arc weld processes such as MIG – TIG and Flux Cored that on average will put 50% more weld joules into the welded parts than the DCEN TIP TIG process.
Weld Preheat, Inter-pass or Post Heat may be reduced or eliminated.
With DCEN TIP TIG, your typical preheat, inter-pass and post heat weld heat recommendations may either be eliminated or dramatically reduced. As you will see in the video below, the weld heat from DCEN TIP TIG is so low, that welding heat sensitive Titanium can be done without a gas trailing shield.
2019. The following SpaceX 300 series, stainless vessel will be the world’s largest, 21st Century spaceship. It’s a pity that TIP TIG which has been around more than a decade, would likely not have been given the consideration it deserves for some of the required welds.
It’s also a sad engineering fact that 20 Century arc weld processes, weld specifications and weld procedures are still being used for 21st Century space travel.
In a few years, Mr. Musk would like to send humans on a round trip to Mars in his companies giant, 300 series stainless spaceship. It’s understandable that Mr. Musk at his Tesla CA. facility, possibly did not understand the human, arc weld process controls & best weld practice expertise that was and still is required by his MIG and Resistance robot workers, however its been sad reality that when welding the parts for his SpaceX vessels, that the SpaceX engineers will like their peers at many of the other aerospace companies, likely will not be aware of the TIP TIG weld application potential. If you worked in a weld shop, you may have heard this.